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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<div class=\"rgonly\">\n<div id=\"rgdatabox-CoreDisplay\">\n<table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">RG Media Type</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">books</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Title</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Justice Denied: A History of the Japanese in the United States</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Creators</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Jennifer Cross</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Interest Level</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Grades 3-5; Grades 7-8</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Grade Reading Level</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Grades 3-5; Grades 7-8</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Theme</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Evils of racism; Immigrant experience; Injustice; Overcoming – fear, weakness, vice</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Genre</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">History; Children's</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Point-of-View/Protagonist Characteristics</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Third-person narration</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Availability</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Limited availability</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Free Web Version</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">No</td>\n</tr>\n</table>\n</div>\n<div id=\"rgdatabox-Core\" style=\"display:none;\">\n<p>RGMediaType:books;\nTitle:Justice Denied: A History of the Japanese in the United States;\nCreators:Jennifer Cross;\nInterestLevel:Grades 3-5; Grades 7-8;\nReadingLevel:Grades 3-5; Grades 7-8;\nGuidedReadingLevel:;\nLexile:;\nTheme:Evils of racism; Immigrant experience; Injustice; Overcoming – fear, weakness, vice;\nGenre:History; Children's;\nPoV:Third-person narration;\nRelatedEvents:;\nAvailability:Limited availability;\nFreeWebVersion:No;\nPrimarySecondary:;\nHasTeachingAids:No;\nWarnings:;\nDenshoTopic:;\nGeography:;\nChronology:;\nFacility:;\n</p>\n</div>\n</div>\n<div id=\"databox-BooksDisplay\">\n<table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Title</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Justice Denied: A History of the Japanese in the United States</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Author</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Jennifer Cross</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Original Publisher</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Firebird Books</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Original Publication Date</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">1972</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Pages</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">128</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">WorldCat Link</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\"><a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"https://www.worldcat.org/title/justice-denied-a-history-of-the-japanese-in-the-united-states/oclc/796867\" rel=\"nofollow\">https://www.worldcat.org/title/justice-denied-a-history-of-the-japanese-in-the-united-states/oclc/796867</a></td>\n</tr>\n</table>\n</div>\n<div id=\"databox-Books\" style=\"display:none;\">\n<p>Title:Justice Denied: A History of the Japanese in the United States;\nAuthor:Jennifer Cross;\nIllustrator:;\nOrigTitle:;\nCountry:;\nLanguage:;\nSeries:;\nGenre:;\nPublisher:Firebird Books;\nPubDate:1972;\nCurrentPublisher:;\nCurrentPubDate:;\nMediaType:;\nPages:128;\nAwards:;\nISBN:;\nWorldCatLink:<a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"https://www.worldcat.org/title/justice-denied-a-history-of-the-japanese-in-the-united-states/oclc/796867\" rel=\"nofollow\">https://www.worldcat.org/title/justice-denied-a-history-of-the-japanese-in-the-united-states/oclc/796867</a>;\n</p>\n</div>\n<p>Early overview of the history of Japanese Americans for young readers by British author/activist Jennifer Cross.\n</p><p>Published by Firebird Books, an imprint of Scholastic Books, <i>Justice Denied</i> is one of the earliest children's books on Japanese American history. It is divided into nineteen short chapters, eleven of which focus on the World War II years. <i>Justice Denied</i> begins with the story of Japanese labor migration to the continental U.S. in the context of the anti-Chinese Movement and covers the rise of Little Tokyos, the <a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Anti-Japanese_movement\" title=\"Anti-Japanese movement\">anti-Japanese Movement</a>, and the arrival and dilemmas of the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Nisei\" title=\"Nisei\">Nisei</a>. (It largely ignores the story of Japanese Americans in Hawai'i.) The wartime chapters cover the roundup of enemy aliens after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the subsequent mass forced removal of Japanese Americans from the West Coast, life in the \"<a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Assembly_centers\" title=\"Assembly centers\">assembly centers</a>\" and <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/War_Relocation_Authority\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">War Relocation Authority</a> administered concentration camps, the \"<a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Loyalty_questionnaire\" title=\"Loyalty questionnaire\">loyalty questionnaire</a>\" and <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Segregation\" title=\"Segregation\">segregation</a>, <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Japanese_Americans_in_military_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Japanese Americans in military during World War II\">Nisei military service</a>, and leaving the camps. Cross relies heavily on <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Min%C3%A9_Okubo\" title=\"Miné Okubo\">Miné Okubo</a>'s <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Citizen_13660_(book)\" title=\"Citizen 13660 (book)\">Citizen 13660</a></i> in portraying the roundup and life in the camps and on <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Bill_Hosokawa\" title=\"Bill Hosokawa\">Bill Hosokawa</a>'s <i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Nisei:_The_Quiet_Americans_(book)\" title=\"Nisei: The Quiet Americans (book)\">Nisei: The Quiet Americans</a></i> in its depiction of the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Japanese_American_Citizens_League\" title=\"Japanese American Citizens League\">Japanese American Citizens League</a> (JACL). Illustrated by historical photographs, <i>Justice Denied</i> lacks the statistics, primary sources, or study guides found in many later books.\n</p><p>Author Jennifer Cross (1932– ) was born in London and holds a B.A. from King's College, London, in 1953. She worked as an editor and secretary for publishing companies in the 1950s and later worked in a London ad agency before becoming a San Francisco based freelance journalist and writer who contributed regularly to left-leaning magazines <i>The Nation</i> and <i>San Francisco Bay Area Guardian</i>. Her first book, <i>The Supermarket Trap: The Consumer and the Food Industry</i> was published by Indiana University Press in 1970 and based on articles she had written for <i>The Nation</i>. <i>Justice Denied</i> was her second book and the only book she has written for children. She later co-wrote or edited three more books.\n</p><p><i>Justice Denied</i> gets most of the facts right in its account of Japanese American history, though it contains a few minor errors. In describing \"<a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Voluntary_evacuation\" title=\"Voluntary evacuation\">voluntary evacuation</a>,\" Cross writes that \"[l]ess than three thousand Japanese Americans left the military area\" (page 73; the figure was closer to 5,000); a photograph showing soldiers guarding a prison camp in which inmates are kept in tents is described in the caption as a War Relocation Authority camp (86; there were no tents in WRA camps); Cross cites the \"rescue of one thousand Texans\" in recounting <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Rescue_of_the_Lost_Battalion\" title=\"Rescue of the Lost Battalion\">Lost Battalion</a> episode (106; the actual figure was a little over 200); and in recounting monetary losses suffered by Japanese Americans due to forced removal and incarceration, she uses the $400 million figure (116) that <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Mike_Masaoka\" title=\"Mike Masaoka\">Mike Masaoka</a> of the JACL later admitted to making up.\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">Brian Niiya</a>, Densho</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Niiya, Brian</div>\n<p>Might also like <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/The_Invisible_Thread_(book)\" title=\"The Invisible Thread (book)\">The Invisible Thread</a></i> by Yoshiko Uchida; <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Fred_Korematsu_Speaks_Up_(book)\" title=\"Fred Korematsu Speaks Up (book)\">Fred Korematsu Speaks Up</a></i> by Laura Atkins and Stan Yogi; <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/I_Am_an_American:_A_True_Story_of_Japanese_Internment_(book)\" title=\"I Am an American: A True Story of Japanese Internment (book)\">I Am an American: A True Story of Japanese Internment</a></i> by Jerry Stanley\n</p>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.104 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.102 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 299/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 2115/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 6060/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 1399/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 3/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:4025-0!*!0!*!*!5!* and timestamp 20180309150848 and revision id 28693\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "url_title": "Justice Denied: A History of the Japanese in the United States (book)",
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    "title": "Justice Denied: A History of the Japanese in the United States (book)",
    "url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/articles/Justice%20Denied:%20A%20History%20of%20the%20Japanese%20in%20the%20United%20States%20(book)/?format=api",
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    "title_sort": "justicedeniedahistoryofthejapaneseintheunitedstatesbook",
    "modified": "2018-03-01T21:48:48",
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