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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<div id=\"databox-FilmsDisplay\">\n<table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Title</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Guilty by Reason of Race</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Date</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">1972</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Director</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Fred Flamenhaft</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Producer</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Robert Northshield</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Starring</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Miyuki Hirano (Interviewee); Tom Clark (Interviewee); Daniel Inouye (Interviewee); Leon Happell (Interviewee); Lloyd Cosgrove (Interviewee); Ikey Kakimoto (Interviewee); Lt. Col. Edwin Boney (Interviewee); Dr. William Asano: (Interviewee); Fumiko Hayashida (Interviewee); Amy Uno Ishii (Interviewee); J. H. Takeda (Interviewee); Betty Kozasa (Interviewee); Ernest Uno (Interviewee); Edison Uno (Interviewee); Masao Amachi (Interviewee); Craig Shimabukuro (Interviewee); Warren Furutani (Interviewee); Sandy Maeshiro (Interviewee)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Cinematography</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Henry Kokojan</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Editing</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">George Johnson; Jean Venable</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Studio</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">National Broadcasting Company, Inc.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Runtime</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">52 minutes</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\"><a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"http://www.imdb.com\" rel=\"nofollow\">IMDB</a></th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\"><a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"http://www.worldcat.org/title/guilty-by-reason-of-race/oclc/12742627/\" rel=\"nofollow\">Guilty by Reason of Race</a></td>\n</tr>\n</table>\n</div>\n<div id=\"databox-Films\" style=\"display:none;\">\n<p>Title:Guilty by Reason of Race;\nDate:1972; \nGenre:;\nReleased:;\nDirector:Fred Flamenhaft;\nProducer:Robert Northshield;\nWriter:;\nScreenplay:;\nStory:;\nBasedOn:;\nNarrator:;\nStarring:Miyuki Hirano (Interviewee); Tom Clark (Interviewee); Daniel Inouye (Interviewee); Leon Happell (Interviewee); Lloyd Cosgrove (Interviewee); Ikey Kakimoto (Interviewee); Lt. Col. Edwin Boney (Interviewee); Dr. William Asano: (Interviewee); Fumiko Hayashida (Interviewee); Amy Uno Ishii (Interviewee); J. H. Takeda (Interviewee); Betty Kozasa (Interviewee); Ernest Uno (Interviewee); Edison Uno (Interviewee); Masao Amachi (Interviewee); Craig Shimabukuro (Interviewee); Warren Furutani (Interviewee); Sandy Maeshiro (Interviewee);\nMusic:;\nCinematography:Henry Kokojan;\nEditing:George Johnson; Jean Venable;\nStudio:National Broadcasting Company, Inc.;\nDistributor:;\nRuntime:52 minutes;\nCountry:;\nLanguage:;\nBudget:;\nGross:;\nIMDBLink:<a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://www.worldcat.org/title/guilty-by-reason-of-race/oclc/12742627/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.worldcat.org/title/guilty-by-reason-of-race/oclc/12742627/</a>;\nTrailerLink:;\n</p>\n</div>\n<div class=\"rgonly\">\n<div id=\"rgdatabox-CoreDisplay\">\n<table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">RG Media Type</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">films</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Title</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Guilty by Reason of Race</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Interest Level</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Grades 9-12; Adult</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Theme</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Injustice; Evils of racism; Power of the past</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Genre</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Documentary</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Point-of-View/Protagonist Characteristics</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Japanese Americans; Former incarcerees</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Availability</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Widely available</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Free Web Version</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\"><a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"https://archive.org/details/guiltybyreasonofracereel2\" rel=\"nofollow\">https://archive.org/details/guiltybyreasonofracereel2</a></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Has Teaching Aids?</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">No</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Ratings and Warnings</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">NR (Not Rated)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Geography</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">United States</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Chronology</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">1941-1945; c.1970</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Facility</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Multiple</td>\n</tr>\n</table>\n</div>\n<div id=\"rgdatabox-Core\" style=\"display:none;\">\n<p>RGMediaType:films;\nTitle:Guilty by Reason of Race;\nCreators:;\nInterestLevel:Grades 9-12; Adult;\nReadingLevel:;\nGuidedReadingLevel:;\nLexile:;\nTheme:Injustice; Evils of racism; Power of the past;\nGenre:Documentary;\nPoV:Japanese Americans; Former incarcerees;\nRelatedEvents:;\nAvailability:Widely available;\nFreeWebVersion:<a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"https://archive.org/details/guiltybyreasonofracereel2\" rel=\"nofollow\">https://archive.org/details/guiltybyreasonofracereel2</a>;\nPrimarySecondary:;\nHasTeachingAids:No;\nWarnings:NR (Not Rated);\nDenshoTopic:;\nGeography:United States;\nChronology:1941-1945; c.1970;\nFacility:Multiple;\n</p>\n</div>\n</div>\n<p>Documentary film produced by NBC and shown nationally on September 19, 1972, as part of the <i>NBC Reports</i> series. It was the second major network documentary on the wartime removal and incarceration of Japanese Americans after <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/The_Nisei:_The_Pride_and_the_Shame_(film)\" title=\"The Nisei: The Pride and the Shame (film)\">The Nisei: The Pride and the Shame</a>,</i> which aired on CBS in 1965.\n</p><p><i>Guilty by Reason of Race</i> was produced and reported by veteran producer Robert Northshield and incorporated historic footage and photographs with contemporary interviews with Japanese Americans as well as those who advocated for incarceration at the time to tell the story of Japanese American removal from the West Coast and their subsequent confinement in concentration camps. Several former inmates are filmed visiting the places where they had been incarcerated, including Amy Uno Ishii, J. H. Takeda, and  Betty Kozasa visiting <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Santa_Anita_(detention_facility)\" title=\"Santa Anita (detention facility)\">Santa Anita</a> and activist <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Edison_Uno\" title=\"Edison Uno\">Edison Uno</a> (who was an adviser to the film's producers) at <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Amache_(Granada)\" title=\"Amache (Granada)\">Amache</a>. It is also notable for including an interview in Tokyo with <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Renunciation_of_citizenship\" title=\"Renunciation of citizenship\">renunciant</a> Masao Amachi, who recalled that he had \"lost confidence\" in the U.S. and felt that no matter who won the war, that he \"would always be looked at as a Jap.\" The documentary also includes footage from a <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Camp_pilgrimages\" title=\"Camp pilgrimages\">Manzanar Pilgrimage</a> and from the contemporaneous exhibitions, <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Executive_Order_9066_(exhibition)\" title=\"Executive Order 9066 (exhibition)\">Executive Order 9066</a></i> and <i><a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Months_of_Waiting,_1942%E2%80%931945_(exhibition)\" title=\"Months of Waiting, 1942–1945 (exhibition)\">Months of Waiting, 1942–1945</a>.</i> The documentary ends with interviews noting the impact of incarceration and raising the question of whether it can happen again; it concludes that \"there is no reason why it couldn't.\"\n</p><p>Interviews in order of appearance\n</p>\n<table class=\"wikitable\">\n<tr>\n<th> Interviewee\n</th>\n<th> Description\n</th></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> Miyuki Hirano\n</td>\n<td> former inmate; girl with luggage tag in iconic <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Dorothea_Lange\" title=\"Dorothea Lange\">Dorothea Lange</a> photograph\n</td></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> <a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Tom_Clark\" title=\"Tom Clark\">Tom C. Clark</a>\n</td>\n<td> wartime Justice Department official and liaison to the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Western_Defense_Command\" title=\"Western Defense Command\">Western Defense Command</a> who was an advocate of incarceration; later became a Supreme Court justice who came to regret his wartime actions\n</td></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Daniel_Inouye\" title=\"Daniel Inouye\">Daniel Inouye</a>\n</td>\n<td> U.S. Senator, interviewed at the Arizona Memorial\n</td></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> Leon Happell\n</td>\n<td> California commander of the American Legion in 1942\n</td></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> Lloyd Cosgrove\n</td>\n<td> grand president of the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Native_Sons_of_the_Golden_West/Native_Daughters_of_the_Golden_West\" title=\"Native Sons of the Golden West/Native Daughters of the Golden West\">Native Sons of the Golden West</a> in 1942\n</td></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> Ikey Kakimoto\n</td>\n<td> former inmate\n</td></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> Lt. Col. Edwin Boney, U.S. Army (Ret.)\n</td>\n<td> soldier who took part in the forced removal\n</td></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> Dr. William Asano\n</td>\n<td> former inmate\n</td></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> Fumiko Hayashida\n</td>\n<td> former inmate and young mother carrying baby in another iconic photo of the mass removal\n</td></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> Amy Uno Ishii\n</td>\n<td> former inmate visiting Santa Anita\n</td></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> J. H. Takeda\n</td>\n<td> former inmate visiting Santa Anita\n</td></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> Betty Kozasa\n</td>\n<td> former inmate visiting Santa Anita; shown sharing her experiences there with son Will Kozasa and another unnamed young man\n</td></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> Ernest Uno\n</td>\n<td> former inmate and Nisei soldier\n</td></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> Edison Uno\n</td>\n<td> walking through the \"Executive Order 9066\" exhibition with family members\n</td></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> Masao Amachi\n</td>\n<td> renunciant interviewed in Tokyo\n</td></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> Craig Shimabukuro\n</td>\n<td> Sansei interviewed at Manzanar pilgrimage\n</td></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Warren_Furutani\" title=\"Warren Furutani\">Warren Furutani</a>\n</td>\n<td> Yonsei interviewed at Manzanar pilgrimage\n</td></tr>\n<tr>\n<td> Sandy Maeshiro\n</td>\n<td> Sansei interviewed at Manzanar pilgrimage\n</td>\n<td>\n</td></tr></table>\n<p>According to the <i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Rafu_Shimpo_(newspaper)\" title=\"Rafu Shimpo (newspaper)\">Rafu Shimpo</a></i>, the show's airing inspired both praise and protest. \"Interesting to note is that chasm between the written and phoned responses to the NBC documentary,\" wrote English section editor Ellen Endo. \"Apparently motivated by emotion, most those who chose to chastise the program called in their criticism—largely anonymously. On the other hand, those who complimented the program chose to take the time to write down—and sign—their comments.\"<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-1\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-1\">[1]</a></sup>\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">Brian Niiya</a>, Densho</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Niiya, Brian</div>\n<div id=\"RelatedArticlesDisplay\">\n<div class=\"section\" id=\"Related_Articles\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Related_Articles\">Related Articles</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p>\n</p>\n<div id=\"RelatedArticlesSectionDisplay\">\n<div class=\"section\" id=\"\"><h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"\"></span></h3><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p>\n</p>\n<ul><li> <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Dramatic_films/videos_on_incarceration\" title=\"Dramatic films/videos on incarceration\">Dramatic films/videos on incarceration</a></li></ul>\n</div></div></div>\n</div></div></div>\n<br/>\n<div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">Footnotes</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n<ol class=\"references\">\n<li id=\"cite_note-1\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-1\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Ellen Endo, \"Open End-O: Who Is Lloyd Cosgrove,\" <i>Rafu Shimpo</i>, Sept, 23, 1972, 1.</span>\n</li>\n</ol></div>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.140 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.141 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 445/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 3045/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 10182/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 3078/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:1474-0!*!0!!*!*!* and timestamp 20180309150632 and revision id 25732\n -->\n</div></div><div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "authors": [
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    "url_title": "Guilty by Reason of Race (film)",
    "categories": [
        "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/categories/Chroniclers/"
    ],
    "title": "Guilty by Reason of Race (film)",
    "url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/articles/Guilty%20by%20Reason%20of%20Race%20(film)/",
    "absolute_url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Guilty%20by%20Reason%20of%20Race%20(film)/",
    "title_sort": "guiltybyreasonofracefilm",
    "modified": "2017-07-11T17:10:09",
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