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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<div class=\"alert alert-info\">\n<p>The content in this article is still under development. A completed version will appear soon!\n</p>\n</div><div class=\"floatright\"></div>\n<p>General term for the 1980s reconsideration of the three cases of Japanese Americans who challenged the exclusion orders or curfew that reached the Supreme Court in the 1940s. The reconsiderations were based on research in the early 1980s by legal scholar Peter Irons that revealed the government had knowingly presented false charges of Japanese American disloyalty and espionage. These revelations led attorneys for <a href=\"/wiki/Gordon_Hirabayashi\" title=\"Gordon Hirabayashi\">Gordon Hirabayashi</a>, <a href=\"/wiki/Fred_Korematsu\" title=\"Fred Korematsu\">Fred Korematsu</a>, and <a href=\"/wiki/Minoru_Yasui\" title=\"Minoru Yasui\">Minoru Yasui</a> to petition for a writ of error <i>coram nobis</i>, a somewhat obscure procedure used to correct a fundamental error of fact in a trial after the defendant has been found guilty and served his sentence. These cases—whose five year journey would parallel and sometimes mesh with the <a href=\"/wiki/Redress_movement\" title=\"Redress movement\">Redress Movement</a> effort to seek reparations in Congress—were widely publicized and came to hold great symbolic value for the Japanese American community.\n</p><p>Once the three men agreed to pursue this strategy—an unusual one that was not guaranteed to work—a volunteer legal team was assembled with the intent on filing petitions for the three men in the courts where they were originally tried in Seattle, San Francisco, and Portland respectively. Dale Minami headed the San Francisco team that would represent Korematsu, Peggy Nagae the Portland team representing Yasui, and Kathryn Bannai the Seattle team representing Hirabayashi. The legal team prepared identical coram nobis petitions for the three cases.\n</p><p>Korematsu's was the first of the petitions to be filed on January 19, 1983. Judge Marilyn Patel, whom the <i>coram nobis</i> team felt would be sympathetic to their side, was assigned to the case. Justice Department lawyer Victor Stone represented the government on all three cases. After fruitless discussions about a presidential pardon (in rejecting the offer of a pardon, Korematsu famously replied, \"We should be the ones pardoning the government\") and requests for delays by the government, Stone filed the government's response on October 4, 1983: a two page document that asked the court to vacate Korematsu's conviction and to dismiss the petition. A month later, Judge Patel held a hearing on the Korematsu petition, denying Stone's motion to dismiss and granting the <i>coram nobis</i> petition.\n</p><p>The Yasui and Hirabayshi petitions were filed two weeks after Korematsu's, and the two cases resulted in opposite outcomes. In both cases, the government again asked the court to vacate the convictions but dismiss the petition. In Yasui's case, Portland Judge Robert C. Belloni granted the government's motion—and Yasui's request—to vacate his original conviction but refused to conduct a full evidentiary hearing. Yasui appealed this part of the order, but died in 1986 before the issue could be heard before the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeal.\n</p><p>In Seattle, Judge Donald S. Voorhees came to a different conclusion on Hirabayashi's petition in a May 18, 1984 hearing, denying the government's motion and scheduling an evidentiary hearing for June 17, 1985, over a year later. The two week hearing featured former Justice Department lawyer <a href=\"/wiki/Edward_Ennis\" title=\"Edward Ennis\">Edward Ennis</a> as the star witness for the <i>coram nobis</i> team, personally recalling the suppression of evidence in 1943–44. David Lowman, the most vocal proponent of the \"<a href=\"/wiki/Magic_cables\" title=\"Magic cables\">Magic Cables</a>,\" was the star witness for the government. On February 10, 1986, Judge Voorhees issued his written opinion, essentially agreeing with the <i>coram nobis</i> team and vacating Hirabayashi's conviction for violating the evacuation order. Oddly, he did not vacate the curfew conviction. Both sides subsequently appealed, the appeal being heard by a three judge panel on March 2, 1987. In Sept. 1987, in a unanimous opinion authored by Judge Mary M. Schroeder, the panel agreed with the charges of misconduct noting that the Supreme Court decisions \"probably would have been materially affected\" and reversed Voorhees on the curfew conviction, vacating it as well.\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a href=\"/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">Brian Niiya</a>, Densho</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Niiya, Brian</div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2>\n<p>Daniels, Roger. <i>The Japanese American Cases: The Rule of Law in Time of War</i>. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 2013.\n</p><p><i>Fighting for Justice: The Coram Nobis Cases.</i> Documentary film produced by Bridge Media, Inc. 1999. 105 min.\n</p><p>Hirabayashi, Gordon, with Janes A. Hirabayashi, and Lane Ryo Hirabayashi. <i>A Principled Stand: The Story of Hirabayashi v. United States</i>. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2013.\n</p><p>Irons, Peter, ed. <i>Justice Delayed: The Record of the Japanese American Internment Cases</i>. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1989.  \n</p><p>Iyeki, Marc Hideo. \"The Japanese American Coram Nobis Cases: Exposing the Myth of Disloyalty.\"  Review of Law and Social Change 13.1 (1984-1985): 199-221.\n</p><p>Kessler, Lauren. <i>Stubborn Twig: Three Generations in the Life of a Japanese American Family</i>. New York: Random House, 1993.\n</p><p>Minami, Dale. \"Coram Nobis and Redress.\" In <i>Japanese Americans: From Relocation to Redress</i>. Edited by Roger Daniels, Sandra C. Taylor, and Harry H. L. Kitano. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1986. Revised edition. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1991. 200-02.\n</p><p>Murray, Alice Yang. <i>Historical Memories of the Japanese American Internment and the Struggle for Redress</i>. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008.\n</p><p><i>Unfinished Business.</i> Documentary film directed by Steven Okazaki, 1986. 60 min.\n</p><p>Yamamoto, Eric, Margaret Chon, Carol L. Izumi, Jerry Kang, and Frank H. Wu. <i>Race, Rights, and Reparation: Law and the Japanese American Internment</i>. Gaithersburg, Md.: Aspen Law &amp; Business, 2001.\n</p>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.040 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.043 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 28/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 113/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 526/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 58/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 3/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:61-0!*!0!*!*!5!* and timestamp 20170309221129 and revision id 21833\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "url_title": "Coram nobis cases",
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    "title": "Coram nobis cases",
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