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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<div class=\"floatright\"></div>\n<p>A fifth column is a group of people residing in a given country who work to actively support a wartime enemy of that country from within by engaging in espionage or sabotage or who engage in such activities in anticipation of war. The term derives from the Spanish Civil War.\n</p><p>There were two notable instances of fifth column accusations aimed at Japanese Americans. Shortly after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Secretary of the Navy <a href=\"/wiki/Frank_Knox\" title=\"Frank Knox\">Frank Knox</a> journeyed to the islands and subsequently made the infamous statement, \"I think the most effective Fifth Column work of the entire war was done in Hawaii with the exception of Norway.\"<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_1-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-1\">[1]</a></sup> Despite <a href=\"/wiki/J._Edgar_Hoover\" title=\"J. Edgar Hoover\">J. Edgar Hoover's</a> later denial of such activity—and the subsequent lack of any evidence to corroborate Knox's assertion—the charges stuck. The subsequent <a href=\"/wiki/Roberts_Commission_report\" title=\"Roberts Commission report\">Roberts Commission Report</a> also failed to contradict these charges. \n</p><p>Later, in February 1942, influential syndicated columnist Walter Lippmann wrote a column titled \"<a href=\"/wiki/The_Fifth_Column_on_the_Coast\" title=\"The Fifth Column on the Coast\">The Fifth Column on the Coast</a>\" based on his discussions with California Attorney General <a href=\"/wiki/Earl_Warren\" title=\"Earl Warren\">Earl Warren</a> that repeated Knox's charges and that cast doubt on <a href=\"/wiki/Nisei\" title=\"Nisei\">Nisei</a> as well as <a href=\"/wiki/Issei\" title=\"Issei\">Issei</a>. The fifth column specter raised by both of these instances—despite the lack of any actual evidence to suspect Japanese Americans—contributed to the climate that culminated in <a href=\"/wiki/Executive_Order_9066\" title=\"Executive Order 9066\">Executive Order 9066</a>.\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a href=\"/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">Brian Niiya</a>, Densho</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Niiya, Brian</div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2>\n<p>Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. <i>Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians</i>. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1982. Foreword by Tetsuden Kashima. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997.\n</p><p>MacDonnell, Francis. <i>The Axis Fifth Column and the American Home Front</i>. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.\n</p><p>Robinson, Greg. <i>A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America</i>. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.\n</p>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">Footnotes</span></h2>\n<div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n<ol class=\"references\">\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-1\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_1-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Cited in Greg Robinson, <i>A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America</i> (New York: Columbia University Press, 2009), 63.</span>\n</li>\n</ol></div>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.052 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.054 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 78/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 467/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 532/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 58/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:94-0!*!0!!*!5!* and timestamp 20170309214235 and revision id 8685\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "url_title": "Fifth column",
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    "title": "Fifth column",
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    "title_sort": "Fifth column",
    "modified": "2013-03-19T18:14:55",
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