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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<p>During World War II, the Office of Civilian Defense (OCD) served as a special department of the territorial government to mobilize the civilian population in Hawai'i. Many Japanese Americans participated in <a href=\"/wiki/Morale_Committees\" title=\"Morale Committees\">Morale Committees</a> and later the <a href=\"/wiki/Emergency_Service_Committee\" title=\"Emergency Service Committee\">Emergency Service Committee</a> (ESC) which were sanctioned by the OCD. Initially, volunteers manned this office and were replaced by paid staffers ten days after the war began. On O'ahu there were over seventeen divisions and subdivisions organized to serve informational, medical, and protective needs. For example, the organization of air raid wardens, transportation, demolition and repair, communication, evacuation, and emergency medical services were under the jurisdiction of the OCD.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">[1]</a></sup> On the neighbor islands, the OCD had fewer divisions but greater responsibilities as the OCD was the major administrative agency of the military governor and other O'ahu bureaus. As a result, there appears to have been some overlap in the directives and responsibilities of the military governor and according to scholar Gwenfread Allen, \"the OCD complained that it was unable to find out from the Army where authority began and ended.\"<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">[2]</a></sup> By February 1942, 3,013 individuals were working for the OCD supported by nearly 14,000 volunteers due to the fear of an invasion. Nine months later when no invasion had occurred, drastic cuts were made to personnel and projects and volunteers replaced paid full-time employees.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">[3]</a></sup>\n</p><p>In March 1943 the relaxing of <a href=\"/wiki/Martial_law_in_Hawaii\" title=\"Martial law in Hawaii\">martial law</a> resulted in the transfer of several sections from the Office of the Military Governor to the Office of Civilian Defense including materials and supplies control, food control, land transportation control, food production, and civilian medical and poison control.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">[4]</a></sup> By June 1944, only 381 persons were employed but with an expanded list of volunteers that had increased to 29,816 individuals.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">[5]</a></sup> Even before the war was concluded, divisions of the OCD were closed and assets liquidated by December 1945. Civilian authorities were given buildings on public lands and eighty-five buildings on private lands including warden headquarters, evacuation buildings, and fire truck sheds were sold to the general public. \n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a href=\"/wiki/Kelli_Y._Nakamura\" title=\"Kelli Y. Nakamura\">Kelli Y. Nakamura</a>, University of Hawai'i</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Nakamura, Kelli</div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2>\n<p>Allen, Gwenfread. <i>Hawaii's War Years</i>. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, Publishers, 1950. \n</p>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">Footnotes</span></h2>\n<div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n<ol class=\"references\">\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Gwenfread Allen, <i>Hawaii's War Years</i> (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, Publishers, 1950), 168.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Allen, <i>Hawaii's War Years</i>, 166.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Allen, <i>Hawaii's War Years</i>, 171.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">\"Five Public Departments Shift from Military to OCD Control,\" <i>Honolulu Advertiser</i>, March 9, 1943, 5.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Allen, <i>Hawaii's War Years</i>, 175.</span>\n</li>\n</ol></div>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.064 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.064 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 158/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 755/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 577/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 103/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:2093-0!*!0!!*!*!* and timestamp 20170309214306 and revision id 12417\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "url_title": "Office of Civilian Defense (Hawaii)",
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    "title": "Office of Civilian Defense (Hawaii)",
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    "title_sort": "Office of Civilian Defense (Hawaii)",
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