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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<p>An act to provide a government for the Territory of Hawai'i passed in 1900. The Act also provided the legal grounds for declaring <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Martial_law_in_Hawaii\" title=\"Martial law in Hawaii\">martial law in Hawaii</a> and suspending <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Habeas_corpus\" title=\"Habeas corpus\">habeas corpus</a> immediately following Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor on <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/December_7,_1941\" title=\"December 7, 1941\">December 7, 1941</a>.  \n</p><p>Hawai'i was acquired by the United States through a congressional act on July 7, 1898. The Organic Act, passed in 1900, provided for governmental authority over the islands that aligned with U.S. laws, it extended the U.S. Constitution to the islands, and granted Hawaiian territorial citizenship to all U.S. citizens who resided in the Territory for more than a year and U.S. citizenship for all citizens of the Republic of Hawai'i who were in residence at the time of the Act. The Act also extended the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Chinese_Exclusion_Act\" title=\"Chinese Exclusion Act\">Chinese Exclusion Act</a> to the Territory. It required that all Chinese immigrants obtain certificates of residence within a year, and forbade migration of Chinese immigrants, whether they obtained certificates of residence or not, to any other state, territory, or district in the United States. The Act today is posted in its entirety on many webpages advocating for Hawaiian independence and documenting the illegal nature of the U.S. seizure of the Islands.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">[1]</a></sup>\n</p><p>When Japan bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Joseph_Poindexter\" title=\"Joseph Poindexter\">J.B. Poindexter</a>, governor of the Territory of Hawai'i, declared martial law and suspended <i>habeas corpus</i>. Despite some opposition, martial law remained in place in Hawai'i until October 1944. The Supreme Court case of <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Duncan_v._Kahanamoku\" title=\"Duncan v. Kahanamoku\">Duncan v. Kahanamoku</a> determined that the Organic Act did not provide for military tribunals under martial law. Both the majority ruling written by Justice Hugo Black and the concurring opinion of Justice Frank Murphy condemned military rule in Hawai'i as deplorable and an affront to liberty. \n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Cherstin_M._Lyon\" title=\"Cherstin M. Lyon\">Cherstin M. Lyon</a>, California State University, San Bernardino</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Lyon, Cherstin</div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2>\n<p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/J._Garner_Anthony\" title=\"J. Garner Anthony\">Anthony, J. Garner</a>. <i>Hawaii Under Army Rule</i>. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1955.\n</p><p>———. \"Martial Law in Hawaii.\" <i>California Law Review</i> 30.4 (May 1942): 371-396.\n</p><p>———. \"Martial Law, Military Government, and the Writ of Habeas Corpus in Hawaii.\" <i>California Law Review</i> 31.5 (December 1943): 477-514.\n</p><p>Burton, Jeffrey F., and Mary M. Farrell. \"Jigoku-Dani: An Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Honouliuli Internment Camp, O'ahu, Hawai'i.” Tucson: Trans-Sierran Archaeological Research, 2008.\n</p><p>Kauanui, J. Kēhaulani. <i>Hawaiian Blood: Colonialism and the Politics of Sovereignty and Indigeneity</i>. Durham: Duke University Press, 2008. \n</p><p>Okihiro, Gary. <i>Cane Fires: The Anti-Japanese Movement in Hawaii, 1865-1945</i>. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992.\n</p><p>Robinson, Greg. <i>A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America.</i> New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.\n</p><p>Tamura, Eileen H. <i>Americanization, Acculturation, and Ethnic Identity: The Nisei Generation in Hawaii</i>. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994. \n</p>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">Footnotes</span></h2>\n<div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n<ol class=\"references\">\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">For example, see: Organic Act, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://www.hawaiiankingdom.org/us-organic-act-1900.shtml\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.hawaiiankingdom.org/us-organic-act-1900.shtml</a>, accessed on July 23, 2015.</span>\n</li>\n</ol></div>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.044 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.045 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 78/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 467/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 618/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 144/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:2099-0!*!0!!*!*!* and timestamp 20180116204625 and revision id 21699\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "authors": [
        "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/authors/Cherstin%20M.%20Lyon/"
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    "url_title": "Organic Act",
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    "title": "Organic Act",
    "url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/articles/Organic%20Act/",
    "absolute_url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Organic%20Act/",
    "title_sort": "Organic Act",
    "modified": "2015-07-29T06:09:00",
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