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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<div class=\"floatright\"></div>\n<div class=\"floatright\"></div>\n<p>Communal folk dances associated with the bon festival, a Buddhist summer ceremony in which the spirits of departed ancestors are welcomed back to the world of the living for their annual visit. A national custom in Japan by the Edo period, bon festivals became a big part of Japanese immigrant life in the continental United States and Hawai'i before World War II. Bon dances are a series of communal dances performed by men, women, and children alike while moving in a circle around musicians—or sometimes recorded music—on a central platform called a yagura. Dancers often wear yukata, and some dances involve the use of fans, sticks or other implements. The specific dances may differ from region to region and came to incorporate elements of local cultures (e.g. hula movements in Hawai'i) as well. Though ostensibly a somber occasion, the festival and the dancing generally takes on the celebratory air of a summer festival.\n</p><p>Bon dances also took place in many of the camps that held Japanese Americans during World War II. Most Japanese Americans spent the summer of 1942 held in temporary \"<a href=\"/wiki/Assembly_centers\" title=\"Assembly centers\">assembly centers</a>,\" and many held bon festivals in those centers.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">[1]</a></sup> Later, in the large <a href=\"/wiki/War_Relocation_Authority\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">War Relocation Authority</a> camps, festivals drew thousands of participants and spectators and were an activity enjoyed by <a href=\"/wiki/Issei\" title=\"Issei\">Issei</a> and <a href=\"/wiki/Nisei\" title=\"Nisei\">Nisei</a> alike. They also took place in some of the smaller internment camps run by the army or Justice Department. Bon dancing even took place in the all-male environment of the <a href=\"/wiki/Santa_Fe_(detention_facility)\" title=\"Santa Fe (detention facility)\">Santa Fe Internment Camp</a>, with some Issei men dressing as women to add to the festivity.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">[2]</a></sup> Bon festivals and dancing remain a major part of Japanese American community life today.\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a href=\"/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">Brian Niiya</a>, Densho</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Niiya, Brian</div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2>\n<p>Akiyama, Linda Cummings. \"Reverend Yoshio Iwanaga and the Early History of Doyo Buyo and Bon Odori in California.\"  Diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1989.  \n</p><p><i>Great Grandfather's Drum</i>. Video DVD. Directed by Cal Lewin. Seattle: Opticus Media, 2011.\n</p><p>Izumi, Masumi. \"Seeking the Truth, Spiritual and Political: Japanese American Community Building through Engaged Ethnic Buddhism.\" <i>Peace &amp; Change</i> 35.1 (Jan. 2010): 39-67. \n</p><p>Kurashige, Lon Yuki. <i>Japanese American Celebration and Conflict: A History of Ethnic Identity and Festival, 1934-1990</i>. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.\n</p><p>Van Zile, Judy. \"Japanese Bon Dance and Hawaii: Mutual Influences.\" <i>Social Processes in Hawaii</i> 30 (1983): 49-58.\n</p><p>Waseda, Minako. \"Extraordinary Circumstances, Exceptional Practices: Music in Japanese American Concentration Camps.\" <i>Journal of Asian American Studies</i> 8.2 (June 2005): 171–209.\n</p><p>Yano, Christine Reiko. \"Japanese Bon Dance Music in Hawaii: Continuity, Change and Variability.\"  Thesis, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1984.\n</p>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">Footnotes</span></h2>\n<div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n<ol class=\"references\">\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Coverage of bon dancing can be founds in many assembly center newspapers. See for instance, <i>The Tulare News</i>, July 29, 1942; the <i>El Jouquin</i> (Stockton), July 15, 1942; and the <i>Mercedian</i>, July 14, 1942, all in the Densho archives.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Minako Waseda, “Extraordinary Circumstances, Exceptional Practices: Music in Japanese American Concentration Camps,\" <i>Journal of Asian American Studies</i> 8.2 (June 2005), 188–89.</span>\n</li>\n</ol></div>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.064 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.067 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 98/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 539/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 532/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 58/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:1574-0!*!0!!*!5!* and timestamp 20170309214500 and revision id 21474\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "authors": [
        "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/authors/Brian%20Niiya/"
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    "url_title": "Bon dance / ondo",
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    "title": "Bon dance / ondo",
    "url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/articles/Bon%20dance%20/%20ondo/",
    "absolute_url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Bon%20dance%20/%20ondo/",
    "title_sort": "Bon dance / ondo",
    "modified": "2015-07-25T00:41:38",
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