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    "url_title": "Anti-Discrimination Committee, JACL",
    "title_sort": "antidiscriminationcommitteejacl",
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    "modified": "2018-01-12T19:22:28",
    "title": "Anti-Discrimination Committee, JACL",
    "body": "<br/>\n<p>\n Lobbying arm of the\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Japanese_American_Citizens_League/\" title=\"Japanese American Citizens League\">\n  Japanese American Citizens League\n </a>\n (JACL) set up in 1946 to spearhead the organization's legislative and legal efforts to attack discrimination against Japanese Americans and other minorities. The JACL set up the Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) as a separate organization to protect its tax status due to changes in federal laws regulating lobbyists.\n</p>\n<p>\n The ADC was incorporated in the state of Utah on July 9, 1946, with then JACL President Hito Okada as chairman and many other JACL leaders in executive positions.\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Mike_Masaoka/\" title=\"Mike Masaoka\">\n  Mike Masaoka\n </a>\n , the league's wartime executive secretary, became the new organization's national legislative director, and his wife, Etsu Mineta Masaoka also joined the staff as a secretary. The Masaokas moved to Washington, DC, in 1947 and set up an office there. Mike set to work on a list of priorities established at the 1946 JACL convention that included seeking some form of \"evacuation claims\" and naturalization rights for the\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Issei/\" title=\"Issei\">\n  Issei\n </a>\n . Masaoka kept JACL members and the public informed of their activities through a regular \"Letter from Washington\" column in the organization's\n <i>\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Pacific_Citizen_(newspaper)/\" title=\"Pacific Citizen (newspaper)\">\n   Pacific Citizen\n  </a>\n </i>\n newspaper.\n</p>\n<p>\n As its scope of activities grew, its staff ballooned to twenty-six by 1950 and it sought to raise money nationally through a network of local ADCs.\n <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n  <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n   [1]\n  </a>\n </sup>\n Significantly, ADC membership and support targeted Issei as well as\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Nisei/\" title=\"Nisei\">\n  Nisei\n </a>\n —the JACL specifically excluded Issei from membership—with Issei citizenship the carrot for seeking their support.\n <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n  <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n   [2]\n  </a>\n </sup>\n The ADC's activities culminated with the passage of the\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Immigration_Act_of_1952/\" title=\"Immigration Act of 1952\">\n  Immigration Act of 1952\n </a>\n , a controversial measure that ended the ban on Issei naturalization but retained racist immigration quotas and included anti-Communist measures that many found troubling. After passage of this measure in 1952, Masaoka resigned to become a private lobbyist, and the ADC ceased its operations. The JACL published a celebratory final report for the ADC in the 1954 holiday edition of the\n <i>\n  Pacific Citizen\n </i>\n .\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\">\n <b>\n  Authored by\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Brian_Niiya/\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n   Brian Niiya\n  </a>\n  , Densho\n </b>\n</div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n Niiya, Brian\n</div>\n<div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n <h2>\n  <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n   For More Information\n  </span>\n </h2>\n <div class=\"section_content\">\n  <p>\n   <i>\n    Final A.D.C. Report, 1946–1952\n   </i>\n   .\n   <i>\n    Pacific Citizen\n   </i>\n   , December 17, 1954, section C.\n   <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-26-51/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n    http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-26-51/\n   </a>\n   .\n  </p>\n  <p>\n   Hegwood, Robert Alan. \"Erasing the Space Between Japanese and American: Progressivism, Nationalism, and Japanese American Resettlement in Portland, Oregon, 1945—1948.\" M.A. thesis, Portland State University, 2011.\n  </p>\n  <p>\n   Wu, Ellen.\n   <i>\n    The Color of Success: Asian Americans and the Origins of the Model Minority\n   </i>\n   . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014.\n  </p>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n <h2>\n  <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n   Footnotes\n  </span>\n </h2>\n <div class=\"section_content\">\n  <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n   <ol class=\"references\">\n    <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n     <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n       ↑\n      </a>\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"reference-text\">\n      Larry Tajiri,\n      <i>\n       The Record Speaks,\n      </i>\n      <i>\n       Scene\n      </i>\n      , March 1950, reprinted in Larry Tajiri and Guyo Tajiri,\n      <i>\n       Pacific Citizens: Larry and Guyo Tajiri and Japanese American Journalism in the World War II Era\n      </i>\n      , edited, with an introduction and notes by Greg Robinson (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012), 213.\n     </span>\n    </li>\n    <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n     <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n       ↑\n      </a>\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"reference-text\">\n      Mike Masaoka and Bill Hosokawa,\n      <i>\n       They Call Me Moses Masaoka\n      </i>\n      (New York: William Morrow, 1987), 221; Robert Alan Hegwood, \"Erasing the Space Between Japanese and American: Progressivism, Nationalism, and Japanese American Resettlement in Portland, Oregon, 1945—1948,\" M.A. thesis, Portland State University, 2011, 120.\n     </span>\n    </li>\n   </ol>\n  </div>\n  <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.048 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.050 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 98/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 539/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 532/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 58/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n  <!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:2692-0!*!0!!*!*!* and timestamp 20200821005516 and revision id 27401\n -->\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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    "authors": [
        "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/authors/Brian%20Niiya/"
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