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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<div class=\"floatright\"></div>\n<div class=\"rgonly\">\n<div id=\"rgdatabox-CoreDisplay\">\n<table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">RG Media Type</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">books</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Title</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Dusty Exile: Looking Back at Japanese Relocation during World War II</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Creators</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Catherine Embree Harris</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Interest Level</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Grades 9-12; Adult</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Theme</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Evils of racism; Role of women; Progress – real or illusion</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Genre</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Memoir</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Point-of-View/Protagonist Characteristics</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Perspective of white school teacher at Poston</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Availability</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Available</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Free Web Version</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">No</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Geography</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Parker, Arizona</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Chronology</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">1941–92, mostly 1942–45</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Facility</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Poston (Colorado River) [2] - Parker, Arizona</td>\n</tr>\n</table>\n</div>\n<div id=\"rgdatabox-Core\" style=\"display:none;\">\n<p>RGMediaType:books;\nTitle:Dusty Exile: Looking Back at Japanese Relocation during World War II;\nCreators:Catherine Embree Harris;\nInterestLevel:Grades 9-12; Adult;\nReadingLevel:;\nGuidedReadingLevel:;\nLexile:;\nTheme:Evils of racism; Role of women; Progress – real or illusion;\nGenre:Memoir;\nPoV:Perspective of white school teacher at Poston;\nRelatedEvents:;\nAvailability:Available;\nFreeWebVersion:No;\nPrimarySecondary:;\nHasTeachingAids:No;\nWarnings:;\nDenshoTopic:;\nGeography:Parker, Arizona;\nChronology:1941–92, mostly 1942–45;\nFacility:Poston (Colorado River) [2] - Parker, Arizona;\n</p>\n</div>\n</div>\n<div id=\"databox-BooksDisplay\">\n<table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Title</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Dusty Exile: Looking Back at Japanese Relocation during World War II</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Author</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Catherine Embree Harris</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Original Publisher</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Mutual Publishing</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Original Publication Date</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">1999</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Pages</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">136</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">WorldCat Link</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\"><a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"https://www.worldcat.org/title/dusty-exile-looking-back-at-japanese-relocation-during-world-war-ii/oclc/42974243\" rel=\"nofollow\">https://www.worldcat.org/title/dusty-exile-looking-back-at-japanese-relocation-during-world-war-ii/oclc/42974243</a></td>\n</tr>\n</table>\n</div>\n<div id=\"databox-Books\" style=\"display:none;\">\n<p>Title:Dusty Exile: Looking Back at Japanese Relocation during World War II;\nAuthor:Catherine Embree Harris;\nIllustrator:;\nOrigTitle:;\nCountry:;\nLanguage:;\nSeries:;\nGenre:;\nPublisher:Mutual Publishing;\nPubDate:1999;\nCurrentPublisher:;\nCurrentPubDate:;\nMediaType:;\nPages:136;\nAwards:;\nISBN:;\nWorldCatLink:<a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"https://www.worldcat.org/title/dusty-exile-looking-back-at-japanese-relocation-during-world-war-ii/oclc/42974243\" rel=\"nofollow\">https://www.worldcat.org/title/dusty-exile-looking-back-at-japanese-relocation-during-world-war-ii/oclc/42974243</a>;\n</p>\n</div>\n<p>Memoir of the forced removal and incarceration and its aftermath by a sympathetic white schoolteacher at <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Poston_(Colorado_River)\" title=\"Poston (Colorado River)\">Poston</a>.\n</p>\n<div class=\"section\" id=\"Synopsis\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Synopsis\">Synopsis</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p>Catherine Embree Harris (1919–2012), raised partially in Honolulu and a recent graduate of Swarthmore College, ended up as a teacher at Poston due in part to the influence of her brother, <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/John_F._Embree\" title=\"John F. Embree\">John Fee Embree</a>, an anthropologist and the head of the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/War_Relocation_Authority\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">War Relocation Authority</a>'s <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Community_analysts\" title=\"Community analysts\">Community Analysis Section</a>, and family friend <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/John_Collier\" title=\"John Collier\">John Collier</a>, head of the Office of Indian Affairs, which was initially in charge of the Poston camp. In <i>Dusty Exile</i>, Harris alternates between chapters in which she describes her own experiences and those that provide general background about the mass incarceration. Supposedly an \"assistant teacher,\" she finds herself in charge of a class of ninth graders at Poston Camp I when school starts in October 1942 despite having had no prior teaching experience due to the lack of teachers. She describes the initial state of camp conditions—a \"school\" that consisted of a recreation room at blocks throughout the camp, a classroom that had tables but no chairs (students had to bring their own chairs), and battered and out-of-date textbooks that didn't arrive until January 1943. She describes the various Poston journeys of her colleagues, both <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Nisei\" title=\"Nisei\">Nisei</a> and white, and of school administrators. She also includes her perspectives on such key events as the Poston Strike, the \"<a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Loyalty_questionnaire\" title=\"Loyalty questionnaire\">loyalty questionnaire</a>,\" and <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Resettlement\" title=\"Resettlement\">resettlement</a>. She goes to Chicago for the summer of 1943 to pursue further education, returning to teach at the newly built school at Poston Camp II that fall. Due to a family medical emergency, she leaves Poston in December 1943. While pursuing a master's degree in education in 1944–45, she marries Arthur Harris, the director of education at Poston, and returns with him to the camp in November 1945 to help finish up paperwork and close the camp. After the war, the couple moves to Washington, D.C., where Arthur works for the Department of Education and Catherine works for various federal agencies (including a stint with the WRA in its final months). Harris fills in the postwar fates of various people she meets at Poston, including <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Nikki_Sawada_Bridges_Flynn\" title=\"Nikki Sawada Bridges Flynn\">Nikki Sawada Bridges Flynn</a> and <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Dandelion_Through_the_Crack/Kiyo%27s_Story_(book)\" title=\"Dandelion Through the Crack/Kiyo's Story (book)\">Kiyo Sato</a>, and concludes the book with a return visit to Poston in 1992 for the dedication of a memorial fifty years later.\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"Historical_Accuracy\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Historical_Accuracy\">Historical Accuracy</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p>While Harris's perspective on the events she witnessed or took part in are valuable, there are quite a few small errors in her account of the broader story of the removal and incarceration. Among these: \n</p><p>• Citing the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Immigration_Act_of_1924\" title=\"Immigration Act of 1924\">Immigration Act of 1924</a> as \"limiting naturalization to 'free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent'\" (page 7). It was actually the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Ozawa_v._United_States\" title=\"Ozawa v. United States\"><i>Ozawa</i> Supreme Court decision</a> two years earlier that definitively established that <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Issei\" title=\"Issei\">Issei</a> could not become naturalized U.S. citizens; the quoted language comes from the 1870 update to the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Naturalization_Act_of_1790\" title=\"Naturalization Act of 1790\">Naturalization Act of 1790</a>, which served as the basis for the Supreme Court ruling.\n</p><p>• Harris writes: \"The FBI and the Department of War had declared that evacuation was not necessary.\" (9) She probably means the Justice Department—in which the FBI was situated—here, since Attorney General <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Francis_Biddle\" title=\"Francis Biddle\">Francis Biddle</a> and his deputies opposed the mass removal of Japanese Americans while Secretary of War <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Henry_Stimson\" title=\"Henry Stimson\">Henry Stimson</a> and his deputies supported it.\n</p><p>• \"In the two earliest relocation camps—<a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Manzanar\" title=\"Manzanar\">Manzanar</a> in California and Poston in Arizona—the evacuees arrived directly from their homes.\" (15) While nearly all of those who went to Manzanar did go there directly, about a third of Poston inmates went to an \"<a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Assembly_centers\" title=\"Assembly centers\">assembly center</a>\" first before being transferred there. \n</p><p>• Cites the WRA as moving \"100,000 people from the West Coast\" (38). It was the army that was in charge of moving out the excluded Japanese Americans, with the WRA administering the camps there were subsequently held in.\n</p><p>• In describing the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Kibei\" title=\"Kibei\">Kibei</a>, she writes that the reasons they were sent to Japan were \"as a sort of family courtesy\" to their Japanese grandparents or for what their Issei parents saw as superior education in Japan. (43) The two most important reasons Issei sent children to Japanese to be raised were (a) poverty and a lack of resources to raise the child and (b) to give the child familiarity with Japan and the Japanese language in case the family decided to return to Japan later and to open up job opportunities for the child in Japan given his or her seemingly dismal prospects for being able to land a good white collar job in the U.S.\n</p><p>• She refers to the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Ex_parte_Mitsuye_Endo_(1944)\" title=\"Ex parte Mitsuye Endo (1944)\">Endo Supreme Court decision</a> as coming on December 31, 1944. (102) The ruling came on December 18.\n</p><p>• In describing the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Redress_movement\" title=\"Redress movement\">Redress Movement</a>, there are many small errors, including placing HR 442 in 1979 (it was passed in 1987) and the claim that \"An official apology was signed and read by President Reagan in 1990.\" (126) Of course Reagan left office in 1989.\n</p><p>• As many other chroniclers do, Harris cites the figure of $400 million as the estimate of losses incurred by Japanese Americans due to the incarceration. <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Japanese_American_Citizens_League\" title=\"Japanese American Citizens League\">Japanese American Citizens League</a> leader <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Mike_Masaoka\" title=\"Mike Masaoka\">Mike Masaoka</a> later admitted to making this figure up.\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">Brian Niiya</a>, Densho</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Niiya, Brian</div>\n<p>Might also like <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Song_of_Anger:_Tales_of_Tule_Lake_(book)\" title=\"Song of Anger: Tales of Tule Lake (book)\">Song of Anger: Tales of Tule Lake</a></i> by Barney Shallit;  <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/The_Climate_of_the_Country_(book)\" title=\"The Climate of the Country (book)\">The Climate of the Country</a></i> by Marnie Mueller; <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/39_Months_at_Tule_Lake_(book)\" title=\"39 Months at Tule Lake (book)\">39 Months at Tule Lake</a></i> by Margaret Lowery\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p>Harris, Catherine Embree. <i>Dusty Exile: Looking Back at Japanese Relocation during World War II</i>. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 1999.\n</p>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.120 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.125 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 324/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 2135/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 6668/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 1615/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 3/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:3733-0!*!0!!*!5!* and timestamp 20180827025143 and revision id 29014\n -->\n</div></div><div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "url_title": "Dusty Exile: Looking Back at Japanese Relocation during World War II (book)",
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    "title": "Dusty Exile: Looking Back at Japanese Relocation during World War II (book)",
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