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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<div class=\"floatright\"></div>\n<div class=\"floatright\"></div>\n<p>The Medal of Honor, the country's highest military honor, has been awarded to twenty-one Japanese American soldiers—all members of either the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/100th_Infantry_Battalion\" title=\"100th Infantry Battalion\">100th Infantry Battalion</a> or the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/442nd_Regimental_Combat_Team\" title=\"442nd Regimental Combat Team\">442nd Regimental Combat Team</a>—for actions during World War II. Only one of these was awarded contemporaneously. A 1990s review of African American and Asian American candidates who might have been overlooked at the time led to the other awards being presented in 2000.\n</p>\n<div class=\"toc\" id=\"toc\"><div id=\"toctitle\"><h2>Contents</h2></div>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#The_Medal_of_Honor\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">1</span> <span class=\"toctext\">The Medal of Honor</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-2\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#World_War_II\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">2</span> <span class=\"toctext\">World War II</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-3\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#1990s_Review\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">3</span> <span class=\"toctext\">1990s Review</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-4\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Recipients\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">4</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Recipients</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-5\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#For_More_Information\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">5</span> <span class=\"toctext\">For More Information</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-6\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Footnotes\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">6</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Footnotes</span></a></li>\n</ul>\n</div>\n<div class=\"section\" id=\"The_Medal_of_Honor\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"The_Medal_of_Honor\">The Medal of Honor</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p>The Medal of Honor—colloquially known as the Congressional Medal of Honor because it is presented by the President in the name of Congress—was established in 1861. Some 2,500 medals were awarded for action during the Civil War, though some 900 of these were later revoked. In 1918, a broad revision of the award system was completed, with standards for the Medal of Honor greatly raised and new awards such as the Distinguished Service Cross and the Silver Star instituted. This revision led to many fewer receiving it; for action during World War II, only 422 were awarded. Further revisions to the criteria in 1963 dictated that the award only be given for heroic actions in combat. Since the end of the Vietnam War, only a handful of medals have been awarded.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">[1]</a></sup>\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"World_War_II\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"World_War_II\">World War II</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p>As has been well documented, Japanese American soldiers served heroically during World War II and received many decorations and honors both individually and as groups. However, some felt that the number of honors they received were not commensurate with their achievements. Many Japanese American members of the 442nd or 100th were recommended for the Medal of Honor, but all saw their honors downgraded to Distinguished Service Crosses or even to Silver Stars. Towards the end of the war, <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Japanese_American_Citizens_League\" title=\"Japanese American Citizens League\">Japanese American Citizens League</a> publicist <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Mike_Masaoka\" title=\"Mike Masaoka\">Mike Masaoka</a> approached his old mentor, Senator Elbert Thomas of Utah, then the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee, to inquire about the seeming disparity. In his autobiography, Masaoka suggests that Thomas's subsequent inquiry led to the Medal of Honor being awarded to the only case still pending, that of <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Sadao_Munemori\" title=\"Sadao Munemori\">Sadao Munemori</a>.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">[2]</a></sup>\n</p><p>That single award would be the only Medal of Honor awarded to a Japanese American—or indeed any Asian American—for action during World War II. Forty-seven Japanese Americans received Distinguished Service Crosses, the next highest award. The ratio of Medals of Honor to Distinguished Service Crosses for all troops in World War II was about one to nine, with the ratio being closer to one to three in some highly decorated units. The one to forty-seven ratio for the 100th and 442nd seemed artificially low to many.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">[3]</a></sup>\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"1990s_Review\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"1990s_Review\">1990s Review</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p>In subsequent years, three Japanese Americans received the Medal of Honor for action in later wars: Hiroshi \"Hershey\" Miyamura for action during the Korean War and Terry T. Kawamura and Rodney J. T. Yano for action during the Vietnam War. Since Munemori, Kawamura, and Yano were all killed in action, Miyamura was for many years the only living Japanese American Medal of Honor recipient.\n</p><p>While only one Medal of Honor was awarded to an Asian American for action during World War II, none were awarded to African American soldiers. In 1993, Congress ordered a review of potential African American honorees to see if any had been overlooked. A review team led by Daniel K. Gibran of Shaw University eventually recommended ten candidates for the Medal of Honor. The Senior Army Decorations Board voted to update seven of these candidates and President Bill Clinton presented the medals on January 13, 1997.\n</p><p>This review led members of the Japanese American community to seek a similar review. In 1995, Senator Daniel Akaka introduced legislation to require the army and navy to review Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders who had been awarded the Distinguished Service Cross or Navy Cross for possible upgrade. The legislation was passed and signed into law in 1996. James C. McNaughton, a historian at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center of the Presidio in Monterey, California, led the research team. Eventually, twenty-one were recommended for upgrade, with a twenty-second subsequently approved based on separate legislation. All but two of these awards went to members of the 100th or 442nd. President Bill Clinton presented the awards on June 21, 2000. \"Rarely has a nation been so well served by a people it has so ill-treated,\" he stated. \"They risked their lives, above and beyond the call of duty. And in so doing, they did more than defend America; in the fact of painful prejudice, they helped to define America at its best.\"<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">[4]</a></sup>\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"Recipients\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Recipients\">Recipients</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p><i>Contemporaneous</i>\n</p><p>Pfc. Sadao S. Munemori<br/>\nCompany A, 100th Infantry Battalion, 442nd Regimental Combat Team<br/>\nKilled in action near Seravezza, Italy, April 5, 1945<br/>\nBorn: Los Angeles, California, August 17, 1922<br/>\nEntered service: Los Angeles, California<br/>\nDied: April 5, 1945\n</p><p><br/>\n<i>Awarded in 2000</i>\n</p><p>Pvt. Barney F. Hajiro<br/>\nCompany I, 442nd Regimental Combat Team<br/>\nFor actions in the Vosges Mountains of France, October 1944<br/>\nBorn: Pu'unene, Maui, Hawai'i, September 16, 1916<br/>\nEntered service: Honolulu, Hawai'i<br/>\nDied: January 21, 2011\n</p><p>Pvt. Mikio Hasemoto<br/>\nCompany B, 100th Infantry Battalion (Separate)<br/>\nKilled in action in Cerasuolo, Italy, November 29, 1943<br/>\nBorn: Honolulu, Hawai'i, July 13, 1916<br/>\nEntered service: Schofield Barracks, Hawai'i<br/>\nDied: November 29, 1943\n</p><p>Pvt. Joe Hayashi<br/>\nCompany K, 442nd Regimental Combat Team<br/>\nKilled in action near Tendola, Italy, April 20 and 22 1945<br/>\nBorn: Salinas, California, August 14, 1920<br/>\nEntered service: Pasadena, California<br/>\nDied: April 22, 1945\n</p><p>Pvt. Shizuya Hayashi<br/>\nCompany A, 100th Infantry Battalion (Separate)<br/>\nFor actions at Cerasulolo, Italy, November 29, 1943<br/>\nBorn: Waialua, Oahu, Hawai'i, November 28, 1917<br/>\nEntered service: Schofield Barracks, Hawai'i<br/>\nDied: March 12, 2008\n</p><p>2nd Lt. <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Daniel_Inouye\" title=\"Daniel Inouye\">Daniel K. Inouye</a><br/>\nCompany E, 442nd Regimental Combat Team<br/>\nFor actions near Mt. Nebbione, Italy, April 1945<br/>\nBorn: Honolulu, Hawai'i, September 7, 1924<br/>\nEntered Service: Honolulu, Hawai'i\n</p><p>Tech. Sgt. Yeiki Kobashigawa<br/>\nCompany B, 100th Battalion (Separate)<br/>\nFor actions near Lanuvio, Italy, June 2, 1944<br/>\nBorn: Hilo, Hawai'i, September 28, 1917<br/>\nEntered service: Honolulu, Hawai'i<br/>\nDied: March 31, 2005\n</p><p>Staff Sgt. Robert T. Kuroda<br/>\nCompany H, 442nd Regimental Combat Team<br/>\nKilled in action at Bruyeres, France on October 20, 1944<br/>\nBorn: Aiea, O'ahu, Hawai'i, November 8, 1922<br/>\nEntered service: Honolulu, Hawai'i<br/>\nDied October 20, 1944\n</p><p>Pfc. Kaoru Moto<br/>\nCompany C 100th Battalion (Separate)<br/>\nFor actions near Castellina, Italy, July 7, 1944<br/>\nBorn: Hawai'i, April 25, 1917<br/>\nEntered service: Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawai'i<br/>\nDied: August 26, 1992\n</p><p>Pfc. Kiyoshi Muranaga<br/>\nCompany F, 442nd Regimental Combat Team<br/>\nKilled in action at Suvereto, Italy, June 26, 1944<br/>\nBorn: Los Angeles, California, February 16, 1922<br/>\nEntered service: Amache, Colorado<br/>\nDied: June 26, 1944\n</p><p>Pfc. Masato \"Curly\" Nakae<br/>\nCompany A, 100th Infantry Battalion, 442nd Regimental Combat Team<br/>\nFor actions at Pisa, Italy, August 19, 1944<br/>\nBorn: Lihue, Kaua'i, Hawai'i, December 20, 1917<br/>\nEntered service: Honolulu, Hawai'i<br/>\nDied September 4, 1998\n</p><p>Pvt. Shinyei Nakamine<br/>\nCompany B, 100th Infantry Battalion (Separate)<br/>\nKilled in action at La Torreto, Italy, June 2, 1944<br/>\nBorn: Wai'anae, O'ahu, Hawai'i, January 21, 1920<br/>\nEntered service: Honolulu, Hawai'i<br/>\nDied: June 2, 1944\n</p><p>Pfc. William Nakamura<br/>\nCompany G, 442nd Regimental Combat Team<br/>\nKilled in action at Castellina, Italy, July 1944<br/>\nBorn: Seattle, Washington, January 21, 1922<br/>\nEntered service: Minidoka, Idaho<br/>\nDied: July 4, 1944\n</p><p>Pfc. Joe M. Nishimoto<br/>\nCompany G, 442nd Regimental Combat Team<br/>\nKilled in November 1944, eight days after his heroic act at La Houssiere, France for which his is honored<br/>\nBorn: Fresno, California, February 21, 1919<br/>\nEntered service: Marion, Ohio<br/>\nDied: November 15, 1944\n</p><p>Staff Sgt. Allan M. Ohata<br/>\nCompany B, 100th Infantry Battalion (Separate)<br/>\nFor actions at Cerasuolo, Italy, November 29–30, 1943<br/>\nBorn: Honolulu, Hawai'i, September 13, 1918<br/>\nEntered service: Honolulu, Hawai'i<br/>\nDied: October 17, 1977\n</p><p>Technician 5th Grade James K. Okubo<br/>\n442nd Regimental Combat Team<br/>\nFor actions near Biffontaine, France, October–November, 1944<br/>\nBorn: Anacortes, Washington, May 30, 1920<br/>\nEntered service: Bellingham, Washington<br/>\nDied: January 29, 1967\n</p><p>Tech. Sgt. Yukio Okutsu<br/>\nCompany F, 442nd Regimental Combat Team<br/>\nFor actions at Mt. Belvedere, Italy, April 7 1945<br/>\nBorn: Koloa, Kaua'i, Hawai'i, November 3, 1921<br/>\nEntered service: Koloa, Kaua'i, Hawai'i<br/>\nDied: August 24, 2003\n</p><p>Pfc. Frank H. Ono<br/>\nCompany G, 442nd Regimental Combat Team<br/>\nBorn: June 5, 1923<br/>\nFor actions near Castellina, Italy, July 4, 1944<br/>\nEntered service: North Judson, Indiana<br/>\nDied: May 6, 1980\n</p><p>Staff Sgt. Kazuo Otani<br/>\nCompany G, 442nd Regimental Combat Team<br/>\nKilled in action near Pieve Di S. Luce, Italy, July 15, 1944<br/>\nBorn: Visalia, California, June 2, 1918<br/>\nEntered service: Gila River, Arizona<br/>\nDied: July 15, 1944\n</p><p>Pvt. George T. Sakato<br/>\nCompany E, 442nd Regimental Combat Team<br/>\nFor actions at Biffontaine, France in October 29, 1944<br/>\nBorn: Colton, California, February 19, 1921<br/>\nEntered service: Glendale, Arizona\n</p><p>Tech. Sgt. Ted T. Tanouye<br/>\nCompany K, 442nd Regimental Combat Team<br/>\nFor actions at Molina A. Ventoabbto, Italy, July 7, 1944<br/>\nBorn: Torrance, California, November 14, 1919<br/>\nEntered service: Fort MacArthur, California<br/>\nDied: September 6, 1944\n</p><p><br/>\n<i>Other Asian Americans awarded in 2000</i>\n</p><p>Staff Sgt. Rudolph B. Davila of Vista, California, 7th Infantry, Third Army, for actions at Anzio, Italy in May 1944\n</p><p>Capt. Francis Brown Wai of Honolulu, Hawai'i, 34th Division, killed in action in Oct. 1944 at Leyte in the Philippines\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">Brian Niiya</a>, Densho</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Niiya, Brian</div>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p>Asahina, Robert. <i>Just Americans: How Japanese Americans Won a War at Home and Abroad</i>. New York: Gotham, 2006.\n</p><p>McNaughton, James C., Kristen E. Edwards, and Jay M. Price. \"'Incontestable Proof Will Be Exacted': Historians, Asian Americans, and the Medal of Honor.\" <i>The Public Historian</i> 24.4 (autumn 2002): 11–33.\n</p><p><i>The Medal of Honor</i>. Video produced by the Go For Broke National Education Center, 2006.\n</p><p>Sterner, C. Douglas. <i>Go For Broke: The Nisei Warriors of World War II Who Conquered Germany, Japan and American Bigotry</i>. Clearfield, Utah: American Legacy Historical Press, 2008.\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">Footnotes</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n<ol class=\"references\">\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">James C. McNaughton, Kristen E. Edwards, and Jay M. Price, \"'Incontestable Proof Will Be Exacted': Historians, Asian Americans, and the Medal of Honor,\" <i>The Public Historian</i> 24.4 (autumn 2002), 14.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Mike Masaoka with Bill Hosokawa, <i>They Call Me Moses Masaoka: An American Saga</i> (New York: Morrow, 1987), 176–77.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Robert Asahina, <i>Just Americans: How Japanese Americans Won a War at Home and Abroad</i> (New York: Gotham, 2006). 259–60.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Cited in Asahina, <i>Just Americans</i>, 8.</span>\n</li>\n</ol></div>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.096 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.102 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 154/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 699/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 532/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 58/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:60-0!*!0!!en!5!* and timestamp 20180309150403 and revision id 13415\n -->\n</div></div><div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "url_title": "Congressional Medal of Honor recipients",
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    "title": "Congressional Medal of Honor recipients",
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    "modified": "2014-04-01T18:23:15",
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