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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<p>A wide range of plays that incorporate some significant aspect of the Japanese American removal and incarceration story have been produced since the 1950s. A list of such plays is below. \n</p><p>The list includes only plays that have been either published or performed before an audience made up of the general public, whether in a full production or as part of a workshop or staged reading. Though most are set at least in part in the concentration camps, the list also includes plays set during the war years but not in camp, plays set in the resettlement period, and plays set after the war that include flashbacks to the camps or involve significant issues traceable to the incarceration.\n</p><p>The range of styles and subjects is a broad. The first produced play set in camp in likely <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Hiroshi_Kashiwagi\" title=\"Hiroshi Kashiwagi\">Hiroshi Kashiwagi</a>'s <i>Laughter and False Teeth</i> (1954). Other pioneering works include Sook-tek Oh's <i>Tondemonai—Never Happen!</i> (1970) and Momoko Iko's <i>Gold Watch</i>. In 1981–82, two Asian American theater companies—East-West Players (EWP) in Los Angeles and Pan Asian Repertory Theatre (PART) in New York—devoted their seasons to plays on the incarceration, inspired in part by the ongoing movement for <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Redress_movement\" title=\"Redress movement\">redress and reparations</a>. EWP's slate included Richard France's <i>Station J</i>, Dom Magwili's <i>Christmas in Camp</i>, <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Wakako_Yamauchi\" title=\"Wakako Yamauchi\">Wakako Yamauchi</a>'s <i>12–1–A</i>, and Edward Sakamoto's <i>Pilgrimage</i>; PART's also produced <i>Station J</i>, as well as Rosanna Yamagiwa Alfaro's <i>Behind Enemy Lines</i> and Lionelle Hamanaka's <i>Rohwer</i>.\n</p><p>In recent years, there have been several musicals (the first was Gary Iwamoto's <i>Miss Minidoka 1943</i>, produced by the Northwest Asian American Theatre in 1987; others include <i>Christmas in Camp</i>, <i>Christmas in Camp II</i>, <i>A Jive Bomber's Christmas</i>, <i>Baseball Saved Us</i>, <i>The Camp Dance: The Music &amp; the Memories</i>, <i>Manzanar: Story of an American Family</i>, and most recently, <i>Allegiance</i>), a number that tell the story through a multi-ethnic lens (<i>Bronzeville</i>, <i>Conjunto</i>, <i>Harry Kelly</i>, and <i>Valley of the Heart</i>), and two that might be described as puppet shows (<i>E.O. 9066</i> and <i>The Pink Dress</i>). Several tell the story of real historical figures, including two on <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Gordon_Hirabayashi\" title=\"Gordon Hirabayashi\">Gordon Hirabayashi</a> (<i>Point of Order: Hirabayashi v. U.S.</i> and <i>Dawn's Light: The Journey of Gordon Hirabayashi</i>/<i>Hold These Truths</i>). Several have also been developed specifically for performance in schools (<i>The Ancestor's Box</i>, <i>Baseball Saved Us</i>, <i>Justice at War</i>, and <i>Within the Silence</i>).\n</p><p>There has been no published study specifically on plays having to do with Japanese American incarceration.\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">Brian Niiya</a>, Densho</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Niiya, Brian</div>\n<div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p>Kurahashi, Yuko. <i>Asian American Culture on Stage: The History of the East West Players</i>. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1999.\n</p><p>Lee, Josephine. <i>Performing Asian America: Race and Ethnicity on the Contemporary Stage</i>. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997.\n</p><p>Morioka-Steffens, Tamayo Irene. \"Asian Pacific American Identities: An Historical Perspective Through the Theatre Productions of the East West Players, 1965 to 2000. Ph.D. dissertation, Claremont Graduate School, 2003.\n</p><p>Uno, Roberta. <i>Unbroken Thread: An Anthology of Plays by Asian American Women</i>. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993.\n</p><p>Xu, Wenying. <i>Historical Dictionary of Asian American Literature and Theater</i>. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Scarecrow Press, 2012.\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"Plays_that_Reference_Forced_Removal.2FIncarceration\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Plays_that_Reference_Forced_Removal.2FIncarceration\">Plays that Reference Forced Removal/Incarceration</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/12-1-A_(play)\" title=\"12-1-A (play)\"><i>12-1-A</i></a> (Wakako Yamauchi, 1982)\n</p><p><i>Allegiance</i> (Jay Kuo, Lorenzo Thione, and Marc Acito, 2012)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/The_Ancestors%27_Box_(play)\" title=\"The Ancestors' Box (play)\"><i>The Ancestors' Box</i></a> (Christina Hamlett, 2013)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Baseball_Saved_Us_(play)\" title=\"Baseball Saved Us (play)\"><i>Baseball Saved Us</i></a> (Ken Mochizuki, 2003)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Behind_Enemy_Lines_(play)\" title=\"Behind Enemy Lines (play)\"><i>Behind Enemy Lines</i></a> (Rosanna Yamagiwa Alfaro, 1982)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/A_Question_of_Loyalty/The_Betrayed_(play)\" title=\"A Question of Loyalty/The Betrayed (play)\"><i>The Betrayed</i></a> (Hiroshi Kashiwagi, 2010)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Block_8_(play)\" title=\"Block 8 (play)\"><i>Block 8</i></a> (Matthew Ivan Bennett, 2009)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Bronzeville_(play)\" title=\"Bronzeville (play)\"><i>Bronzeville</i></a> (Tim Toyama and Aaron Woolfolk, 2009)\n</p><p><i>Cowboy Samurai</i> (Rosanna Yamagiwa Alfaro, 1991)\n</p><p><i>The Camp Dance: The Music &amp; the Memories</i> (Soji Kashiwagi, 2003)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Christmas_in_Camp_(play)\" title=\"Christmas in Camp (play)\"><i>Christmas in Camp</i></a> (Dom Magwili, 1981, 1985)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Citizen_13559_(play)\" title=\"Citizen 13559 (play)\"><i>Citizen 13559</i></a> (Naomi Iizuka, 2006)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Conjunto_(play)\" title=\"Conjunto (play)\"><i>Conjunto</i></a> (Oliver Mayer, 2003)\n</p><p><i>Dawn's Light: The Journey of Gordon Hirabayashi</i> (see <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Hold_These_Truths_(play)\" title=\"Hold These Truths (play)\">Hold These Truths</a></i>)\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Dear_Miss_Breed_(play)\" title=\"Dear Miss Breed (play)\">Dear Miss Breed</a></i> (Joanne Oppenheim, 2007)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Dust_Storm_(play)\" title=\"Dust Storm (play)\"><i>Dust Storm</i></a> (Rick Foster, 2002)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/E.O._9066_(play)\" title=\"E.O. 9066 (play)\"><i>E.O. 9066</i></a> (Liebe Wetzel, 2003)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Gila_River_(play)\" title=\"Gila River (play)\"><i>Gila River</i></a> (Lane Nishikawa, 1999)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Gold_Watch_(play)\" title=\"Gold Watch (play)\"><i>Gold Watch</i></a> (Momoko Iko, 1972)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Harry_Kelly_(play)\" title=\"Harry Kelly (play)\"><i>Harry Kelly</i></a> (Harold Heifezt, 1974)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Heart_Mountain_(play)\" title=\"Heart Mountain (play)\"><i>Heart Mountain</i></a> (G. Bruce Smith, 2012)\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/The_Heart_No_Longer_Silent_(play)\" title=\"The Heart No Longer Silent (play)\">The Heart No Longer Silent</a></i> (Megumi and Elaine Sayoko Yoneoka, 2002)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Hold_These_Truths_(play)\" title=\"Hold These Truths (play)\"><i>Hold These Truths</i></a> (Jeanne Sakata, 2007)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Hotel_on_the_Corner_of_Bitter_and_Sweet_(play)\" title=\"Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet (play)\"><i>Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet</i></a> (Jamie Ford; adapted by Annie Lareau, 2012)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Innocent_When_You_Dream_(play)\" title=\"Innocent When You Dream (play)\"><i>Innocent When You Dream</i></a> (Ken Narasaki, 2007)\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Japanese_American_Detention_Camps:_Stories_of_Strength_and_Hope_(play)\" title=\"Japanese American Detention Camps: Stories of Strength and Hope (play)\">Japanese American Detention Camps: Stories of Strength and Hope</a></i> (Megumi, 1997)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/A_Jive_Bomber%27s_Christmas_(play)\" title=\"A Jive Bomber's Christmas (play)\"><i>A Jive Bomber's Christmas</i></a> (Saachiko and Dom Magwili, 1994)\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Justice_at_War_(play)\" title=\"Justice at War (play)\">Justice at War: The Story of the Japanese Internment Camps</a></i> (Mimi Jo Katano, Wendy Lement, and Jordan Winer, 1994)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Laughter_and_False_Teeth_(play)\" title=\"Laughter and False Teeth (play)\"><i>Laughter and False Teeth</i></a> (Hiroshi Kashiwagi, 1954)\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Letters_to_Eve_(play)\" title=\"Letters to Eve (play)\">Letters to Eve</a></i> (Daniel Sugimoto, 2016)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Little_Women_(A_Multicultural_Transposition)_(play)\" title=\"Little Women (A Multicultural Transposition) (play)\"><i>Little Women (A Multicultural Transposition)</i></a> (Velina Hasu Houston, 2017)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Manzanar:_An_American_Story_(play)\" title=\"Manzanar: An American Story (play)\"><i>Manzanar: An American Story</i></a> (Philip Kan Gotanda, 2005)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Manzanar:_Story_of_an_American_Family_(play)\" title=\"Manzanar: Story of an American Family (play)\"><i>Manzanar: Story of an American Family</i></a> (Dan Taguchi and Rus McCoy, 2002)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Miss_Minidoka_1943_(play)\" title=\"Miss Minidoka 1943 (play)\"><i>Miss Minidoka 1943</i></a> (Gary Iwamoto, 1987)\n</p><p><i>Miné, A Name for Herself</i> (Mary H. Curtin and Theresa Larkin, 2005)\n</p><p><i>Nihonjin Face</i> (Janet Hayakawa and Tere Martínez, 2017)\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/The_Nisei_Monologues:_Children_of_the_Camps_(play)\" title=\"The Nisei Monologues: Children of the Camps (play)\">The Nisei Monologues: Children of the Camps</a></i> (Crystal d. Langley, 2007)\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/No-No_Boy_(play)\" title=\"No-No Boy (play)\">No-No Boy</a></i> (Ken Narasaki, 2010)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Old_Man_River_(play)\" title=\"Old Man River (play)\"><i>Old Man River</i></a> (Cynthia Gates Fujikawa, 1997)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Pilgrimage_(play)\" title=\"Pilgrimage (play)\"><i>Pilgrimage</i></a> (Edward Sakamoto, 1982)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/The_Pink_Dress_(play)\" title=\"The Pink Dress (play)\"><i>The Pink Dress</i></a> (Leslie K. Gray, 2005)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Point_of_Order:_Hirabayashi_vs._United_States_(play)\" title=\"Point of Order: Hirabayashi vs. United States (play)\"><i>Point of Order: Hirabayashi v. U.S.</i></a> (R.A. Shiomi, 1983)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Question_27,_Question_28_(play)\" title=\"Question 27, Question 28 (play)\"><i>Question 27, Question 28</i></a> (Chay Yew, 2004)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/A_Question_of_Loyalty/The_Betrayed_(play)\" title=\"A Question of Loyalty/The Betrayed (play)\"><i>A Question of Loyalty</i></a> (Hiroshi Kashiwagi, 1990)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Rohwer_(play)\" title=\"Rohwer (play)\"><i>Rohwer</i></a> (Lionelle Hamanaka, 1982)\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Santa_Anita_%2742_(play)\" title=\"Santa Anita '42 (play)\">Santa Anita '42</a></i> (Allan Knee, 1975)\n</p><p><i>Shoulders</i> (Jeffrey Kinghorn, 2012)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Sisters_Matsumoto_(play)\" title=\"Sisters Matsumoto (play)\"><i>Sisters Matsumoto</i></a> (Philip Kan Gotanda, 1999)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Station_J_(play)\" title=\"Station J (play)\"><i>Station J</i></a> (Richard France, 1981)\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Strands_(play)\" title=\"Strands (play)\">Strands</a></i> (D.H. Naomi Quinones, 2002)\n</p><p><i>Tachinoki</i> (Robert Schenkkan, 1987)\n</p><p><a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Tondemonai%E2%80%94Never_Happen!_(play)\" title=\"Tondemonai—Never Happen! (play)\"><i>Tondemonai—Never Happen!</i></a> (Soon-Tek Oh, 1970)\n</p><p><i>The Truth of the Matter</i> (Karen Ishizukia, 1981)\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Uncle_Gunjiro%27s_Girlfriend_(play)\" title=\"Uncle Gunjiro's Girlfriend (play)\">Uncle Gunjiro's Girlfriend</a></i> (Brenda Wong Aoki, 1998)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Unvanquished_(play)\" title=\"Unvanquished (play)\"><i>Unvanquished</i></a> (Holly Yasui, 1990)\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Valley_of_the_Heart_(play)\" title=\"Valley of the Heart (play)\">Valley of the Heart</a></i> (Luis Valdez, 2013)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/What_We_Could_Carry_(play)\" title=\"What We Could Carry (play)\"><i>What We Could Carry</i></a> (Nikiko Masumoto, 2011)\n</p><p><i>With Darkness Behind Us, Daylight Has Come</i> (Jude Narita, 2001)\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Within_the_Silence_(play)\" title=\"Within the Silence (play)\"><i>Within the Silence</i></a> (Ken Mochizuki, 1998)\n</p>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.056 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.059 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 27/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 99/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 367/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 58/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 3/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:2547-0!*!0!!*!*!* and timestamp 20180309151242 and revision id 28794\n -->\n</div></div><div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "authors": [
        "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/authors/Brian%20Niiya/"
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    "url_title": "Plays on incarceration",
    "categories": [
        "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/categories/Arts/"
    ],
    "title": "Plays on incarceration",
    "url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/articles/Plays%20on%20incarceration/",
    "absolute_url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Plays%20on%20incarceration/",
    "title_sort": "playsonincarceration",
    "modified": "2018-03-02T20:01:11",
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