GET /api/0.1/articles/Japanese-American%20Internment%20during%20World%20War%20II%20(book)/
Content-Type: application/json
Vary: Accept

    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<div class=\"rgonly\">\n<div id=\"rgdatabox-CoreDisplay\">\n<table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">RG Media Type</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">books</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Title</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Japanese-American Internment during World War II</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Creators</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Peggy Daniels Becker</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Interest Level</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Grades 9-12</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Grade Reading Level</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Grades 9-12</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Theme</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Displacement; Evils of racism; Injustice; Patriotism – positive side or complications</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Genre</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Young Adult; History</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Point-of-View/Protagonist Characteristics</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">third-person overview</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Availability</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Widely available</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Free Web Version</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">No</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Chronology</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">1900s to 2000s</td>\n</tr>\n</table>\n</div>\n<div id=\"rgdatabox-Core\" style=\"display:none;\">\n<p>RGMediaType:books;\nTitle:Japanese-American Internment during World War II;\nCreators:Peggy Daniels Becker;\nInterestLevel:Grades 9-12;\nReadingLevel:Grades 9-12;\nGuidedReadingLevel:;\nLexile:;\nTheme:Displacement; Evils of racism; Injustice; Patriotism – positive side or complications;\nGenre:Young Adult; History;\nPoV:third-person overview;\nRelatedEvents:;\nAvailability:Widely available;\nFreeWebVersion:No;\nPrimarySecondary:;\nHasTeachingAids:No;\nWarnings:;\nDenshoTopic:;\nGeography:;\nChronology:1900s to 2000s;\nFacility:;\n</p>\n</div>\n</div>\n<div id=\"databox-BooksDisplay\">\n<table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Title</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Japanese-American Internment during World War II</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Author</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Peggy Daniels Becker</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Series</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Defining Moments</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Original Publisher</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Omnigraphics</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Original Publication Date</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">2014</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Pages</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">223</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">WorldCat Link</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\"><a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\"></a></td>\n</tr>\n</table>\n</div>\n<div id=\"databox-Books\" style=\"display:none;\">\n<p>Title:Japanese-American Internment during World War II;\nAuthor:Peggy Daniels Becker;\nIllustrator:;\nOrigTitle:;\nCountry:;\nLanguage:;\nSeries:Defining Moments;\nGenre:;\nPublisher:Omnigraphics;\nPubDate:2014;\nCurrentPublisher:;\nCurrentPubDate:;\nMediaType:;\nPages:223;\nAwards:;\nISBN:;\nWorldCatLink:<a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\"></a>;\n</p>\n</div>\n<p>Overview book by Peggy Daniels Becker on the World War II removal and incarceration of Japanese Americans that includes a one-hundred page narrative summary, eleven short biographies of key figures, and a selection of primary sources. It is part of the \"Defining Moments\" series published by Omnigraphics.\n</p>\n<div class=\"section\" id=\"Synopsis\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Synopsis\">Synopsis</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p><i>Japanese-American Internment during World War II</i> is divided into three broad sections. A narrative overview (104 pages) provides a broad picture of the wartime removal and incarceration of Japanese Americans in seven chapters. A section of biographies (42 pages) includes eleven profiles of key figures in the story. A section of primary sources (53 pages) includes a range of primary sources from both governmental and inmate sources.\n</p><p>The narrative overview consists of seven chapters. After a chapter covering Japanese immigration and Japanese Americans prior to World War II, the next two chapters cover the attack on Pearl Harbor and its aftermath, the chain of events leading to <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Executive_Order_9066\" title=\"Executive Order 9066\">Executive Order 9066</a>, and the roundup of West Coast Japanese Americans. Chapter Four covers life in the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/War_Relocation_Authority\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">War Relocation Authority</a> (WRA) concentration camps, while Chapter Five looks at those who left the camps prior to 1945. The last two chapters cover the closing of the camps the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Return_to_West_Coast\" title=\"Return to West Coast\">return of Japanese Americans to the West Coast</a> and the legacy of the incarceration, including the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Redress_movement\" title=\"Redress movement\">Redress Movement</a>.\n</p><p>The section of biographies includes profiles of three federal/military officials (President <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt\" title=\"Franklin D. Roosevelt\">Franklin D. Roosevelt</a>, <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Western_Defense_Command\" title=\"Western Defense Command\">Western Defense Command</a> head Gen. <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/John_DeWitt\" title=\"John DeWitt\">John L. DeWitt</a>, and WRA Director <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Dillon_Myer\" title=\"Dillon Myer\">Dillon S. Myer</a>), an outside librarian who aided incarcerated children (<a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Clara_Breed\" title=\"Clara Breed\">Clara Breed</a>), two Nisei war heroes (Senator <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Daniel_Inouye\" title=\"Daniel Inouye\">Daniel Inouye</a> and <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Kazuo_Masuda\" title=\"Kazuo Masuda\">Kazuo Masuda</a>), three men whose challenges of the curfew or exclusion went to the Supreme Court (<a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Gordon_Hirabayashi\" title=\"Gordon Hirabayashi\">Gordon Hirabayashi</a>, <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Fred_Korematsu\" title=\"Fred Korematsu\">Fred Korematsu</a>, and <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Minoru_Yasui\" title=\"Minoru Yasui\">Minoru Yasui</a>), and two leaders of the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Japanese_American_Citizens_League\" title=\"Japanese American Citizens League\">Japanese American Citizens League</a> (JACL) (<a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Saburo_Kido\" title=\"Saburo Kido\">Saburo Kido</a> and <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Mike_Masaoka\" title=\"Mike Masaoka\">Mike Masaoka</a>). Each includes a photograph and suggestions for further reading.\n</p><p>The section of primary sources includes a range of documents. On the government side, there is President Roosevelt's \"Day of Infamy\" speech, Gen. DeWitt's February 14, 1942 memo urging mass removal of Japanese Americans, Executive Order 9066, the text of a typical <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Civilian_exclusion_orders\" title=\"Civilian exclusion orders\">exclusion order poster</a>, an excerpt from a one year report of the WRA by Myer, Public Proclamation 21 ending the exclusion, President <a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Repeal_of_Executive_Order_9066\" title=\"Repeal of Executive Order 9066\">Gerald Ford's statement ending EO9066</a>, the Civil Liberties Act of 1988, and the text of the apology letter mailed to surviving former inmates. On the inmate side, there are three contemporaneous letters written by youth to teachers/librarians (two are to Clara Breed), two short excerpts from later inmate memoirs (by <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Farewell_to_Manzanar_(book)\" title=\"Farewell to Manzanar (book)\">Jeannie Wakatsuki Houston and James Houston</a> and by <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Dandelion_Through_the_Crack/Kiyo%27s_Story_(book)\" title=\"Dandelion Through the Crack/Kiyo's Story (book)\">Kiyo Sato</a>), and an excerpt from an oral history of <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Violet_Kazue_de_Cristoforo\" title=\"Violet Kazue de Cristoforo\">Violet deChristoforo</a>, and a 2013 article by actor George Takei recalling his incarceration as a child at <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Rohwer\" title=\"Rohwer\">Rohwer</a>.\n</p><p>Other elements of the book include a Preface that is a general introduction to the \"Defining Moments\" series; \"How to Use This Book,\" an introduction to this particular volume; a list of suggestions of broad topics for research papers; a listing of \"Important People, Places, and Terms\"; a chronology; suggestions for additional information; and a bibliography.\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"Additional_Information\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Additional_Information\">Additional Information</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p><i>Japanese-American Internment during World War II</i> includes erroneous or incomplete information on several key topics:\n</p><p>• <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Alien_land_laws\" title=\"Alien land laws\">Alien land laws</a>: makes a blanket claim that <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Issei\" title=\"Issei\">Issei</a> were \"unable to own land\" without mentioning dates and places that land laws took effect (page 11). Becker seems to misunderstand the ban on guardianship, writing that \"alien land laws barred Issei parents from acting as guardians of their own children if land was purchased or leased in the child's name,\" meaning that \"<i>Issei</i> had to choose between their legal rights as parents and their ability to make a living\"; she also writes that the ban on guardianship was not overturned until after the war (15–16). Guardianship provisions in alien land laws did not threaten parental rights; they were an attempt to ban getting around the land laws by Issei through purchasing land in the name of citizen children. Guardianship was upheld by the California Supreme Court in the 1922 <i>Estate of Tetsubumi Yano</i> decision, and it subsequently became the most common way Issei managed to purchase agricultural land.\n</p><p>• The role of the WRA: Becker writes that the WRA was \"charged with planning and implementing the mass mandatory evacuation of nearly 160,000 Japanese from the West Coast to internment camps located further inland\" (32) and that they \"built ten internment camps\" (38). In addition to inflating the number of those removed by 50%, she misstates the WRA's role, which was, in the words of its final report, \"to take charge of the relocation center phases of evacuee life\" (<i>Impounded People</i>, p. 26) The U.S. Army, through its <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Wartime_Civil_Control_Administration\" title=\"Wartime Civil Control Administration\">Wartime Civil Control Administration</a> (WCCA) ran the mass removal and built the concentration camps. Similar language is used in the biography of Dillon Myer (136).\n</p><p>• Japanese American military service: Becker writes that of the \"26,000 Japanese-American men and women [who] served in the U.S. military before World War II ended,.... 5,000 of these individuals were soldiers already in the army at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. The rest were former internees who were given the opportunity to serve in the army in exchange for their family's release from internment\" (72). Those that joined the army after Japanese Americans were allowed in after 1943 were more or less equally divided between those from Hawai'i and those from the continental U.S.; of course those from Hawai'i were not \"former internees,\" and a good number of those who joined from the continental U.S. were not either. Furthermore, no families were released from the camps as a result of enlistment. She goes on to mischaracterize the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/442nd_Regimental_Combat_Team\" title=\"442nd Regimental Combat Team\">442nd Regimental Combat Team</a> as being \"made up of former internees, soldiers from the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Military_Intelligence_Service\" title=\"Military Intelligence Service\">Military Intelligence Service</a>, and those in the Office of Strategic Services\" (73).\n</p><p>• Japanese American Supreme Court cases: Becker writes that the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Hirabayashi_v._United_States\" title=\"Hirabayashi v. United States\">Hirabayashi</a> and <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Yasui_v._United_States\" title=\"Yasui v. United States\">Yasui</a> Supreme Court rulings \"upheld the constitutionality of the West Coast exclusion order and internment\" (77), that the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Korematsu_v._United_States\" title=\"Korematsu v. United States\">Korematsu decision</a> \"again upheld the constitutionality of the internment,\" calls <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Ex_parte_Endo\" title=\"Ex parte Endo\">Endo</a> \"a contradictory decision [in relation to Korematsu],\" (77), and that Executive Order 9066 \"was rendered obsolete by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1944\" (193). The <i>Hirabayashi</i> and <i>Yasui</i> cases focused narrowly on the issue of curfew violations and upheld only the legality of a curfew aimed at Japanese Americans. The <i>Korematsu</i> decision upheld the exclusion of Japanese Americans, but had nothing to say on \"internment.\" The <i>Endo</i> ruling held that \"loyal\" Japanese Americans could not be held against their will. None of the cases struck down the provisions of Executive Order 9066.\n</p><p>• Renunciation of citizenship: Becker writes that \"... seven out of ten Japanese Americans held in <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Tule_Lake\" title=\"Tule Lake\">Tule Lake</a>—more than 5,000 American citizens—renounced their citizenship.\" She writes that Nisei renunciants \"were not Japanese citizens, [and thus] they could not easily be sent to Japan\" (78). Later she includes a quote from Dillon Myer on efforts by renunciants to regain their citizenship in which he claims that \"the action of the Attorney General in 1959... cleaned up the whole mess\" (79). While the number of renunciants at Tule Lake is correct, the seven out of ten figure refers only to adult Nisei. Many had held dual citizenship and so were in fact Japanese citizens; citizenship status nonetheless had no bearing on whether they could be sent to Japan. Efforts by renunciants to regain American citizenship were led by lawyer <a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Wayne_Collins\" title=\"Wayne Collins\">Wayne Collins</a> and were not completed until 1968.\n</p><p>Other minor errors include a claim that the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Naturalization_Act_of_1790\" title=\"Naturalization Act of 1790\">1790 naturalization law</a> \"granted American citizenship to all immigrants who were 'free white persons'\" (page 11; the law made all such immigrants who met particular conditions eligible for naturalization, but did not automatically grant citizenship to all white immigrants\"); referring to Dillon Myer as a \"military leader\" (xv) and as a \"general\" (60); a claim that Issei \"could not, form, join, or benefit from labor unions\" (11; though they were excluded from most unions, there were some exceptions); a claim that \"[n]o person of Japanese heritage living in the restricted areas of the West Coast was spared from evacuation\" (32; there were some exceptions, most notably tuberculosis patients allowed to remain in sanitariums and Nisei translators working for the Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service, among others); refers to artist <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Min%C3%A9_Okubo\" title=\"Miné Okubo\">Miné Okubo</a> as \"he\" (33); claims artist <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Henry_Sugimoto\" title=\"Henry Sugimoto\">Henry Sugimoto</a> and his family went from <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Pinedale_(detention_facility)\" title=\"Pinedale (detention facility)\">Pinedale Assembly Center</a> to <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Jerome\" title=\"Jerome\">Jerome</a> in 1943 (40; transfers from \"assembly centers\" to WRA camps took place in in summer and fall of 1942); citing \"late 1944\" as a time when \"tensions exploded into outbreaks of violence in several camps\" (55; should be late 1942); a claim that letters written in the WRA camps \"were reviewed by censors before being mailed\" (62; with the exception of letters written to friends or relatives interned in army or Justice Department-run camps, mail was not censored in the WRA camps); misspells Rohwer as \"Rohrer\" (80); in writing about Fred Korematsu, claims that his family reported to <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Tanforan_(detention_facility)\" title=\"Tanforan (detention facility)\">Tanforan</a> in March of 1942 (125; they were forcibly removed in May 1942); the biography of <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Mike_Masaoka\" title=\"Mike Masaoka\">Mike Masaoka</a> gets his age and date of appointment wrong and also repeats the false claim that the JACL had 20,000 members (169); describes the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Commission_on_Wartime_Relocation_and_Internment_of_Civilians\" title=\"Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians\">Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians</a> (CWRIC) as a \"Congressional commission\" (202; the CWRIC resulted from legislation passed by Congress and signed by the President and its nine members were appointed by Congress and the President); calls the Western Defense Command a \"military authority created in 1943\" (206; the WDC was established in March of 1941).\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">Brian Niiya</a>, Densho</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Niiya, Brian</div>\n<p>Might also like <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/The_Invisible_Thread_(book)\" title=\"The Invisible Thread (book)\">The Invisible Thread</a></i> by Yoshiko Uchida; <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Dear_Miss_Breed:_True_Stories_of_the_Japanese_American_Incarceration_During_World_War_II_and_a_Librarian_Who_Made_a_Difference_(book)\" title=\"Dear Miss Breed: True Stories of the Japanese American Incarceration During World War II and a Librarian Who Made a Difference (book)\">Dear Miss Breed: True Stories of the Japanese American Incarceration During World War II and a Librarian Who Made a Difference</a></i> by Joanne Oppenheim; <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/A_Fence_Away_From_Freedom:_Japanese-Americans_and_World_War_II_(book)\" title=\"A Fence Away From Freedom: Japanese-Americans and World War II (book)\">A Fence Away from Freedom: Japanese Americans and World War II</a></i> by Ellen Levine\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p>Publisher website: <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\"></a>.\n</p>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.128 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.130 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 320/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 2111/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 6410/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 1341/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 3/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:3617-0!*!0!!*!5!* and timestamp 20180309150825 and revision id 28159\n -->\n</div></div><div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
    "next_page": "",
    "prev_page": "",
    "published_encyc": false,
    "ddr_topic_terms": [],
    "sources": [],
    "authors": [
    "url_title": "Japanese-American Internment during World War II (book)",
    "categories": [
    "title": "Japanese-American Internment during World War II (book)",
    "url": "",
    "absolute_url": "",
    "title_sort": "japaneseamericaninternmentduringworldwariibook",
    "modified": "2018-02-28T01:29:29",
    "coordinates": {}