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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<div id=\"databox-CampsDisplay\">\n<table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">US Gov Name</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">East Boston Detention Station</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\"><a href=\"/wiki/Sites_of_incarceration\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">Facility Type</a></th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\"><a href=\"/wiki/Sites_of_incarceration#Immigration_Detention_Station\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">Immigration Detention Station</a></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Administrative Agency</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Immigration and Naturalization Service</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Location</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">East Boston, Massachusetts (42.3667 lat, -71.0333 lng)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Date Opened</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\"></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Date Closed</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\"></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Population Description</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Held Japanese immigrants; German, Italian, and other foreign nationals.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">General Description</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\"><a href=\"/wiki/Immigration_and_Naturalization_Service\" title=\"Immigration and Naturalization Service\">Immigration and Naturalization Service</a> (INS) detention station located in East Boston, Massachusetts.</td>\n</tr><tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Peak Population</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\"> </td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\" style=\"text-align:left;\"><a class=\"external text\" href=\"http://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/anthropology74/ce17a.htm\" rel=\"nofollow\">National Park Service Info</a></td>\n</tr>\n</table>\n</div>\n<div id=\"databox-Camps\" style=\"display:none;\">\n<p>SoSUID:i-east;\nDenshoName:East Boston;\nUSGName:East Boston Detention Station;\nType:<a href=\"/wiki/Sites_of_incarceration#Immigration_Detention_Station\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">Immigration Detention Station</a>;\nAdminAgency:Immigration and Naturalization Service;\nDateOpened:;\nDateClosed:;\nLocationName:East Boston, Massachusetts;\nCityName:East Boston;\nStateName:MA;\nDescription:<a href=\"/wiki/Immigration_and_Naturalization_Service\" title=\"Immigration and Naturalization Service\">Immigration and Naturalization Service</a> (INS) detention station located in East Boston, Massachusetts.;\nGISLat:42.3667;\nGISLng:-71.0333;\nGISTGNId:7015009;\nCurrentDisposition:;\nPopulationDescription:Held Japanese immigrants; German, Italian, and other foreign nationals.;\nExitDestination:;\nPeakPopulation:;\nPeakDate:;\nNPSMoreInfoResourceLink:<a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/anthropology74/ce17a.htm\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/anthropology74/ce17a.htm</a>;\nOfficialResourceLink:;\n</p>\n</div>\n<p>An <a href=\"/wiki/Immigration_and_Naturalization_Service\" title=\"Immigration and Naturalization Service\">Immigration and Naturalization Service</a> facility that operated as a detention center for immigrants arriving through the Port of Boston. Its primary function was to prevent immigrants deemed \"undesirable\" from entering the country. During World War II, it also served as a temporary detention station for \"enemy aliens\" such as German and Japanese nationals. \n</p>\n<div class=\"toc\" id=\"toc\"><div id=\"toctitle\"><h2>Contents</h2></div>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\"><a href=\"#Site_Background\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">1</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Site Background</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-2\"><a href=\"#Wartime_Detention\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">2</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Wartime Detention</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-3\"><a href=\"#After_the_War\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">3</span> <span class=\"toctext\">After the War</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-4\"><a href=\"#For_More_Information\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">4</span> <span class=\"toctext\">For More Information</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-5\"><a href=\"#Footnotes\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">5</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Footnotes</span></a></li>\n</ul>\n</div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Site_Background\">Site Background</span></h2>\n<p>The East Boston immigration station, located on 287 Marginal Street, began its operation in 1920 and processed approximately 23,000 immigrants during its 34-year history.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">[1]</a></sup> Though most immigrants arriving through the Port of Boston were inspected at the piers or on board ships, some passengers—such as those suspected of carrying a communicable disease—were sent to the immigration station for secondary examination. It is estimated that only approximately 10 percent of the immigrants who landed in the Port of Boston were processed at the East Boston station.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">[2]</a></sup>\n</p><p>Passengers requiring additional review were not limited to those who appeared to have a contagious disease; they also included \"the illiterate, the insane, criminals, polygamists, anarchists, prostitutes\" as well as \"young children traveling alone\" and \"young, unmarried women traveling without guardians.\"<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">[3]</a></sup> Individuals with questionable paperwork were also sent to the East Boston station, and during the period of Chinese exclusion (1882-1943), Chinese passengers were closely scrutinized in an attempt to prevent non-exempt classes from entering the United States. As a result, most Chinese immigrants coming through the Port of Boston were sent to the East Boston facility for further interrogation and were sometimes asked hundreds of questions in order to prove their identity.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">[4]</a></sup> The Chinese were also the only group to have segregated detention quarters built for them.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">[5]</a></sup>\n</p>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Wartime_Detention\">Wartime Detention</span></h2>\n<p>During World War II, the East Boston station served an additional function as a temporary detention center for persons labeled \"enemy aliens.\" World War II had begun in Europe in 1939 and on March 30, 1941, Italian and German officers and crews aboard two cargo ships were detained at the East Boston station under an \"anti-sabotage\" order.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\">[6]</a></sup> Following Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawai'i, which precipitated the United States entry into World War II, \"enemy aliens\" in the Boston area were arrested by the FBI and detained at the East Boston facility. On January 19, 1942, the New York Times reported that Harvard University instructor Dr. Karl Otto Heinrich Lange, a German immigrant, and 29 other \"enemy aliens\" had been held at the East Boston station since the United States declared war on December 8, 1941.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_7-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref7-7\">[7]</a></sup> By July 14, 1942, the \"enemy alien\" population was comparatively smaller and included 4 Japanese, 3 Germans, no Italians, and 1 individual of \"miscellaneous\" nationality.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_8-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref8-8\">[8]</a></sup> Like other temporary detention centers, East Boston held its \"enemy aliens\" for 1 to 4 months, and detainees were then released or transferred to other detention facilities or internment camps.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref9_9-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref9-9\">[9]</a></sup>\n</p><p>Most of what is known about the Japanese detainees at the East Boston detention center is derived from the recollections of Max Ebel, a German immigrant who was arrested by the FBI in September 1942 and held in the East Boston facility for four months.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref10_10-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref10-10\">[10]</a></sup> Though Ebel never discovered why he was picked up, he states that one Japanese detainee had been arrested by the FBI because he had his shoes shined across the street from General Electric while another Japanese man was arrested because his rosary crucifix, which contained a small opening, aroused suspicion. Ebel also recalls the day that he and another German detainee helped save the life of an incarcerated Japanese man who they discovered had slit his own throat in a suicide attempt.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref11_11-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref11-11\">[11]</a></sup>\n</p>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"After_the_War\">After the War</span></h2>\n<p>Following World War II, the East Boston immigration station continued to operate as a facility for processing immigrants requiring further examination until it was shut down in 1954.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref12_12-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref12-12\">[12]</a></sup> After its closure, the building was sold and changed ownership several times until it was bought by the Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport) in 1987.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref13_13-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref13-13\">[13]</a></sup> Over the years the property housed a radiator factory, served as a storeroom for TWA Airlines, and eventually became a dumping ground.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref14_14-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref14-14\">[14]</a></sup> At some point, Massport stated its intention to demolish the dilapidated property and the Boston Landmarks Commission, the municipal preservation agency for Boston, sought to evaluate the site's eligibility for inclusion as a city landmark. In a 2010 report, the Commission determined that the property met the criteria for Boston Landmark status but did not have enough architectural integrity to warrant a nomination.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref15_15-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref15-15\">[15]</a></sup> After the report, Massport moved ahead with its demolition plan and the East Boston immigration station was torn down in April 2011.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref16_16-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref16-16\">[16]</a></sup> In June 2012, Massport placed a series of interpretive panels at the Navy Fuel Pier and Piers Park in East Boston that relate the history of immigration through the Port of Boston.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref17_17-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref17-17\">[17]</a></sup>\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a href=\"/wiki/Laura_W._Ng\" title=\"Laura W. Ng\">Laura W. Ng</a></b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Ng, Laura</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2>\n<p>The Boston Globe. \"Storied E. Boston immigration hub to be demolished.\" January 3, 2011.\n<a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.boston.com/yourtown/boston/eastboston/articles/2011/01/03/storied_e_boston_immigration_hub_to_be_demolished/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.boston.com/yourtown/boston/eastboston/articles/2011/01/03/storied_e_boston_immigration_hub_to_be_demolished/</a>\n</p><p>The Boston Globe. \"Gateway to hope and heartache.\" April 11, 2010. <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2010/04/11/gateway_to_hope_and_heartache/?page=full\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2010/04/11/gateway_to_hope_and_heartache/?page=full</a>\n</p><p>The City of Boston. \"East Boston Immigration Station Study Report.\" As amended July 13, 2010. \n<a class=\"external free\" href=\"https://www.cityofboston.gov/images_documents/EBIS_StudyReport_as_amended_tcm3-18168.pdf\" rel=\"nofollow\">https://www.cityofboston.gov/images_documents/EBIS_StudyReport_as_amended_tcm3-18168.pdf</a>\n</p><p>Massport\n\"The East Boston Immigration Station: A History.\" February 2012.\n<a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://feeds.massport.com/assets/flipbook/307478696/files/inc/307478696.pdf\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://feeds.massport.com/assets/flipbook/307478696/files/inc/307478696.pdf</a>\n</p>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">Footnotes</span></h2>\n<div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n<ol class=\"references\">\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Boston Landmarks Commission, East Boston Immigration Station Study Report (Boston, MA: City of Boston, 2010).</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">City of Boston, East Boston Immigration Station Study Report (Boston Landmarks Commission, July 13, 2010), 23.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Massport, The East Boston Immigration Station: A History, December 2012, 18.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Shauna Lo, \"Chinese Women Entering New England: Chinese Exclusion Act Case Files, Boston, 1911-1925,\" The New England Quarterly 81, no. 3 (2008): 390.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Massport, The East Boston Immigration Station: A History, 55.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">\"2 Axis Cargo Ships Seized at Boston,\" New York Times, March 31, 1941.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref7-7\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_7-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">\"Report Dr. K.O. Lange Held as Enemy Alien,\" New York Times, January 19, 1942.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref8-8\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_8-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Tetsuden Kashima, Judgment Without Trial: Japanese American Imprisonment During World War II (Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2003), 252.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref9-9\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref9_9-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Jeffery F. Burton et al., Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II Japanese American Relocation Sites, 1st University of Washington Press ed, The Scott and Laurie Oki Series in Asian American Studies (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002), 380.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref10-10\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref10_10-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Martha Nakagawa, \"Snow Country Prison Exhibit Opening Brings Internees Back to Internment Camp,\" United Tribes News, November 18, 2003, Reprint edition, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"https://www.uttc.edu/news/story/111803_01.asp\" rel=\"nofollow\">https://www.uttc.edu/news/story/111803_01.asp</a>.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref11-11\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref11_11-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Ibid.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref12-12\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref12_12-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Massport, The East Boston Immigration Station: A History.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref13-13\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref13_13-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Ibid.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref14-14\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref14_14-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">\"Gateway to Hope and Heartache,\" The Boston Globe, April 11, 2010, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2010/04/11/gateway_to_hope_and_heartache/?page=full\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2010/04/11/gateway_to_hope_and_heartache/?page=full</a>.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref15-15\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref15_15-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Boston Landmarks Commission, East Boston Immigration Station Study Report.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref16-16\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref16_16-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Massport, The East Boston Immigration Station: A History, 47.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref17-17\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref17_17-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Massport. \"The East Boston Immigration Station.\" Massport.com. <a class=\"external free\" href=\"https://www.massport.com/in-the-community/the-east-boston-immigration-station/\" rel=\"nofollow\">https://www.massport.com/in-the-community/the-east-boston-immigration-station/</a> (retrieved May 20, 2014).</span>\n</li>\n</ol></div>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.164 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.168 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 526/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 2392/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 3290/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 1058/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:1200-0!*!0!!en!*!* and timestamp 20170309214514 and revision id 20466\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "url_title": "East Boston (detention facility)",
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    "title": "East Boston (detention facility)",
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    "title_sort": "East Boston (detention facility)",
    "modified": "2015-07-14T21:52:31",
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