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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<p>A wide range of plays that incorporate some significant aspect of the Japanese American removal and incarceration story have been produced since the 1950s. A list of such plays is below. \n</p><p>The list includes only plays that have been either published or performed before an audience made up of the general public, whether in a full production or as part of a workshop or staged reading. Though most are set at least in part in the concentration camps, the list also includes plays set during the war years but not in camp, plays set in the resettlement period, and plays set after the war that include flashbacks to the camps or involve significant issues traceable to the incarceration.\n</p><p>The range of styles and subjects is a broad. The first produced play set in camp in likely <a href=\"/wiki/Hiroshi_Kashiwagi\" title=\"Hiroshi Kashiwagi\">Hiroshi Kashiwagi</a>'s <i>Laughter and False Teeth</i> (1954). Other pioneering works include Sook-tek Oh's <i>Tondemonai—Never Happen!</i> (1970) and Momoko Iko's <i>Gold Watch</i>. In 1981–82, two Asian American theater companies—East-West Players (EWP) in Los Angeles and Pan Asian Repertory Theatre (PART) in New York—devoted their seasons to plays on the incarceration, inspired in part by the ongoing movement for <a href=\"/wiki/Redress_movement\" title=\"Redress movement\">redress and reparations</a>. EWP's slate included Richard France's <i>Station J</i>, Dom Magwili's <i>Christmas in Camp</i>, <a href=\"/wiki/Wakako_Yamauchi\" title=\"Wakako Yamauchi\">Wakako Yamauchi</a>'s <i>12–1–A</i>, and Edward Sakamoto's <i>Pilgrimage</i>; PART's also produced <i>Station J</i>, as well as Rosanna Yamagiwa Alfaro's <i>Behind Enemy Lines</i> and Lionelle Hamanaka's <i>Rohwer</i>.\n</p><p>In recent years, there have been several musicals (the first was Gary Iwamoto's <i>Miss Minidoka 1943</i>, produced by the Northwest Asian American Theatre in 1987; others include <i>Christmas in Camp</i>, <i>Christmas in Camp II</i>, <i>A Jive Bomber's Christmas</i>, <i>Baseball Saved Us</i>, <i>The Camp Dance: The Music &amp; the Memories</i>, <i>Manzanar: Story of an American Family</i>, and most recently, <i>Allegiance</i>), a number that tell the story through a multi-ethnic lens (<i>Bronzeville</i>, <i>Conjunto</i>, <i>Harry Kelly</i>, and <i>Valley of the Heart</i>), and two that might be described as puppet shows (<i>E.O. 9066</i> and <i>The Pink Dress</i>). Several tell the story of real historical figures, including two on <a href=\"/wiki/Gordon_Hirabayashi\" title=\"Gordon Hirabayashi\">Gordon Hirabayashi</a> (<i>Point of Order: Hirabayashi v. U.S.</i> and <i>Dawn's Light: The Journey of Gordon Hirabayashi</i>/<i>Hold These Truths</i>). Several have also been developed specifically for performance in schools (<i>The Ancestor's Box</i>, <i>Baseball Saved Us</i>, <i>Justice at War</i>, and <i>Within the Silence</i>).\n</p><p>There has been no published study specifically on plays having to do with Japanese American incarceration.\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a href=\"/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">Brian Niiya</a>, Densho</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Niiya, Brian</div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2>\n<p>Kurahashi, Yuko. <i>Asian American Culture on Stage: The History of the East West Players</i>. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1999.\n</p><p>Lee, Josephine. <i>Performing Asian America: Race and Ethnicity on the Contemporary Stage</i>. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997.\n</p><p>Morioka-Steffens, Tamayo Irene. \"Asian Pacific American Identities: An Historical Perspective Through the Theatre Productions of the East West Players, 1965 to 2000. Ph.D. dissertation, Claremont Graduate School, 2003.\n</p><p>Uno, Roberta. <i>Unbroken Thread: An Anthology of Plays by Asian American Women</i>. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993.\n</p><p>Xu, Wenying. <i>Historical Dictionary of Asian American Literature and Theater</i>. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Scarecrow Press, 2012.\n</p>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Plays_that_Reference_Forced_Removal.2FIncarceration\">Plays that Reference Forced Removal/Incarceration</span></h2>\n<p><a href=\"/wiki/12-1-A_(play)\" title=\"12-1-A (play)\"><i>12-1-A</i></a> (Wakako Yamauchi, 1982)\n</p><p><i>Allegiance</i> (Jay Kuo, Lorenzo Thione, and Marc Acito, 2012)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/The_Ancestors%27_Box_(play)\" title=\"The Ancestors' Box (play)\"><i>The Ancestors' Box</i></a> (Christina Hamlett, 2013)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Baseball_Saved_Us_(play)\" title=\"Baseball Saved Us (play)\"><i>Baseball Saved Us</i></a> (Ken Mochizuki, 2003)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Behind_Enemy_Lines_(play)\" title=\"Behind Enemy Lines (play)\"><i>Behind Enemy Lines</i></a> (Rosanna Yamagiwa Alfaro, 1982)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/A_Question_of_Loyalty/The_Betrayed_(play)\" title=\"A Question of Loyalty/The Betrayed (play)\"><i>The Betrayed</i></a> (Hiroshi Kashiwagi, 2010)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Block_8_(play)\" title=\"Block 8 (play)\"><i>Block 8</i></a> (Matthew Ivan Bennett, 2009)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Bronzeville_(play)\" title=\"Bronzeville (play)\"><i>Bronzeville</i></a> (Tim Toyama and Aaron Woolfolk, 2009)\n</p><p><i>Cowboy Samurai</i> (Rosanna Yamagiwa Alfaro, 1991)\n</p><p><a class=\"new\" href=\"/index.php/The_Camp_Dance:_The_Music_%26_The_Memories_(play)\" title=\"The Camp Dance: The Music &amp; The Memories (play) (page does not exist)\"><i>The Camp Dance: The Music &amp; the Memories</i></a> (Soji Kashiwagi, 2003)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Christmas_in_Camp_(play)\" title=\"Christmas in Camp (play)\"><i>Christmas in Camp</i></a> (Dom Magwili, 1981, 1985)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Citizen_13559_(play)\" title=\"Citizen 13559 (play)\"><i>Citizen 13559</i></a> (Naomi Iizuka, 2006)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Conjunto_(play)\" title=\"Conjunto (play)\"><i>Conjunto</i></a> (Oliver Mayer, 2003)\n</p><p><i>Dawn's Light: The Journey of Gordon Hirabayashi</i> (see <i><a href=\"/wiki/Hold_These_Truths_(play)\" title=\"Hold These Truths (play)\">Hold These Truths</a></i>)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Dust_Storm_(play)\" title=\"Dust Storm (play)\"><i>Dust Storm</i></a> (Rick Foster, 2002)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/E.O._9066_(play)\" title=\"E.O. 9066 (play)\"><i>E.O. 9066</i></a> (Liebe Wetzel, 2003)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Gila_River_(play)\" title=\"Gila River (play)\"><i>Gila River</i></a> (Lane Nishikawa, 1999)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Gold_Watch_(play)\" title=\"Gold Watch (play)\"><i>Gold Watch</i></a> (Momoko Iko, 1972)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Harry_Kelly_(play)\" title=\"Harry Kelly (play)\"><i>Harry Kelly</i></a> (Harold Heifezt, 1974)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Heart_Mountain_(play)\" title=\"Heart Mountain (play)\"><i>Heart Mountain</i></a> (G. Bruce Smith, 2012)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Hold_These_Truths_(play)\" title=\"Hold These Truths (play)\"><i>Hold These Truths</i></a> (Jeanne Sakata, 2007)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Hotel_on_the_Corner_of_Bitter_and_Sweet_(play)\" title=\"Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet (play)\"><i>Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet</i></a> (Jamie Ford; adapted by Annie Lareau, 2012)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Innocent_When_You_Dream_(play)\" title=\"Innocent When You Dream (play)\"><i>Innocent When You Dream</i></a> (Ken Narasaki, 2007)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/A_Jive_Bomber%27s_Christmas_(play)\" title=\"A Jive Bomber's Christmas (play)\"><i>A Jive Bomber's Christmas</i></a> (Saachiko and Dom Magwili, 1994)\n</p><p><i><a href=\"/wiki/Justice_at_War_(play)\" title=\"Justice at War (play)\">Justice at War: The Story of the Japanese Internment Camps</a></i> (Mimi Jo Katano, Wendy Lement, and Jordan Winer, 1994)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Laughter_and_False_Teeth_(play)\" title=\"Laughter and False Teeth (play)\"><i>Laughter and False Teeth</i></a> (Hiroshi Kashiwagi, 1954)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Manzanar:_An_American_Story_(play)\" title=\"Manzanar: An American Story (play)\"><i>Manzanar: An American Story</i></a> (Philip Kan Gotanda, 2005)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Manzanar:_Story_of_an_American_Family_(play)\" title=\"Manzanar: Story of an American Family (play)\"><i>Manzanar: Story of an American Family</i></a> (Dan Taguchi and Rus McCoy, 2002)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Miss_Minidoka_1943_(play)\" title=\"Miss Minidoka 1943 (play)\"><i>Miss Minidoka 1943</i></a> (Gary Iwamoto, 1987)\n</p><p><i>Miné, A Name for Herself</i> (Mary H. Curtin and Theresa Larkin, 2005)\n</p><p><i>No-No Boy</i> (Ken Narasaki, 2010)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Old_Man_River_(play)\" title=\"Old Man River (play)\"><i>Old Man River</i></a> (Cynthia Gates Fujikawa, 1997)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Pilgrimage_(play)\" title=\"Pilgrimage (play)\"><i>Pilgrimage</i></a> (Edward Sakamoto, 1982)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/The_Pink_Dress_(play)\" title=\"The Pink Dress (play)\"><i>The Pink Dress</i></a> (Leslie K. Gray, 2005)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Point_of_Order:_Hirabayashi_vs._United_States_(play)\" title=\"Point of Order: Hirabayashi vs. United States (play)\"><i>Point of Order: Hirabayashi v. U.S.</i></a> (R.A. Shiomi, 1983)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Question_27,_Question_28_(play)\" title=\"Question 27, Question 28 (play)\"><i>Question 27, Question 28</i></a> (Chay Yew, 2004)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/A_Question_of_Loyalty/The_Betrayed_(play)\" title=\"A Question of Loyalty/The Betrayed (play)\"><i>A Question of Loyalty</i></a> (Hiroshi Kashiwagi, 1990)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Rohwer_(play)\" title=\"Rohwer (play)\"><i>Rohwer</i></a> (Lionelle Hamanaka, 1982)\n</p><p><i><a href=\"/wiki/Santa_Anita_%2742_(play)\" title=\"Santa Anita '42 (play)\">Santa Anita '42</a></i> (Allan Knee, 1975)\n</p><p><i>Shoulders</i> (Jeffrey Kinghorn, 2012)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Sisters_Matsumoto_(play)\" title=\"Sisters Matsumoto (play)\"><i>Sisters Matsumoto</i></a> (Philip Kan Gotanda, 1999)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Station_J_(play)\" title=\"Station J (play)\"><i>Station J</i></a> (Richard France, 1981)\n</p><p><i>Tachinoki</i> (Robert Schenkkan, 1987)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Tondemonai%E2%80%94Never_Happen!_(play)\" title=\"Tondemonai—Never Happen! (play)\"><i>Tondemonai—Never Happen!</i></a> (Soon-Tek Oh, 1970)\n</p><p><i>The Truth of the Matter</i> (Karen Ishizukia, 1981)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Unvanquished_(play)\" title=\"Unvanquished (play)\"><i>Unvanquished</i></a> (Holly Yasui, 1990)\n</p><p><i><a href=\"/wiki/Valley_of_the_Heart_(play)\" title=\"Valley of the Heart (play)\">Valley of the Heart</a></i> (Luis Valdez, 2013)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/What_We_Could_Carry_(play)\" title=\"What We Could Carry (play)\"><i>What We Could Carry</i></a> (Nikiko Masumoto, 2011)\n</p><p><i>With Darkness Behind Us, Daylight Has Come</i> (Jude Narita, 2001)\n</p><p><a href=\"/wiki/Within_the_Silence_(play)\" title=\"Within the Silence (play)\"><i>Within the Silence</i></a> (Ken Mochizuki, 1998)\n</p>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.052 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.052 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 27/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 99/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 367/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 58/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 3/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:2547-0!*!0!!*!*!* and timestamp 20170309221140 and revision id 22030\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "authors": [
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    "url_title": "Plays on incarceration",
    "categories": [
        "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/categories/Arts/"
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    "title": "Plays on incarceration",
    "url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/articles/Plays%20on%20incarceration/",
    "absolute_url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Plays%20on%20incarceration/",
    "title_sort": "Plays on incarceration",
    "modified": "2015-10-24T07:32:05",
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