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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<p>Museum exhibitions have been an important if understudied medium for telling the story of the wartime removal and incarceration of Japanese Americans. The stories they tell and their reasons for telling them have changed over time, from early exhibitions of inmate art designed to ease their \"<a href=\"/wiki/Resettlement\" title=\"Resettlement\">resettlement</a>\" back into the mainstream American community during and immediately after the war, to exhibitions inspired by 1960s social movements or the later movement for <a href=\"/wiki/Redress_movement\" title=\"Redress movement\">redress and reparations</a>. The last decade-and-a-half has seen a flood of exhibitions funded by federal and state civil liberties and confinement sites grant programs.\n</p>\n<div class=\"toc\" id=\"toc\"><div id=\"toctitle\"><h2>Contents</h2></div>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\"><a href=\"#Wartime_and_Early_Postwar_Exhibitions\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">1</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Wartime and Early Postwar Exhibitions</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-2\"><a href=\"#Redress_Era_Exhibitions\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">2</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Redress Era Exhibitions</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-3\"><a href=\"#New_Japanese_American_Institutions\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">3</span> <span class=\"toctext\">New Japanese American Institutions</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-4\"><a href=\"#Mainstream_Institutions\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">4</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Mainstream Institutions</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-5\"><a href=\"#Civil_Liberties_Fund.2FConfinement_Sites_Grant_Era_Projects\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">5</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Civil Liberties Fund/Confinement Sites Grant Era Projects</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-6\"><a href=\"#For_More_Information\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">6</span> <span class=\"toctext\">For More Information</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-7\"><a href=\"#List_of_Exhibitions\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7</span> <span class=\"toctext\">List of Exhibitions</span></a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-8\"><a href=\"#Early_Exhibitions\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.1</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Early Exhibitions</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-9\"><a href=\"#Overviews_of_Removal.2FIncarceration\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.2</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Overviews of Removal/Incarceration</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-10\"><a href=\"#Arts\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.3</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Arts</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-11\"><a href=\"#Specific_Camp_or_Community\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.4</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Specific Camp or Community</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-12\"><a href=\"#Broader_Exhibitions_with_Camp_Element\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.5</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Broader Exhibitions with Camp Element</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-13\"><a href=\"#Leaving_Camp\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.6</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Leaving Camp</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-14\"><a href=\"#Site_Commemoration\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.7</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Site Commemoration</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-15\"><a href=\"#Military_Service\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.8</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Military Service</span></a></li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-16\"><a href=\"#Footnotes\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Footnotes</span></a></li>\n</ul>\n</div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Wartime_and_Early_Postwar_Exhibitions\">Wartime and Early Postwar Exhibitions</span></h2>\n<p>The first exhibitions that told some part of the incarceration story to the general public were art exhibitions that began to appear even before the war had ended.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">[1]</a></sup> While the best known of these was a 1944 exhibition of photographs of <a href=\"/wiki/Manzanar\" title=\"Manzanar\">Manzanar</a> by renowned photographer <a href=\"/wiki/Ansel_Adams\" title=\"Ansel Adams\">Ansel Adams</a> at New York's <a href=\"/wiki/Manzanar:_Photographs_by_Ansel_Adams_of_Loyal_Japanese-American_Relocation_Center_(exhibition)\" title=\"Manzanar: Photographs by Ansel Adams of Loyal Japanese-American Relocation Center (exhibition)\">Museum of Modern Art</a>, there were also many exhibitions of artistic representations of the concentration camps by inmates that were mostly sponsored by social service type organizations as part of the effort to ease the \"resettlement\" of Japanese Americans from the camps to communities in the East and Midwest. These exhibitions were no doubt part of the campaign to humanize Japanese Americans in communities they would be moving into, many of which had seen few if any Japanese Americans before. This campaign also included brochures and pamphlets, press releases, <a href=\"/wiki/Government_photography_of_the_WRA_Camps_and_Resettlement\" title=\"Government photography of the WRA Camps and Resettlement\">photographs</a>, and <a href=\"/wiki/OWI/WRA_documentaries\" title=\"OWI/WRA documentaries\">short films</a> produced by the <a href=\"/wiki/War_Relocation_Authority\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">War Relocation Authority</a> as well as private groups and even speaking tours (that often featured white veterans who had fought alongside Nisei soldiers) that depicted Japanese Americans in the best possible light.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">[2]</a></sup>\n</p><p>As early as July of 1942, there was an exhibition of works from <a href=\"/wiki/Tanforan_(detention_facility)\" title=\"Tanforan (detention facility)\">Tanforan's</a> Art School at Mills College in Oakland in conjunction with a conference of the Institute of International Relations that featured works by <a href=\"/wiki/Mine_Okubo\" title=\"Mine Okubo\">Miné Okubo</a> and Tom Yamamoto among others.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">[3]</a></sup> In October of 1943, there was an exhibition of camp art at the Friends Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts that included works from <a href=\"/wiki/Chiura_Obata\" title=\"Chiura Obata\">Chiura Obata</a> (his painting \"New Moon\" was awarded first prize), Paul Zaima, <a href=\"/wiki/Hisako_Hibi\" title=\"Hisako Hibi\">Hisako Hibi</a>, and many others.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">[4]</a></sup>\n</p><p>The most widely seen early group exhibition toured the East and Midwest in 1945–46. It debuted at the New Jersey College for Women in May of 1945 with sponsorship by several mostly church-based organizations. Among the twenty-six artists featured were ten who had been in camp and sixteen who had resided on the East Coast throughout the war years. After its run in New Jersey, Resettlement Council of Japanese American Organizations in New York City and New York chapter of the Japanese American Citizens League arranged subsequent travels to Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Ann Arbor, and Rochester.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">[5]</a></sup>\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Henry_Sugimoto\" title=\"Henry Sugimoto\">Henry Sugimoto</a> and Mine Okubo had the most prominent solo shows of camp related art during and immediately after the war. Sugimoto's one-man exhibition at Hendrix College in Conway, Arkansas, in February 1944 featured fifty paintings and drawings of life at <a href=\"/wiki/Jerome\" title=\"Jerome\">Jerome</a>. He had another solo show in New York sponsored by the Common Council for American Unity in November and December of 1945 that featured 26 paintings, nine of which depicted life in camp.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\">[6]</a></sup> A traveling exhibition of Okubo's paintings and drawings—many of which would be featured in her landmark book <i><a href=\"/wiki/Citizen_13660_(book)\" title=\"Citizen 13660 (book)\">Citizen 13360</a></i> published in 1946—was also sponsored by the Common Council for American Unity and opened at American Common in New York in April 1945. It later went to St. Paul, Detroit, Oakland, San Francisco, Southern California, and Denver.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_7-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref7-7\">[7]</a></sup> Other artists with solo shows in this early period include Masao Yabuki (Philadelphia, April 1945), Sumi Horibe (Des Moines, August 1945), and Miki Hayakawa (Denver, October 1946).<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_8-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref8-8\">[8]</a></sup>\n</p>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Redress_Era_Exhibitions\">Redress Era Exhibitions</span></h2>\n<p>The next two decades plus saw a general silence about the wartime incarceration and general discussions or depictions of it due both to Japanese Americans' desire to move on with their lives—to the point of being regarded as a \"<a href=\"/wiki/Model_minority\" title=\"Model minority\">model minority</a>\"—and the suppression of the traumatic experiences of the wartime. (See <a href=\"/wiki/Psychological_effects_of_camp\" title=\"Psychological effects of camp\">Psychological effects of camp</a>.) But with increased interest by <a href=\"/wiki/Sansei\" title=\"Sansei\">Sansei</a> influenced by 1960s social movements, the first <a href=\"/wiki/Camp_pilgrimages\" title=\"Camp pilgrimages\">camp pilgrimages</a>, camp-related political campaigns such as the effort to <a href=\"/wiki/Repeal_of_Title_II_of_the_Internal_Security_Act_of_1950_(%22Emergency_Detention_Act%22)\" title='Repeal of Title II of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (\"Emergency Detention Act\")'>repeal Title II of the Emergency Detention Act</a>, and the first mainstream discussions of seeking reparations for the wartime incarceration, led to calls for better and more honest depictions of the incarceration experience. This general trend led to several pioneering exhibitions—as well as documentary films, plays, books, and other media depictions. The most widely viewed of these was undoubtedly <i><a href=\"/wiki/Executive_Order_9066_(exhibition)\" title=\"Executive Order 9066 (exhibition)\">Executive Order 9066</a></i>, a photographic exhibition that highlighted previously suppressed photographs by <a href=\"/wiki/Dorothea_Lange\" title=\"Dorothea Lange\">Dorothea Lange</a>, that was organized by the California Historical Society in 1972 and subsequently traveled widely. The CHS made two copies of the exhibition, with one traveling in the eastern half of the country and one in the west. Appearing in such venues as the Corcoran Gallery in Washington, D.C. and the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, it likely introduced many Americans to the topic. It later traveled to Hawai'i and even to Japan. The California Historical Society also organized a companion art exhibition titled <i><a href=\"/wiki/Months_of_Waiting,_1942%E2%80%931945_(exhibition)\" title=\"Months of Waiting, 1942–1945 (exhibition)\">Months of Waiting, 1942–1945</a></i> that traveled less extensively. Both exhibitions were featured in the nationally broadcast 1972 NBC documentary <i><a href=\"/wiki/Guilty_by_Reason_of_Race_(film)\" title=\"Guilty by Reason of Race (film)\">Guilty by Reason of Race</a></i>.\n</p><p>Another important early exhibition was <i><a href=\"/wiki/Pride_and_Shame_(exhibition)\" title=\"Pride and Shame (exhibition)\">Pride and Shame</a></i>, organized by the Seattle JACL and the Museum of History and Industry in 1970. A overview of the Japanese American community in Seattle, <i>Pride and Shame</i> included a section on the wartime incarceration that included a full size replica of a barracks interior. A traveling version of the exhibition later went to various venues in the Pacific Northwest over the next several years. In Los Angeles, newly formed visual arts organization Visual Communications produced a traveling exhibitions titled <i><a href=\"/wiki/America%27s_Concentration_Camps/Camp_Cubes_(exhibition)\" title=\"America's Concentration Camps/Camp Cubes (exhibition)\">America's Concentration Camps</a></i> that became informally known as the \"Camp Cubes\", since it consisted of cubes depicting images of camp; the cubes could be arranged in a wide variety of manners to fit different spaces or to accompany different objects. In 1972, the Oakland Museum opened a retrospective exhibition titled <i><a href=\"/wiki/Min%C3%A9_Okubo:_An_American_Experience_(exhibition)\" title=\"Miné Okubo: An American Experience (exhibition)\">Miné Okubo: An American Experience</a></i> that included many of the artist's camp related work.\n</p><p>Other important exhibitions appeared in the 1980s as interest in redress continued to build. A 1981 exhibition at the Army Presidio Museum in San Francisco titled <i><a href=\"/wiki/Go_For_Broke_(exhibition)\" title=\"Go For Broke (exhibition)\">Go for Broke</a></i> highlighted the story of <a href=\"/wiki/Nisei\" title=\"Nisei\">Nisei</a> soldiers in World War II, juxtaposed against the story of Japanese American incarceration. This widely viewed exhibition influenced the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History to center an exhibition commemorating the 200th anniversary of the U.S. Constitution on the incarceration of Japanese Americans. <i><a href=\"/wiki/A_More_Perfect_Union:_Japanese_Americans_and_the_U.S._Constitution_(exhibition)\" title=\"A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the U.S. Constitution (exhibition)\">A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans &amp; the U.S. Constitution</a></i>, which opened in 1987, provided an overview of the exclusion and incarceration and included a reproduction of a concentration camp barracks, while also telling the story of Nisei soldiers, camp dissidents, and the then ongoing redress movement. Though controversial, the exhibition was critically acclaimed for the most part and was extended long beyond its planned three year run, staying up until 2004.\n</p>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"New_Japanese_American_Institutions\">New Japanese American Institutions</span></h2>\n<p>The 1980s also saw the formation of several new Japanese American historical organizations, inspired by the renewed interest in Japanese American history and by the aging of the Nisei generation. The largest and most influential was the <a href=\"/wiki/Japanese_American_National_Museum\" title=\"Japanese American National Museum\">Japanese American National Museum</a> (JANM), incorporated in 1985, and opened to the public in 1992 in Los Angeles' historic Little Tokyo neighborhood. Though its opening exhibition was on the <a href=\"/wiki/Issei\" title=\"Issei\">Issei</a> experience, JANM would devote much of its resources to producing a series of major exhibitions that had the World War II experience at its center. The first was <i><a href=\"/wiki/The_View_from_Within:_Japanese_American_Art_from_the_Internment_Camps,_1942%E2%80%931945_(exhibition)\" title=\"The View from Within: Japanese American Art from the Internment Camps, 1942–1945 (exhibition)\">The View from Within</a></i>, a retrospective exhibition on art produced in the concentration camps mounted in 1992 as part of 50th anniversary commemorates of <a href=\"/wiki/Executive_Order_9066\" title=\"Executive Order 9066\">Executive Order 9066</a> at the Wight Art Gallery on the UCLA campus in collaboration with the Wight and with the UCLA's Asian American Studies Center. Next came, <i><a href=\"/wiki/America%27s_Concentration_Camps_(exhibition)\" title=\"America's Concentration Camps (exhibition)\">America's Concentration Camps</a></i> in 1994, notable for the acquisition and display of an actual barracks building from <a href=\"/wiki/Heart_Mountain\" title=\"Heart Mountain\">Heart Mountain</a> in a parking lot across from JANM and for renewed controversy over the term \"concentration camp,\" particularly in the subsequent travels of the exhibition. This was followed in 1995 by <i><a href=\"/wiki/Fighting_for_Tomorrow:_Japanese_Americans_in_America%27s_Wars_(exhibition)\" title=\"Fighting for Tomorrow: Japanese Americans in America's Wars (exhibition)\">Fighting for Tomorrow</a></i>, an exhibition focusing on Japanese American soldiers, particularly those from World War II. JANM has featured many subsequent exhibitions on aspects of the World War II experience many of which have an arts focus, including major retrospective exhibitions on <a href=\"/wiki/A_Process_of_Reflection:_Paintings_by_Hisako_Hibi_(exhibition)\" title=\"A Process of Reflection: Paintings by Hisako Hibi (exhibition)\">Hisako Hibi</a> (1999) and <a href=\"/wiki/Henry_Sugimoto:_Painting_an_American_Experience_(exhibition)\" title=\"Henry Sugimoto: Painting an American Experience (exhibition)\">Henry Sugimoto</a> (2001), as well as perhaps the first exhibition on the resettlement period (<i><a href=\"/wiki/Coming_Home:_Memories_of_Japanese_American_Resettlement_(exhibition)\" title=\"Coming Home: Memories of Japanese American Resettlement (exhibition)\">Coming Home: Memories of Japanese American Resettlement</a></i>, 1998). The opening of JANM's new pavilion in 2000 saw the debut of its new core exhibition, <i><a href=\"/wiki/Common_Ground:_The_Heart_of_Community_(exhibition)\" title=\"Common Ground: The Heart of Community (exhibition)\">Common Ground: The Heart of Community</a></i>, which included parts of the Heart Mountain barracks as well as an extensive section on the World War II experience. In 2004, JANM collaborated with various institutions in Arkansas on the <i><a href=\"/wiki/Life_Interrupted\" title=\"Life Interrupted\">Life Interrupted</a></i> project, which included eight different exhibitions in Arkansas. \n</p><p>The <a href=\"/wiki/National_Japanese_American_Historical_Society\" title=\"National Japanese American Historical Society\">National Japanese American Historical Society</a> (NJAHS) formed in 1986 in the San Francisco Bay area and has produced many traveling exhibitions on the incarceration experience. Their 1990 photographic exhibition <i><a href=\"/wiki/U.S._Detention_Camps,_1942%E2%80%931946_(exhibition)\" title=\"U.S. Detention Camps, 1942–1946 (exhibition)\">U.S. Detention Camps, 1942–1946</a></i> was likely the first to incorporate into the broader mass incarceration story the enemy alien detention/internment camps as well as camp dissidents and suicides, while <i><a href=\"/wiki/Strength_and_Diversity:_Japanese_American_Women,_1885%E2%80%931990_(exhibition)\" title=\"Strength and Diversity: Japanese American Women, 1885–1990 (exhibition)\">Strength and Diversity: Japanese American Women, 1885–1990</a></i> (1990) and <i>Diamonds in the Rough: Japanese Americans In Baseball</i> are among their broader exhibitions that include a significant concentration camp component. Incorporated in 1987 and opening its doors to the public in 1994, the Japanese Cultural Center of Hawai'i (JCCH) includes the story of Japanese Americans from Hawai'i who were interned as part of its core exhibition, \"Okage sama de.\" The last decade has seen JCCH focus increasingly on the Hawai'i internee story, with the institution producing two traveling exhibitions on the topic, <i><a href=\"/wiki/Dark_Clouds_Over_Paradise:_The_Hawai%27i_Internees_Story_(exhibition)\" title=\"Dark Clouds Over Paradise: The Hawai'i Internees Story (exhibition)\">Dark Clouds Over Paradise: The Hawai'i Internees Story</a></i> and <i><a class=\"mw-redirect\" href=\"/wiki/Right_from_Wrong:_Honoring_the_Lessons_of_Honouliuli_(exhibition)\" title=\"Right from Wrong: Honoring the Lessons of Honouliuli (exhibition)\">Right from Wrong: Honoring the Lessons of Honouliuli</a></i> (2011), among many other related projects.\n</p><p>Though the Wing Luke Museum of the Asian Pacific American Experience has roots going back to the 1960s, its focus switched from Asian folk art to the history of the local Asian Pacific American community in the 1980s, and it moved into a new space in Seattle's <a href=\"/wiki/International_District\" title=\"International District\">International District</a> in 1987. To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the mass incarceration, the Wing Luke opened <i><a href=\"/wiki/Executive_Order_9066:_50_Years_Before_and_50_Years_After_(exhibition)\" title=\"Executive Order 9066: 50 Years Before and 50 Years After (exhibition)\">Executive Order 9066: 50 Years Before and 50 Years After</a></i> in 1992, an acclaimed exhibition that also pioneered a community-based approach in which there was no staff curator.\n</p>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Mainstream_Institutions\">Mainstream Institutions</span></h2>\n<p>Starting in the years after the <a href=\"/wiki/Civil_Liberties_Act_of_1988\" title=\"Civil Liberties Act of 1988\">Civil Liberties Act of 1988</a>, a number of mainstream institutions began to incorporate the story of Japanese American incarceration into their programs and exhibitions, whether by adding that story to core local history exhibitions or by instituting new projects focused on Japanese Americans. Among the institutions to incorporate the wartime incarceration story in a substantial way into overview exhibitions are the Chicago Historical Society, which included the story of Japanese American resettlement in Chicago in the 1992 exhibition <i><a href=\"/wiki/Chicago_Goes_to_War,_1941%E2%80%931945_(exhibition)\" title=\"Chicago Goes to War, 1941–1945 (exhibition)\">Chicago Goes to War, 1941–1945</a></i>; the Utah State Historical Society's <i>Utah at the Crossroads</i> (1992), which includes the story of the <a href=\"/wiki/Topaz\" title=\"Topaz\">Topaz</a> camp; and the New Mexico History Museum, whose <i>Telling New Mexico: Stories from Then and Now</i> (2009) includes a section on the <a href=\"/wiki/Santa_Fe_(detention_facility)\" title=\"Santa Fe (detention facility)\">Santa Fe</a> and <a href=\"/wiki/Lordsburg_(detention_facility)\" title=\"Lordsburg (detention facility)\">Lordsburg</a> detention camps. Most recently, the newly renovated <a href=\"/wiki/History_Colorado_Center_(exhibition)\" title=\"History Colorado Center (exhibition)\">History Colorado Center</a> (2012) includes as one of its core stories a sub-exhibition titled <i><a href=\"/wiki/Confined_Citizens:_The_Amache-Granada_Relocation_Center,_1942%E2%80%931945_(exhibition)\" title=\"Confined Citizens: The Amache-Granada Relocation Center, 1942–1945 (exhibition)\">Confined Citizens: The Amache-Granada Relocation Center, 1942–1945</a>.</i> The California Museum includes as one of its core exhibitions <i><a href=\"/wiki/Uprooted!_Japanese_Americans_during_WWII_(exhibition)\" title=\"Uprooted! Japanese Americans during WWII (exhibition)\">Uprooted! Japanese Americans during WWII</a></i>. The National World War II Museum in New Orleans, Louisiana opened an exhibition titled <i><a href=\"/wiki/From_Barbed_Wire_to_Battlefields:_Japanese_American_Experiences_in_WWII_(exhibition)\" title=\"From Barbed Wire to Battlefields: Japanese American Experiences in WWII (exhibition)\">From Barbed Wire to Battlefields: Japanese American Experiences in WWII</a></i> in 2014.\n</p><p>At the national level, the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES), no doubt influenced by the popularity of <i>A More Perfect Union</i>, launched a exhibition titled <i><a href=\"/wiki/Whispered_Silences:_Japanese_American_Detention_Camps,_Fifty_Years_Later_(exhibition)\" title=\"Whispered Silences: Japanese American Detention Camps, Fifty Years Later (exhibition)\">Whispered Silences: Japanese American Detention Camps, Fifty Years Later</a></i> in 1995. Across the ocean, the Japanese analogue of the Smithsonian, the National Museum of Japanese History in Sakura, Japan, presented a Japanese take on Japanese American incarceration titled <i><a href=\"/wiki/Japanese_Immigrants_in_the_United_States_and_the_War_Era_(exhibition)\" title=\"Japanese Immigrants in the United States and the War Era (exhibition)\">Japanese Immigrants in the United States and the War Era</a></i> which opened in 2010 and was up for a year.\n</p>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Civil_Liberties_Fund.2FConfinement_Sites_Grant_Era_Projects\">Civil Liberties Fund/Confinement Sites Grant Era Projects</span></h2>\n<p>The years since 1997 have seen a steady stream of governmental funding sources for projects tied to the wartime incarceration story including the federal <a href=\"/wiki/Civil_Liberties_Public_Education_Fund\" title=\"Civil Liberties Public Education Fund\">Civil Liberties Public Education Fund</a> (1996–98), state <a href=\"/wiki/California_Civil_Liberties_Public_Education_Program\" title=\"California Civil Liberties Public Education Program\">Civil Liberties Public Education Programs in California</a> (1999–2011) and <a href=\"/wiki/Washington_Civil_Liberties_Public_Education_Program\" title=\"Washington Civil Liberties Public Education Program\">Washington</a> (2000–08), and the federal <a href=\"/wiki/Japanese_American_Confinement_Sites_Grants\" title=\"Japanese American Confinement Sites Grants\">Japanese American Confinement Sites</a> (JACS) Grant Program (2007–present). As a result, there has been a flood of exhibitions as well as other types of projects in those years.\n</p><p>Among the biggest beneficiaries of this funding have been new or existing organizations planning interpretive exhibitions or displays at or near the sites of the concentration camps. To be sure, there were many such exhibitions/institutions before, including the <a href=\"/wiki/Gila_River_Arts_and_Crafts_Center\" title=\"Gila River Arts and Crafts Center\">Gila River Arts and Crafts Center</a>, the <a href=\"/wiki/Granada_Museum\" title=\"Granada Museum\">Granada Museum</a> in Granada, Colorado, the <a href=\"/wiki/Great_Basin_Museum\" title=\"Great Basin Museum\">Great Basin Museum</a> in Millard County Utah, the <a href=\"/wiki/Homesteader_Museum\" title=\"Homesteader Museum\">Homesteader Museum</a> in Powell, Wyoming, and the <a class=\"mw-redirect\" href=\"/wiki/Tule_Lake%E2%80%93Butte_Valley_Fairground_and_Museum\" title=\"Tule Lake–Butte Valley Fairground and Museum\">Tule Lake–Butte Valley Fairground and Museum</a>. For many years, the <a href=\"/wiki/Eastern_California_Museum\" title=\"Eastern California Museum\">Eastern California Museum</a> in Independence, California featured exhibitions that told the story of the nearly Manzanar camp. Today, the <a href=\"/wiki/Manzanar_National_Historic_Site\" title=\"Manzanar National Historic Site\">Manzanar National Historic Site</a> is operated by the National Park Service and includes a museum and site interpretation and recreations of a guard tower and barracks.\n</p><p>Among the largest beneficiaries of funds from the Japanese American Confinement Sites Grant Program are three ambitious new site based museums. The <a href=\"/wiki/Heart_Mountain_Interpretive_Center\" title=\"Heart Mountain Interpretive Center\">Heart Mountain Interpretive Center</a> located near the Heart Mountain site in Wyoming received over $1 million in JACS funding and opened to the public in 2011. It's core exhibition is titled <i>Across the Wire: Voices from Heart Mountain</i>. The <a href=\"/wiki/World_War_II_Japanese_American_Internment_Museum\" title=\"World War II Japanese American Internment Museum\">World War II Japanese American Internment Museum</a>, located in McGehee, Arkansas, about midway between the Jerome and <a href=\"/wiki/Rohwer\" title=\"Rohwer\">Rohwer</a> sites received $435,000 in JACS funds and opened to the public in 2013. Its core exhibition, <i><a href=\"/wiki/Against_Their_Will:_The_Japanese_American_Experience_in_World_War_II_Arkansas_(exhibition)\" title=\"Against Their Will: The Japanese American Experience in World War II Arkansas (exhibition)\">Against Their Will: The Japanese American Experience in World War II Arkansas</a></i>, was originally developed for the <i>Life Interrupted</i> project in 2004. The <a href=\"/wiki/Topaz_Museum\" title=\"Topaz Museum\">Topaz Museum</a> is currently being constructed near Delta, Utah, received a $714,000 JACS grants and is scheduled to open to the public in 2015. Several smaller scale interpretive displays have also been funded by JACS or the civil liberties programs.\n</p><p>We have perhaps come full circle, since a high percentage of recent exhibitions have focused on the arts, as was the case in 1945–46. Artist <a href=\"/wiki/Roger_Shimomura\" title=\"Roger Shimomura\">Roger Shimomura</a> has created several different exhibitions based on the incarceration period including <i><a href=\"/wiki/An_American_Diary:_Paintings_by_Roger_Shimomura_(exhibition)\" title=\"An American Diary: Paintings by Roger Shimomura (exhibition)\">An American Diary</a></i>, paintings based on his grandmother's wartime diary. As in 1944, Ansel Adams remains a popular figure, with new exhibitions of his Manzanar photographs being mounted by the <a href=\"/wiki/Ansel_Adams_at_Manzanar_(exhibition)\" title=\"Ansel Adams at Manzanar (exhibition)\">Honolulu Academy of Arts</a> in 2006, Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri in 2009, and the Bainbridge Island Historical Museum in 2011. The most widely viewed of these exhibitions has undoubtedly been <i><a href=\"/wiki/The_Art_of_Gaman:_Arts_and_Crafts_from_the_Japanese_American_Internment_Camps,_1942-1946_(exhibition)\" title=\"The Art of Gaman: Arts and Crafts from the Japanese American Internment Camps, 1942-1946 (exhibition)\">The Art of Gaman</a></i>, an exhibition of craft objects created in the camp based on the book by Delphine Hirasuna. Debuting in 2006, it will have traveled to fifteen different venues in the United States and Japan by the end of its travels in 2015.\n</p><p>The period of government funding of wartime incarceration-based projects will end eventually, and as that story becomes more integrated into mainstream historical museums—and as the generation of Japanese Americans that has first had memories of the concentration fades away—it will be interesting to see how many more exhibitions centered on that story we will see in the years to come and who will put them on.\n</p><p><br/>\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a href=\"/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">Brian Niiya</a>, Densho</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Niiya, Brian</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2>\n<p>Murray, Alice Yang. <i>Historical Memories of the Japanese American Internment and the Struggle for Redress</i>. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008.\n</p><p>Overmyer, Deborah A., and Geoffrey J. Giglierano. \"American Museums and Executive Order 9066: Who Has Told the Story, The Story That Was Told.\" In <i>Alien Justice: Wartime Internment in Australia and North America</i>. Edited by Kay Saunders and Roger Daniels. Queensland, Australia: University of Queensland Press, 2000. 234–54.\n</p><p>Salyers, Abbie Lynn. \"The Internment of Memory: Forgetting and Remembering the Japanese American World War II Experience.\" Ph.D. dissertation, Rice University, 2009.\n</p><p>Yoo, David. \"Captivating Memories: Museology, Concentration Camps, and Japanese American History.\" <i>American Quarterly</i> 48.4 (Dec 1996): 680-99. \n</p>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"List_of_Exhibitions\">List of Exhibitions</span></h2>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Early_Exhibitions\">Early Exhibitions</span></h3>\n<p><i>America's Concentration Camps/Camp Cubes</i>, Visual Communications, Los Angeles/traveling, 1970\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Executive_Order_9066_(exhibition)\" title=\"Executive Order 9066 (exhibition)\"><i>Executive Order 9066</i></a>, California Historical Society, traveling, 1972\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Manzanar:_Photographs_by_Ansel_Adams_of_Loyal_Japanese-American_Relocation_Center_(exhibition)\" title=\"Manzanar: Photographs by Ansel Adams of Loyal Japanese-American Relocation Center (exhibition)\"><i>Manzanar: Photographs by Ansel Adams of Loyal Japanese-American Relocation Center</i></a>, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1944\n</p><p><i>Miné Okubo: An American Experience</i>, Oakland Museum, 1972\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Months_of_Waiting,_1942%E2%80%931945_(exhibition)\" title=\"Months of Waiting, 1942–1945 (exhibition)\"><i>Months of Waiting, 1942–1945</i></a>, California Historical Society, 1972\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Pride_and_Shame_(exhibition)\" title=\"Pride and Shame (exhibition)\"><i>Pride and Shame</i></a>, Museum of History and Industry, Seattle, Washington, 1970\n</p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Overviews_of_Removal.2FIncarceration\">Overviews of Removal/Incarceration</span></h3>\n<p><a href=\"/wiki/America%27s_Concentration_Camps_(exhibition)\" title=\"America's Concentration Camps (exhibition)\"><i>America's Concentration Camps</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum, 1994\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Children_Of_Detention_Camps,_1942-1946_(exhibition)\" title=\"Children Of Detention Camps, 1942-1946 (exhibition)\"><i>Children Of Detention Camps, 1942-1946</i></a>, National Japanese American Historical Society\n</p><p><i><a href=\"/wiki/Evacuation_1942%E2%80%931945:_A_Japanese_American_Perspective_(exhibition)\" title=\"Evacuation 1942–1945: A Japanese American Perspective (exhibition)\">Evacuation 1942–1945: A Japanese American Perspective</a></i>, University of Washington, 1979\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/From_Barbed_Wire_to_Battlefields:_Japanese_American_Experiences_in_WWII_(exhibition)\" title=\"From Barbed Wire to Battlefields: Japanese American Experiences in WWII (exhibition)\"><i>From Barbed Wire to Battlefields: Japanese American Experiences in WWII</i></a>, National World War II Museum, 2014\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Japanese_Immigrants_in_the_United_States_and_the_War_Era_(exhibition)\" title=\"Japanese Immigrants in the United States and the War Era (exhibition)\"><i>Japanese Immigrants in the United States and the War Era</i></a>, National Museum of Japanese History, 2010\n</p><p><i><a href=\"/wiki/A_More_Perfect_Union:_Japanese_Americans_and_the_U.S._Constitution_(exhibition)\" title=\"A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the U.S. Constitution (exhibition)\">A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans &amp; the U.S. Constitution</a></i>, Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History, Washington, DC, 1987\n</p><p><i>Uprooted! Japanese Americans during WWII</i>, California Museum\n</p><p><i><a href=\"/wiki/U.S._Detention_Camps,_1942%E2%80%931946_(exhibition)\" title=\"U.S. Detention Camps, 1942–1946 (exhibition)\">U.S. Detention Camps, 1942–1946</a></i>, National Japanese American Historical Society, traveling, 1990\n</p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Arts\">Arts</span></h3>\n<p><i>An American Diary: Paintings by Roger Shimomura</i>\n</p><p><i>Ansel Adams: A Portrait of Manzanar</i>, Bainbridge Island Historical Museum, Bainbridge Island, Washington, 2011\n</p><p><i>Ansel Adams at Manzanar</i>, Honolulu Academy of Arts, 2006\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Art_Behind_Barbed_Wire_(exhibition)\" title=\"Art Behind Barbed Wire (exhibition)\"><i>Art Behind Barbed Wire</i></a>, Northwest Nikkei Museum, 2012\n</p><p><i><a href=\"/wiki/The_Art_of_Gaman:_Arts_and_Crafts_from_the_Japanese_American_Internment_Camps,_1942-1946_(exhibition)\" title=\"The Art of Gaman: Arts and Crafts from the Japanese American Internment Camps, 1942-1946 (exhibition)\">The Art of Gaman</a></i>, traveling, 2006–15\n</p><p><i>The Art of HIsako Hibi</i>, de Saiseet Museum at Santa Clara University, 2004\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/The_Art_of_Living:_Japanese_American_Creative_Experience_at_Rohwer_(exhibition)\" title=\"The Art of Living: Japanese American Creative Experience at Rohwer (exhibition)\"><i>The Art of Living: Japanese American Creative Experience at Rohwer</i></a>, Butler Center for Arkansas Studies, 2011\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Arts_and_Crafts_from_the_Camps:_The_Arkansas_Camp_Experience_(exhibition)\" title=\"Arts and Crafts from the Camps: The Arkansas Camp Experience (exhibition)\"><i>Arts and Crafts from the Camps: The Arkansas Camp Experience</i></a>, University of Arkansas, Little Rock, 2004\n</p><p><i>Beauty Behind Barbed Wire: Arts and Crafts from the Heart Mountain Internment Camp</i>, Buffalo Bill Center of the West, 2011\n</p><p><i>Capturing a Generation through the Eye of a Lens: The Photographs of Frank C. Hirahara, 1948–54</i>, Oregon Nikkei Legacy Center, 2014\n</p><p><i>A Challenge to Democracy: Ethnic Profiling of Japanese Americans During World War II</i>, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, 2009 [features the work of Ansel Adams and Chiura Obata]\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Crafting_History:_Arts_and_Crafts_from_America%27s_Concentration_Camps_(exhibition)\" title=\"Crafting History: Arts and Crafts from America's Concentration Camps (exhibition)\"><i>Crafting History: Arts and Crafts from America's Concentration Camps</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum, 2002\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Crossings:_10_Views_of_America%27s_Concentration_Camps_(exhibition)\" title=\"Crossings: 10 Views of America's Concentration Camps (exhibition)\"><i>Crossings: 10 Views of America's Concentration Camps</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum, 2009\n</p><p><i>A Culture Within: The Japanese American Experience through Art</i>, Petaluma Arts Center, 2012\n</p><p><i>Executive Order 9066: The Internment Camp Art of Kasumi \"Gus\" Nakagawa</i>, San Geronimo Valley Community Center, San Geronimo, California, 2012\n</p><p><i>A Half-Century of Hope and Suffering: Japanese and Japanese American Painters in the United States, 1896–1945</i>, Tokyo Metropolitan Teien Museum, 1995 \n</p><p><i><a href=\"/wiki/Henry_Sugimoto:_Painting_an_American_Experience_(exhibition)\" title=\"Henry Sugimoto: Painting an American Experience (exhibition)\">Henry Sugimoto: Painting an American Experience</a></i>, Japanese American National Museum, 2001\n</p><p><i><a href=\"/wiki/Hiroshi_Honda:_Detained_(exhibition)\" title=\"Hiroshi Honda: Detained (exhibition)\">Hiroshi Honda: Detained'</a>', Honolulu Academy of Arts, 2012</i>\n</p><p><i>If They Came For Me Today: The Japanese-American Internment Project</i>, Community Works, San Francisco, California and New York, 2003\n</p><p><i>The Japanese American Experience, The Years of Internment 1941-1945</i>, Wittenburg University, Springfield, Ohio, 2006 [wood block prints by Henry Sugimoto, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www4.wittenberg.edu/news/2006/01_13.html\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www4.wittenberg.edu/news/2006/01_13.html</a>]\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Lasting_Beauty:_Miss_Jamison_and_the_Student_Muralists_(exhibition)\" title=\"Lasting Beauty: Miss Jamison and the Student Muralists (exhibition)\"><i>Lasting Beauty: Miss Jamison and the Student Muralists</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum, 2004\n</p><p><i>Life Interrupted: Personal Sketches Behind Barbed Wire: Santa Anita, Summer 1942, Riyo Sato (1913–2009)</i>, Glib Museum of Arcadia Heritage, 2013\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Living_in_Color:_The_Art_of_Hideo_Date_(exhibition)\" title=\"Living in Color: The Art of Hideo Date (exhibition)\"><i>Living in Color: The Art of Hideo Date</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum, 2001\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Kenjiro_Nomura:_An_Artist%27s_View_of_the_Japanese_American_Internment_(exhibition)\" title=\"Kenjiro Nomura: An Artist's View of the Japanese American Internment (exhibition)\"><i>Kenjiro Nomura: An Artist's View of the Japanese American Internment</i></a>, Wing Luke Museum, Seattle Washington, 1991\n</p><p><i>Manzanar: The Wartime Photographs of Ansel Adams</i>, Photographic Traveling Exhibitions, 2014\n</p><p><i>A Process of Reflection: Paintings by Hisako Hibi</i>, Japanese American National Museum, 1999\n</p><p><i>Quilting Memories: The Japanese American Experience of Internment</i>, National Japanese American Historical Society, 2010\n</p><p><i>Reflections of Internment: The Art of Hawaii's Hiroshi Honda</i>, Honolulu Academy of Arts, 1994\n</p><p><i><a href=\"/wiki/Relics_from_Camp_(exhibition)\" title=\"Relics from Camp (exhibition)\">Relics from Camp</a></i>, Japanese American National Museum, 1996\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Relocations_and_Revisions:_The_Japanese-American_Internment_Reconsidered_(exhibition)\" title=\"Relocations and Revisions: The Japanese-American Internment Reconsidered (exhibition)\"><i>Relocations and Revisions: The Japanese-American Internment Reconsidered</i></a>, Long Beach Museum of Art, 1992\n</p><p><i>Sa Sa E: Objects of Memory</i>, National Japanese American Historical Society, 2009\n</p><p><i>Shadows of Minidoka</i>, Lawrence Arts Centers, Lawrence, Kansas, 2011 [art by Roger Shimomura]\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Sights_Unseen:_The_Photographic_Constructions_of_Masumi_Hayashi_(exhibition)\" title=\"Sights Unseen: The Photographic Constructions of Masumi Hayashi (exhibition)\"><i>Sights Unseen: The Photographic Constructions of Masumi Hayashi</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum, 2003\n</p><p><i>Two Views of Manzanar</i>, Frederick S. Wight Gallery, UCLA, 1977.\n</p><p><i>A View from the Inside</i>. Oakland Museum, 1976.\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/The_View_from_Within:_Japanese_American_Art_from_the_Internment_Camps,_1942%E2%80%931945_(exhibition)\" title=\"The View from Within: Japanese American Art from the Internment Camps, 1942–1945 (exhibition)\"><i>The View from Within: Japanese American Art from the Internment Camps, 1942–1945</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum and UCLA, 1992\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Whispered_Silences:_Japanese_American_Detention_Camps,_Fifty_Years_Later_(exhibition)\" title=\"Whispered Silences: Japanese American Detention Camps, Fifty Years Later (exhibition)\"><i>Whispered Silences: Japanese American Detention Camps, Fifty Years Later</i></a>, Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, 1995\n</p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Specific_Camp_or_Community\">Specific Camp or Community</span></h3>\n<p><i><a href=\"/wiki/Against_Their_Will:_The_Japanese_American_Experience_in_World_War_II_Arkansas_(exhibition)\" title=\"Against Their Will: The Japanese American Experience in World War II Arkansas (exhibition)\">Against Their Will: The Japanese American Experience in World War II Arkansas</a></i>, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2004\n</p><p><i>The Art of Survival: Enduring the Turmoil of Tule Lake</i>, National Japanese American Historical Society, 2014\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Blossoms_And_Thorns:_A_Community_Uprooted_(exhibition)\" title=\"Blossoms And Thorns: A Community Uprooted (exhibition)\"><i>Blossoms And Thorns: A Community Uprooted</i></a>, National Japanese American Historical Society, 2014\n</p><p><i><a href=\"/wiki/Canefields_and_Deserts:_Japanese_American_Internment_(exhibition)\" title=\"Canefields and Deserts: Japanese American Internment (exhibition)\">Canefields and Deserts: Japanese American Internment</a></i>, Japanese American National Museum, 1992\n</p><p><i><a class=\"new\" href=\"/index.php/A_Circle_of_Freedom:_Lost_%26_Restored_(exhibition)\" title=\"A Circle of Freedom: Lost &amp; Restored (exhibition) (page does not exist)\">A Circle of Freedom: Lost &amp; Restored</a></i>, History Museum of Hood River County, 2006\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Confined_Citizens:_The_Amache-Granada_Relocation_Center,_1942%E2%80%931945_(exhibition)\" title=\"Confined Citizens: The Amache-Granada Relocation Center, 1942–1945 (exhibition)\"><i>Confined Citizens: The Amache-Granada Relocation Center, 1942–1945</i></a>, History Colorado Center, 2012\n</p><p><i>Connecting the Pieces: Dialogues from the Amache Archeology Collection</i>, Denver University, 2012\n</p><p><i>Continuing Traditions: Japanese Americans, Story of a People, 1869-1992</i>, Sacramento History Museum, 1992\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Dark_Clouds_Over_Paradise:_The_Hawai%27i_Internees_Story_(exhibition)\" title=\"Dark Clouds Over Paradise: The Hawai'i Internees Story (exhibition)\"><i>Dark Clouds Over Paradise: The Hawai'i Internees Story</i></a>, Japanese Cultural Center of Hawai'i, 2004\n</p><p><i><a href=\"/wiki/Dear_Miss_Breed:_Letters_from_Camp_(exhibition)\" title=\"Dear Miss Breed: Letters from Camp (exhibition)\">Dear Miss Breed: Letters from Camp</a></i>, Japanese American National Museum, 1997\n</p><p>Eastern California Museum, Independence, California [Manzanar]\n</p><p><i><a href=\"/wiki/Executive_Order_9066:_50_Years_Before_and_50_Years_After_(exhibition)\" title=\"Executive Order 9066: 50 Years Before and 50 Years After (exhibition)\">Executive Order 9066: 50 Years Before and 50 Years After</a></i>, Wing Luke Museum, Seattle, Washington, 1992\n</p><p>Gila River Arts and Crafts Center\n</p><p>Great Basin Museum, Millard County, Utah [Topaz]\n</p><p>Granada Museum, Granada, Colorado\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Heart_Mountain_Interpretive_Center\" title=\"Heart Mountain Interpretive Center\">Heart Mountain Interpretive Center</a>\n</p><p>Homesteader Museum, Powell, Wyoming [Heart Mountain]\n</p><p><i>Hyakunen no Michi: The Hundred Year Road</i>, Museum of San Diego History, 1997\n</p><p>Jerome County Historical Society [Minidoka]\n</p><p>Manzanar National Historic Site\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Only_What_We_Could_Carry:_The_Santa_Anita_Assembly_Center_(exhibition)\" title=\"Only What We Could Carry: The Santa Anita Assembly Center (exhibition)\"><i>Only What We Could Carry: The Santa Anita Assembly Center</i></a>, Arcadia Historical Museum, 2009\n</p><p><i>Re-Visioning Manzanar: Selections from the Permanent Collection</i>, Japanese American National Museum, 1999\n</p><p><a class=\"mw-redirect\" href=\"/wiki/Right_from_Wrong:_Honoring_the_Lessons_of_Honouliuli_(exhibition)\" title=\"Right from Wrong: Honoring the Lessons of Honouliuli (exhibition)\"><i>Right from Wrong: Honoring the Lessons of Honouliuli</i></a>, Japanese Cultural Center of Hawai'i, 2011\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Topaz_Museum\" title=\"Topaz Museum\">Topaz Museum</a>\n</p><p>Tule Lake–Butte Valley Fairground and Museum, Tule Lake, California\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/World_War_II_Japanese_American_Internment_Museum\" title=\"World War II Japanese American Internment Museum\">World War II Japanese American Internment Museum</a>, Arkansas, 2013\n</p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Broader_Exhibitions_with_Camp_Element\">Broader Exhibitions with Camp Element</span></h3>\n<p><i>Chicago Goes to War, 1941–1945</i>, Chicago Historical Society, 1992\n</p><p><i>Common Ground: The Heart of Community</i>,  Japanese American National Museum,\n</p><p><i>Fighting for Democracy</i>, Japanese American National Museum, traveling\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/From_Bento_to_Mixed_Plate:_Americans_of_Japanese_Ancestry_in_Multicultural_Hawai%27i_(exhibition)\" title=\"From Bento to Mixed Plate: Americans of Japanese Ancestry in Multicultural Hawai'i (exhibition)\"><i>From Bento to Mixed Plate: Americans of Japanese Ancestry in Multicultural Hawai'i</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum, traveling, 1998\n</p><p><i>Strength and Diversity: Japanese American Women, 1885–1990</i>, National Japanese American Historical Society, traveling, 1990\n</p><p><i>Telling New Mexico: Stories from Then and Now. New Mexico History Museum</i>, 2009. \n</p><p><i>Utah at the Crossroads</i>, Utah State Historical Society, 1992\n</p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Leaving_Camp\">Leaving Camp</span></h3>\n<p><i>Coming Home: Memories of Japanese American Resettlement</i>, Japanese American National Museum, 1998\n</p><p><i>Interrupted Lives: The UW and Nikkei Students during World War II</i>, University of Washington, 2008\n</p><p><i>Origins of Now: Rebuilding Community</i>, Japanese American Service Committee of Chicago, 2007\n</p><p><i>Park University as a Beacon of Hope: Nisei Students Escape Internment Camps to Attend College</i>, Park University, Parkville, Missouri 2013\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Uprooted:_Japanese_American_Farm_Labor_Camps_during_World_War_II_(exhibition)\" title=\"Uprooted: Japanese American Farm Labor Camps during World War II (exhibition)\"><i>Uprooted: Japanese American Farm Labor Camps during World War II</i>,</a> Oregon Cultural Heritage Commission and Four Rivers Cultural Center, 2014\n</p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Site_Commemoration\">Site Commemoration</span></h3>\n<p><a href=\"/wiki/Eugene_Japanese_American_Art_Memorial\" title=\"Eugene Japanese American Art Memorial\">Eugene Japanese American Art Memorial</a>, 2007\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Japanese_American_Historical_Plaza\" title=\"Japanese American Historical Plaza\">Japanese American Historical Plaza</a>, Portland, Oregon, 1990\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/National_Japanese_American_Memorial\" title=\"National Japanese American Memorial\">National Japanese American Memorial</a>, Washington, DC, 2000\n</p>\n<h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Military_Service\">Military Service</span></h3>\n<p><i><a href=\"/wiki/American_Heroes:_Japanese_American_World_War_II_Nisei_Soldiers_and_the_Congressional_Gold_Medal_(exhibition)\" title=\"American Heroes: Japanese American World War II Nisei Soldiers and the Congressional Gold Medal (exhibition)\">American Heroes: Japanese American World War II Nisei Soldiers and the Congressional Gold Medal</a></i>, Smithsonian Institution, traveling, 2013\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Beyond_the_Call_of_Duty:_Honoring_the_24_Japanese_American_Medal_of_Honor_Recipients_(exhibition)\" title=\"Beyond the Call of Duty: Honoring the 24 Japanese American Medal of Honor Recipients (exhibition)\"><i>Beyond the Call of Duty: Honoring the 24 Japanese American Medal of Honor Recipients</i></a>, MacArthur Museum of Arkansas Millitary History, 2004\n</p><p><i>Courage Untold: The Story of the Japanese American Military Intelligence Service, 1941 to 1952</i>, White River Valley Museum, Auburn, Washington, October 10, 2007 to January 21, 2008\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Fighting_for_Tomorrow:_Japanese_Americans_in_America%27s_Wars_(exhibition)\" title=\"Fighting for Tomorrow: Japanese Americans in America's Wars (exhibition)\"><i>Fighting for Tomorrow: Japanese Americans in America's Wars</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum, 1995\n</p><p><i>Go For Broke</i>, Army Presidio Museum, San Francisco, 1981\n</p><p><i>Go For Broke: Japanese American Soldiers Fighting on Two Fronts</i>, Ellis Island Immigration Museum, 2010\n</p><p><i>Hawaii's Japanese Americans</i>, US Army Museum of Hawaii, Honolulu\n</p><p><i>Prejudice and Patriotism: The Story of Japanese Americans in the Military Intelligence Service 1941–1952</i>, National Japanese American Historical Society, 2009\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Undaunted_Courage,_Proven_Loyalty:_Japanese_American_Soldiers_in_World_War_II_(exhibition)\" title=\"Undaunted Courage, Proven Loyalty: Japanese American Soldiers in World War II (exhibition)\"><i>Undaunted Courage, Proven Loyalty: Japanese American Soldiers in World War II</i></a>, MacArthur Museum of Arkansas Millitary History, 2004\n</p><p><i>Unlikely Liberators</i>, Holocaust Museum Houston, April 15 to July 5, 2005\n</p><p><i><a href=\"/wiki/What_If_Heroes_Were_Not_Welcome_Home%3F_(exhibition)\" title=\"What If Heroes Were Not Welcome Home? (exhibition)\">What If Heroes Were Not Welcome Home?</a></i>, Oregon Historical Society, traveling, 2013\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Witness:_Our_Brothers%27_Keepers_(exhibition)\" title=\"Witness: Our Brothers' Keepers (exhibition)\"><i>Witness: Our Brothers' Keepers</i></a>,  Japanese American National Museum and National Museum of American Jewish Military History, traveling, 1995\n</p>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">Footnotes</span></h2>\n<div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n<ol class=\"references\">\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">There were numerous exhibitions of arts and crafts in the concentration camps themselves, with some even taking place during the \"<a href=\"/wiki/Assembly_centers\" title=\"Assembly centers\">assembly center</a>\" period. Alan Eaton's 1952 book <i><a href=\"/wiki/Beauty_Behind_Barbed_Wire_(book)\" title=\"Beauty Behind Barbed Wire (book)\">Beauty Behind Barbed Wire: The Arts of the Japanese in Our War Relocation Camps</a></i> (New York: Harper &amp; Brothers Publishers) includes several photographs of such displays. Eaton writes of these exhibitions that they \"contributed so much to the life, the culture, and the morale of he Relocation Centers.\" (Eaton, <i>Beauty Behind Barbed Wire</i>, p. 96) For obvious reasons, these exhibitions were largely not seen by the general public.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">See Greg Robinson, <i>After Camp: Portraits in Midcentury Japanese American Life and Politics</i> (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012); Lane Hirabayashi with Kenichiro Shimada, <i>Japanese American Resettlement Through the Lens: Hikaru Carl Iwasaki and the WRA's Photographic Section, 1943–1945</i> (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2009); Ellen Wu, <i>The Color of Success: Asian Americans and the Origins of the Model Minority</i> (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014); Allan W. Austin, \"Projecting Japanese American Exile and Incarceration: Ethnicity, the Enemy, and Mass Incarceration in Film during World War II,\" <i>2004-2005 Film and History CD-ROM Annual</i> (Cleveland, Oklahoma: Film and History Center, 2006).</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><i>Pacific Citizen</i>, July 9, 1949, 2, accessed on Sept. 27, 2014 at <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19420709_002.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19420709_002.jpg</a>.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><i>Pacific Citizen</i>, Oct. 16, 1943, 3, accessed on Sept. 27, 2014 at <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19431016_003.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19431016_003.jpg</a>. An unidentified WRA photographer documented this exhibition, taking pictures of the prize-winning works. See, for instance, Paul Zaima's \"Horizons Can Be Clear,\" Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft367nb1r8/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft367nb1r8/</a>, accessed on Oct. 7, 2014.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">The sponsoring groups included the New York Church Committee for Japanese Americans, American Baptist Home Missions Society, New York Chapter of the <a href=\"/wiki/Japanese_American_Citizens_League\" title=\"Japanese American Citizens League\">Japanese American Citizens League</a>, Committee for Resettlement of Japanese Americans of the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America, and Resettlement Council of Japanese American Organizations in New York City. <i>Pacific Citizen</i>, May 26, 1945, 6, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19450526_006.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19450526_006.jpg</a>; June 30, 1945, 3, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19450630_003.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19450630_003.jpg</a>; Nov. 3, 1945, 8, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19451103_008.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19451103_008.jpg</a>; Nov. 24, 1945, 6, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19451124_006.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19451124_006.jpg</a>; and Jan. 12, 1946, 3, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19460112_003.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19460112_003.jpg</a>, all accessed on Sept. 27, 2014.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><i>Pacific Citizen</i>, Feb. 19, 1944, 6, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19440219_006.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19440219_006.jpg</a>; Nov. 10, 1945, 6, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19451110_006.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19451110_006.jpg</a>, both accessed on Sept. 27, 2014.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref7-7\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_7-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><i>Pacific Citizen</i>, Apr. 14, 1945, 5, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19450414_005.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19450414_005.jpg</a>; Apr. 13, 1946, 5, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19460413_005.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19460413_005.jpg</a>; July 13, 1946, 5, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19460713_005.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19460713_005.jpg</a>; Sept. 14, 1946, 2, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19460914_002.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19460914_002.jpg</a>; and Jan. 18, 1947, 6, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19470118_006.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19470118_006.jpg</a>, all accessed on Sept. 27, 2014.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref8-8\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_8-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><i>Pacific Citizen</i>, Apr. 7, 1945, 6, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19450407_006.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19450407_006.jpg</a>; Oct. 27, 1945, 8, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19451027_008.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19451027_008.jpg</a>; and Oct. 19, 1946, 2, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19461019_002.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.pacificcitizen.org/digitalarchives/assets/images/full/PCN_19461019_002.jpg</a>, all accessed on Sept. 27, 2014; <i>Rohwer Relocator</i>, Sept. 28, 1945, 4.</span>\n</li>\n</ol></div>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.204 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.213 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 274/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 1027/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 532/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 58/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:3109-0!*!0!!en!*!* and timestamp 20170309221144 and revision id 21846\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "url_title": "Museum exhibitions on incarceration",
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    "title": "Museum exhibitions on incarceration",
    "url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/articles/Museum%20exhibitions%20on%20incarceration/",
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    "title_sort": "Museum exhibitions on incarceration",
    "modified": "2015-08-26T23:16:45",
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