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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<div id=\"databox-PeopleDisplay\">\n<table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Name</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Kazuo Miyamoto</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Born</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">1897</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Died</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">1988</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Birth Location</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">'O'okala, HI</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Generational Identifier</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n<p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Nisei\" title=\"Nisei\">Nisei</a>\n</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n</table>\n</div>\n<div id=\"databox-People\" style=\"display:none;\">\n<p>FirstName:Kazuo;\nLastName:Miyamoto;\nDisplayName:Kazuo Miyamoto;\nBirthDate:1897-01-01;\nDeathDate:1988-01-01;\nBirthLocation:'O'okala, HI;\nGender:Male;\nEthnicity:JA;\nGenerationIdentifier:Nisei;\nNationality:US;\nExternalResourceLink:;\nPrimaryGeography:;\nReligion:;\n</p>\n</div>\n<p>Kazuo Miyamoto (1897–1988) was a <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Nisei\" title=\"Nisei\">Nisei</a> doctor and author who was interned at various incarceration camps for the duration of World War II as a result of the publication of his observations during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). Due to military fears of his possible loyalty to Japan, Miyamoto as well as other leaders within the Japanese community were interned following the Pearl Harbor attack as part of a strategy to weaken the leadership of the Japanese community. Following his incarceration at <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Tule_Lake\" title=\"Tule Lake\">Tule Lake</a>, Miyamoto returned to Hawai'i where he continued to practice medicine and publish further writings and was an active member of the Honpa Hongwanji until his death in 1988. \n</p>\n<div class=\"toc\" id=\"toc\"><div id=\"toctitle\"><h2>Contents</h2></div>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Early_Life_and_Career\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">1</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Early Life and Career</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-2\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#World_War_II_and_Internment\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">2</span> <span class=\"toctext\">World War II and Internment</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-3\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Return_to_the_Mainland\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">3</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Return to the Mainland</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-4\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Final_Return_to_Hawaii_and_Later_Career\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">4</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Final Return to Hawaii and Later Career</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-5\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#For_More_Information\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">5</span> <span class=\"toctext\">For More Information</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-6\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Footnotes\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">6</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Footnotes</span></a></li>\n</ul>\n</div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Early_Life_and_Career\">Early Life and Career</span></h2>\n<p>Born in 'O'okala, Hawai'i, Miyamoto grew up in a family that included two brothers and three sisters. Miyamoto attended Stanford University and studied medicine at Washington University Medical School in St. Louis, Missouri. At Stanford University he joined the Student Army Corps and although he did not see action during World War I, he was honorably discharged from the U.S. Army with burial entitlement at Punchbowl National Cemetery. \n</p><p>Following his graduation, Miyamoto spent nine years in Honolulu as a general practitioner and then traveled to Japan to further pursue his medical career during two years of study.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">[1]</a></sup> Through acquaintances that he made at Stanford, Miyamoto enrolled at Tokyo's Jikeikai Medical College where he earned a PhD in allergy and during his free time, he traveled as much as he could.  \"In my travels over the weekends, I would record my impressions of the places visited,\" said Miyamoto.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">[2]</a></sup> In the midst of the Second Sino-Japanese war, Miyamoto was able to accompany a friend's father who was a Diet (parliamentary) member on a two-month trip to China. During these two months, he recorded his observations for future publication. \"I was able to see, first hand, how the people suffered,\" Miyamoto recalled as \"the Chinese just didn't evacuate from the war zone.\"<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">[3]</a></sup> Although it was difficult to publish the book because of the shortage of paper during the war, Miyamoto was able to obtain enough paper to print 700 issues of <i>Glimpses of Formosa and China under Japanese Occupation 1937-1939</i> through a friend at Heibonsha (a Tokyo publishing house). As Miyamoto recalled \"I had to convince him that the book would be of service to Japan when I distributed it on the mainland and Hawaii.\"<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">[4]</a></sup> However, this publication would have far reaching consequences as it would become the justification for his internment. With the outbreak of World War II, his friends, to whom he had distributed the publication, burned the book for fear of being implicated with Japan's war efforts. \n</p>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"World_War_II_and_Internment\">World War II and Internment</span></h2>\n<p>On <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/December_7,_1941\" title=\"December 7, 1941\">December 7, 1941</a>, Miyamoto was called to Fort Shafter to help treat the wounded coming in from Hickam Field. That night, after returning home, FBI officials picked him up and took him to the immigration station on <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Sand_Island_(detention_facility)\" title=\"Sand Island (detention facility)\">Sand Island</a>. According to Miyamoto, \"At Sand Island, there were many who were picked up for flimsy reasons. There was Iwasaki from Waianae who couldn't speak decent Japanese\" but was arrested because his father was a <i>toritsugi-nin</i> (intermediary agent) for the Japanese consulate.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">[5]</a></sup> Although his father only recorded statements that were forwarded to Japan, these actions made Iwasaki himself suspect. Miyamoto recalled that there was another veteran at Sand Island, Futoshiro Arakawa, who was a first lieutenant at Schofield Barracks during World War I. \"He was picked up because he was a leading Japanese figure in Hilo,\" Miyamoto recalled.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\">[6]</a></sup>  Miyamoto notes that in his particular case, the FBI never investigated the charges against him. \"They had a lot of time to investigate me, but they just put me on their blacklist. There were other doctors who went through a similar process—minus the publication—who were not pulled in,\" Miyamoto recalled.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_7-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref7-7\">[7]</a></sup> Miyamoto also pointed out that all of the fishermen who were arrested and brought in for interrogation were investigated and released but officials never investigated his case. \n</p><p>After the initial adjustment to confinement and realization of the futility of resisting, Miyamoto reconciled himself to his fate. He and a group of internees who included Kazuo Sakamaki, the first Japanese prisoner of war who commanded one of the mini-submarines that attacked Pearl Harbor, were soon sent to a succession of mainland incarceration camps: <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Camp_McCoy_(detention_facility)\" title=\"Camp McCoy (detention facility)\">Camp McCoy</a>, Wisconsin; <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Camp_Forrest_(detention_facility)\" title=\"Camp Forrest (detention facility)\">Camp Forrest</a>, Tennessee; and <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Camp_Livingston_(detention_facility)\" title=\"Camp Livingston (detention facility)\">Camp Livingston</a>, Louisiana. In Louisiana, however, the sixteen U.S. citizens of the group were called out and brought back to Hawai'i. Another Nisei from a different camp later joined them. From Louisiana, the group was taken to Los Angeles where Miyamoto noticed a change in attitude and behavior once they arrived in San Francisco. Miyamoto recalled, \"They even escorted us when dining in Los Angeles. But when we went to San Francisco, we were thrown in to the brig.\"<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_8-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref8-8\">[8]</a></sup> Upon the group's return to Hawai'i, they were met by military officials, only to be re-arrested. \n</p><p>According to Miyamoto, Sand Island had changed significantly since his departure. It was filled with internees from the Islands and \"youngsters\" also made up another group. Restrictions were also relaxed as it was after the battle of Midway and with the diminishing possibility of a Japanese invasions, families could also visit internees. During his second tenure at Sand Island, Miyamoto began writing <i>Hawaii, End of the Rainbow</i>, which took him seventeen years to complete. \n</p>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Return_to_the_Mainland\">Return to the Mainland</span></h2>\n<p>In November 1943, Miyamoto was again transferred to the mainland. This time he was accompanied by his family. The first contingent of 107 <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Kibei\" title=\"Kibei\">Kibei</a> Nisei were sent to <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Jerome\" title=\"Jerome\">Jerome</a>, Arkansas, with Miyamoto heading the group. However, the humid conditions of Arkansas affected his wife's asthma and Miyamoto requested to be transferred to Tule Lake with its altitude of 5,000 feet for his wife's health sake. According to Miyamoto, Tule Lake was the best medical training institute with the exception of Bethesda Hospital. Under the leadership of Dr. George Hashiba of Fresno, California, Miyamoto learned quite a bit during his tenure at Tule Lake due to its large population of 18,000 people. The medical staff consisted of three Japanese doctors and two Caucasians who had a\" broad outlook on life,\" recalled Miyamoto.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref9_9-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref9-9\">[9]</a></sup> Although he and the other medical staff members \"worked like the devil out there\" with major surgery being conducted every day, they received invaluable medical training and were able to do autopsies with the consent of family members to ensure that they became better doctors.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref10_10-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref10-10\">[10]</a></sup> \"Personally, I would not have minded if the war was a year or two longer,\" Miyamoto remarked as \"I was learning\" and expanding his medical knowledge.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref11_11-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref11-11\">[11]</a></sup> Even if he was allowed to relocate to other areas outside the Pacific Coast, he chose to remain in the camp because \"as a physician, I was most needed there.\"<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref12_12-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref12-12\">[12]</a></sup>\n</p>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Final_Return_to_Hawaii_and_Later_Career\">Final Return to Hawaii and Later Career</span></h2>\n<p>Following the conclusion of the war, Miyamoto recalled that there was quite a bit of friction when the internees returned to Hawai'i. Some of the men who remained in the Islands were accused of being <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Informants_/_%22inu%22\" title='Informants / \"inu\"'><i>inu</i></a> without any actual evidence. \"It was an unpleasant time,\" he remarked. \"We were invited to a party when he came back. This man who was involved in the category (inu) was very active in the party organizing. We could see how uncomfortable he was. We, who were the returnees, could slap each other on our backs and talk about old times. He was left out.\"<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref13_13-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref13-13\">[13]</a></sup> Ironically, a few years later in 1951, Miyamoto was appointed as a medical consultant by the Surgeon General of the Air Force and given the rating of GS-16 (equivalent to a one star general). As he traveled attending meetings and speaking to doctors at various military outposts, he was treated like a general despite the fact the he was once an internee. Miyamoto remarked, \"I think that's the strength of America.\"<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref14_14-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref14-14\">[14]</a></sup> Miyamoto continued to practice medicine and publish additional writings until his death in 1988.\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Kelli_Y._Nakamura\" title=\"Kelli Y. Nakamura\">Kelli Y. Nakamura</a>, University of Hawai'i</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Nakamura, Kelli</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2>\n<p>\"Before the bombs fell: A look at pre-war Hawaii.\" <i>Hawaii Herald</i> 1:14 (December 5, 1980): 1-\n6. \n</p><p>\"Kazuo Miyamoto,\" <i>Honolulu Advertiser</i>, 19 February 1988, D-2. \n</p><p>Miyamoto, Kazuo. <i>Hawaii, End of the Rainbow</i>. Tokyo, Japan: Charles E. Tuttle Company, Inc., 1964.\n</p><p>Miyamoto, Kazuo. <i>Glimpses of Formosa and China Under Japanese Occupation in 1939</i>.\n[Tokyo, 1939]. \n</p><p>Miyamoto, Kazuo.  <i>One Man's Journey: a Spiritual Autobiography</i>. Honolulu: The Buddhist \nStudy Center, 1981.\n</p><p>Miyamoto, Kazuo. <i>Vikings of the Far East</i>, New York: Vantage Press, 1975.\n</p><p>Okihiro, Michael M. \"Japanese Doctors in Hawai'i\" <i>Hawaiian Journal of History</i> 36 (2002): \n105-117.\n</p>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">Footnotes</span></h2>\n<div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n<ol class=\"references\">\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Kazuo Miyamoto, <i>Vikings of the Far East</i> (New York: Vantage Press, 1975), About the Author; Kazuo Miyamoto, <i>One Man's Journey: a Spiritual Autobiography</i> (Honolulu: The Buddhist Study Center, 1981), 84-85.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">\"Before the bombs fell: A look at pre-war Hawaii\" <i>Hawaii Herald</i> 1:14 (December 5, 1980): 4-5.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">\"Before the bombs fell,\" 4-5.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">\"Before the bombs fell,\" 4-5.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">\"Before the bombs fell,\" 4-5.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">\"Before the bombs fell,\" 4-5.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref7-7\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_7-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">\"Before the bombs fell,\" 4-5.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref8-8\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_8-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">\"Before the bombs fell,\" 4-5.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref9-9\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref9_9-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">\"Before the bombs fell,\" 4-5.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref10-10\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref10_10-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">\"Before the bombs fell,\" 4-5.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref11-11\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref11_11-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">\"Before the bombs fell,\" 4-5.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref12-12\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref12_12-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Kazuo Miyamoto, <i>Hawaii, End of the Rainbow</i> (Tokyo, Japan: Charles E. Tuttle Company, Inc., 1964), 8.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref13-13\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref13_13-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">\"Before the bombs fell,\" 4-5.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref14-14\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref14_14-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">\"Before the bombs fell,\" 4-5.</span>\n</li>\n</ol></div>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.148 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.150 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 451/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 2054/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 2037/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 283/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 5/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:1486-0!*!0!!en!*!* and timestamp 20171106182738 and revision id 27029\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "url_title": "Kazuo Miyamoto",
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    "title": "Kazuo Miyamoto",
    "url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/articles/Kazuo%20Miyamoto/",
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