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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<p>Lobbying arm of the <a href=\"/wiki/Japanese_American_Citizens_League\" title=\"Japanese American Citizens League\">Japanese American Citizens League</a> (JACL) set up in 1946 to spearhead the organization's legislative and legal efforts to attack discrimination against Japanese Americans and other minorities. The JACL set up the Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) as a separate organization to protect its tax status due to changes in federal laws regulating lobbyists.\n</p><p>The ADC was incorporated in the state of Utah on July 9, 1946, with then JACL President Hito Okada as chairman and many other JACL leaders in executive positions. <a href=\"/wiki/Mike_Masaoka\" title=\"Mike Masaoka\">Mike Masaoka</a>, the league's wartime executive secretary, became the new organization's national legislative director, and his wife, Etsu Mineta Masaoka also joined the staff as a secretary. The Masaokas moved to Washington, DC, in 1947 and set up an office there. Mike set to work on a list of priorities established at the 1946 JACL convention that included seeking some form of \"evacuation claims\" and naturalization rights for the <a href=\"/wiki/Issei\" title=\"Issei\">Issei</a>. Masaoka kept JACL members and the public informed of their activities through a regular \"Letter from Washington\" column in the organization's <i><a href=\"/wiki/Pacific_Citizen_(newspaper)\" title=\"Pacific Citizen (newspaper)\">Pacific Citizen</a></i> newspaper.\n</p><p>As its scope of activities grew, its staff ballooned to twenty-six by 1950 and it sought to raise money nationally through a network of local ADCs.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">[1]</a></sup> Significantly, ADC membership and support targeted Issei as well as <a href=\"/wiki/Nisei\" title=\"Nisei\">Nisei</a>—the JACL specifically excluded Issei from membership—with Issei citizenship the carrot for seeking their support.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">[2]</a></sup> The ADC's activities culminated with the passage of the <a href=\"/wiki/Immigration_Act_of_1952\" title=\"Immigration Act of 1952\">Immigration Act of 1952</a>, a controversial measure that ended the ban on Issei naturalization but retained racist immigration quotas and included anti-Communist measures that many found troubling. After passage of this measure in 1952, Masaoka resigned to become a private lobbyist, and the ADC ceased its operations. The JACL published a celebratory final report for the ADC in the 1954 holiday edition of the <i>Pacific Citizen</i>.\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a href=\"/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">Brian Niiya</a>, Densho</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Niiya, Brian</div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2>\n<p><i>Final A.D.C. Report, 1946–1952</i>. <i>Pacific Citizen</i>, December 17, 1954, section C. <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/pdf/19541217.pdf\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/pdf/19541217.pdf</a>.\n</p><p>Hegwood, Robert Alan. \"Erasing the Space Between Japanese and American: Progressivism, Nationalism, and Japanese American Resettlement in Portland, Oregon, 1945—1948.\" M.A. thesis, Portland State University, 2011.\n</p><p>Wu, Ellen. <i>The Color of Success: Asian Americans and the Origins of the Model Minority</i>. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014.\n</p>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">Footnotes</span></h2>\n<div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n<ol class=\"references\">\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Larry Tajiri, <i>The Record Speaks,</i> <i>Scene</i>, March 1950, reprinted in Larry Tajiri and Guyo Tajiri, <i>Pacific Citizens: Larry and Guyo Tajiri and Japanese American Journalism in the World War II Era</i>, edited, with an introduction and notes by Greg Robinson (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012), 213.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Mike Masaoka and Bill Hosokawa, <i>They Call Me Moses Masaoka</i> (New York: William Morrow, 1987), 221; Robert Alan Hegwood, \"Erasing the Space Between Japanese and American: Progressivism, Nationalism, and Japanese American Resettlement in Portland, Oregon, 1945—1948,\" M.A. thesis, Portland State University, 2011, 120.</span>\n</li>\n</ol></div>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.048 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.049 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 98/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 539/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 532/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 58/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:2692-0!*!0!!*!*!* and timestamp 20170309221220 and revision id 16913\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "url_title": "Anti-Discrimination Committee, JACL",
    "categories": [
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    "title": "Anti-Discrimination Committee, JACL",
    "url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/articles/Anti-Discrimination%20Committee,%20JACL/",
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    "title_sort": "Anti-Discrimination Committee, JACL",
    "modified": "2014-10-12T01:44:57",
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