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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<div id=\"databox-FilmsDisplay\">\n<table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Title</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Hito Hata: Raise the Banner</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Date</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">1980</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Director</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Robert A. Nakamura; Duane Kubo</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Producer</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Duane Kubo</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Screenplay</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Robert A. Nakamura with John Esaki</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Story</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Visual Communications</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Starring</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Mako (Oda); Pat Morita (Yamada); Hiroshi Kashiwagi (Tatsumi); Saachiko (Haru); Tad Horino (Komatsu); <a href=\"/wiki/Yuki_Shimoda\" title=\"Yuki Shimoda\">Yuki Shimoda</a> (Takagi); Yoko Sugi (Hostess Yoko); Ernest Harada (J.E. Yamaguchi); Shizuko Hoshi (Mrs. Inada)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Music</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Dan Kuramoto</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Cinematography</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Dale Iwamasa</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Editing</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Alan Kondo</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Studio</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Visual Communications</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Runtime</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">90 minutes</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Budget</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">$400,000</td>\n</tr>\n</table>\n</div>\n<div id=\"databox-Films\" style=\"display:none;\">\n<p>Title:Hito Hata: Raise the Banner;\nDate:1980; \nGenre:;\nReleased:;\nDirector:Robert A. Nakamura; Duane Kubo;\nProducer:Duane Kubo;\nWriter:;\nScreenplay:Robert A. Nakamura with John Esaki;\nStory:Visual Communications;\nBasedOn:;\nNarrator:;\nStarring:Mako (Oda); Pat Morita (Yamada); Hiroshi Kashiwagi (Tatsumi); Saachiko (Haru); Tad Horino (Komatsu); <a href=\"/wiki/Yuki_Shimoda\" title=\"Yuki Shimoda\">Yuki Shimoda</a> (Takagi); Yoko Sugi (Hostess Yoko); Ernest Harada (J.E. Yamaguchi); Shizuko Hoshi (Mrs. Inada);\nMusic:Dan Kuramoto;\nCinematography:Dale Iwamasa;\nEditing:Alan Kondo;\nStudio:Visual Communications;\nDistributor:;\nRuntime:90 minutes;\nCountry:;\nLanguage:;\nBudget:$400,000;\nGross:;\nIMDBLink:;\nTrailerLink:;\n</p>\n</div>\n<div class=\"rgonly\">\n<!--\"rgdatabox-CoreDisplay\" removed-->\n<div id=\"rgdatabox-Core\" style=\"display:none;\">\n<p>RGMediaType:films;\nTitle:Hito Hata: Raise the Banner;\nCreators:;\nInterestLevel:Grades 6-8; Grades 9-12; Adult;\nReadingLevel:;\nGuidedReadingLevel:;\nLexile:;\nTheme:Immigrant experience;\nGenre:Drama;\nPoV:Issei man; Sansei woman;\nRelatedEvents:;\nAvailability:Limited availability;\nFreeWebVersion:No;\nPrimarySecondary:;\nHasTeachingAids:No;\nWarnings:NR (Not Rated);\nDenshoTopic:;\nGeography:California;\nChronology:1970s; 1920s-1940s;\nFacility:;\n</p>\n</div>\n</div>\n<p>Landmark feature film produced by Visual Communications (VC), a Los Angeles based non-profit in 1980. Centering on the life story of an <a href=\"/wiki/Issei\" title=\"Issei\">Issei</a> man, <i>Hito Hata</i> was likely the first dramatic feature film about Asian Americans by Asian Americans since the silent film era.\n</p><p>The origins of the film stemmed from a $300,000 grant awarded to VC by the U.S. Department of Education in October 1978 to produce \"\"television programming for the national audiences about the Asian American experience in the United States.\"<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">[1]</a></sup> The VC staff collectively decided on the concept for the film and scripted it. Wanting to address both contemporary and historical issues, they decided on a storyline about an elderly Issei bachelor, Oda (played by academy award winning actor <a href=\"/wiki/Mako\" title=\"Mako\">Mako</a>), who was threatened with eviction from his Little Tokyo apartment due to the redevelopment of the area, an issue that was then current in Los Angeles' Little Tokyo. He tells a young <a href=\"/wiki/Sansei\" title=\"Sansei\">Sansei</a> woman named Linda stories about his life, which are recounted in flashback: working as a railroad and agricultural worker as a young man, the celebration of Nisei Week in the 1930s, and the forced removal of Japanese Americans from Little Tokyo in 1942. Initially uninterested in her heritage, Linda comes around in the end and joins the fight against evictions.\n</p><p>Robert A. Nakamura and Duane Kubo directed the film. Scripting and production planning began in the late summer of 1979 and production began in early 1980. Despite the grant, budget concerns proved to be an issue throughout the making of the movie and its aftermath, with the film eventually going $100,000 over budget, and necessitating a temporary halt in production in May. With the cooperation of the Little Tokyo community, the large scale recreation of the 1935 Nisei Week was filmed with 300 extras from various community organizations. The railroad scenes were shot in Laws, California, using trains from the Laws Railroad Museum. Working around the clock, the filmmakers completed the film in time for its premiere at the Los Angeles Music Center on October 26, 1980. VC toured the film around the country in subsequent months in a series of fundraisers to recoup the debt incurred in its making, a strategy that had the side benefit of building a national Asian American media network.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">[2]</a></sup>\n</p><p>In January 1981, the national Public Broadcasting Service rejected the film for a nationwide airing citing its length and slow pacing. Despite a letter writing campaign, <i>Hito Hata</i> was never shown nationally, though it aired on many local PBS stations and received a national broadcast on NHK in Japan.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">[3]</a></sup>\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a href=\"/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">Brian Niiya</a>, Densho</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Niiya, Brian</div>\n<div id=\"RelatedArticlesDisplay\">\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Related_Articles\">Related Articles</span></h2>\n<p>\n</p>\n<div id=\"RelatedArticlesSectionDisplay\">\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"\"></span></h3>\n<p>\n</p>\n<ul><li> <a href=\"/wiki/Dramatic_films/videos_on_incarceration\" title=\"Dramatic films/videos on incarceration\">Dramatic films/videos on incarceration</a></li></ul>\n</div>\n</div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2>\n<p>Iwata, Eddie. \"The VC Story.\" <i>Rafu Shimpo</i>, Dec. 20, 1980, 15, 22.\n</p><p>James, David E. \"Popular Cinemas in Los Angeles: The Case of Visual Communications.\" In <i>The Sons and Daughters of Los: Culture and Community in L.A.</i> (Edited by David E. James; Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003): \n</p><p>———. <i>The Most Typical Avant-Garde: History and Geography of Minor Cinemas in Los Angeles</i>. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.\n</p><p>Kiyomizu, Ellen. \"Hito Hata: Raise the Banner.\" <i>International Examiner</i>, January 1981, 6–7.\n</p><p>Kotani, Roland. \"Raising a Single Banner.\" <i>Hawaii Herald</i>, April 17, 1981, 7.\n</p><p>Okada, Jun. \"'Noble and Uplifting and Boring as Hell': Asian American Film and Video, 1971–1982.\" <i>Cinema Journal</i> 49.1 (Fall 2009): 20–40.\n</p>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">Footnotes</span></h2>\n<div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n<ol class=\"references\">\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><i>Hito Hata: Raise the Banner</i> booklet (Los Angeles: Visual Communications, [1980]).</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><i>Hito Hata: Raise the Banner</i> booklet; <i>Pacific Citizen</i>, May 2, 1980, 3 and Oct. 24, 1980, 7; Los Angeles Film Forum, \"Alternative Projections Experimental film in Los Angeles, 1945- 1980,\" oral History project, interview of Robert A. Nakamura by Adam Hyman and Pauline Stakelon, May 23, 2009, 70–76, accessed on April 12, 2015 at <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://alternativeprojections.com/assets/Uploads/Robert-Nakamura-Oral-History-Transcript.pdf\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://alternativeprojections.com/assets/Uploads/Robert-Nakamura-Oral-History-Transcript.pdf</a>; Renee Tajima, \"Moving the Image: Asian American Independent Filmmaker 1970–1990,\" in <i>Moving the Image: Independent Asian Pacific American Media Arts</i>, edited and introduced by Russell Leong (Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center and Visual Communications, Southern California Asian American Studies Central, Inc. 1991), 22.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><i>Hawaii Herald</i>, May 1, 1981, 10; Nakamura oral history, 76.</span>\n</li>\n</ol></div>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.136 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.141 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 489/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 3189/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 9061/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 1785/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:1828-0!*!0!!*!*!* and timestamp 20170713021143 and revision id 25741\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "url_title": "Hito Hata: Raise the Banner (film)",
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    "title": "Hito Hata: Raise the Banner (film)",
    "url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/articles/Hito%20Hata:%20Raise%20the%20Banner%20(film)/",
    "absolute_url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Hito%20Hata:%20Raise%20the%20Banner%20(film)/",
    "title_sort": "Hito Hata: Raise the Banner (film)",
    "modified": "2017-07-11T17:19:10",
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