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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<p>Informal organizations formed to manage affairs within individual <a href=\"/wiki/Block\" title=\"Block\">blocks</a> in the wartime concentration camps administered by the <a href=\"/wiki/War_Relocation_Authority\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">War Relocation Authority</a> (WRA). Encouraged by camp administrators as a form of \"self-government,\" block councils sprang up in the various WRA camps, their exact composition varying from camp to camp or block to block. Generally, the councils included one or more representatives from each barracks (if more than one, an <a href=\"/wiki/Issei\" title=\"Issei\">Issei</a> and a <a href=\"/wiki/Nisei\" title=\"Nisei\">Nisei</a> representative), the appointed <a href=\"/wiki/Block_managers\" title=\"Block managers\">block manager</a>, the head chef, and sometimes the elected member of the <a href=\"/wiki/Community_councils\" title=\"Community councils\">community council.</a> The block councils dealt with such issues as facilities and maintenance, recreation, sanitation, and inmate relations. Given the nature of both Japanese community dynamics and camp politics, many of the block councils came to be dominated by Issei men.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">[1]</a></sup>\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a href=\"/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">Brian Niiya</a>, Densho</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Niiya, Brian</div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2>\n<p>Cates, Rita Takahashi. \"Comparative Administration and Management of Five War Relocation Authority Camps: America's Incarceration of Persons of Japanese Descent during World War II.\" PhD diss., University of Pittsburgh, 1980.  \n</p><p>Hansen, Arthur A. \"Cultural Politics in the Gila River Relocation Center, 1942-1943.\" <i>Arizona and the West</i> 27 (Winter 1985): 327-62.\n</p><p>Hayashi, Brian Masaru. <i>Democratizing the Enemy: The Japanese American Internment</i>. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004.\n</p><p>Spicer, Edward H., Asael T. Hansen, Katharine Luomala, and Marvin K. Opler. <i>Impounded People: Japanese Americans in the Relocation Centers</i>. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Interior, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1969.  \n</p>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">Footnotes</span></h2>\n<div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n<ol class=\"references\">\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Arthur Hansen even describes block councils at Gila River where business was conducted exclusively in Japanese, effectively eliminating Nisei participation. See Hansen, \"Cultural Politics in the Gila River Relocation Center, 1942-1943,\" <i>Arizona and the West</i> 27 (Winter 1985): 337–38 and Edward H. Spicer, Asael T. Hansen, Katharine Luomala, and Marvin K. Opler, <i>Impounded People: Japanese Americans in the Relocation Centers</i> (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Interior, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946; Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1969), pp. 73–74.</span>\n</li>\n</ol></div>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.040 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.042 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 78/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 467/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 532/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 58/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:1569-0!*!0!!*!*!* and timestamp 20170309221223 and revision id 18225\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "url_title": "Block councils",
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    "title": "Block councils",
    "url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/articles/Block%20councils/",
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    "title_sort": "Block councils",
    "modified": "2015-03-28T00:46:11",
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