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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<div id=\"databox-BooksDisplay\">\n<table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Title</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">The Managed Casualty: The Japanese-American Family in World War II</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Author</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Leonard Broom and John I. Kitsuse</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Original Publisher</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">University of California Press</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Original Publication Date</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">1956</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Pages</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">226</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">WorldCat Link</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\"><a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.worldcat.org/title/managed-casualty-the-japanese-american-family-in-world-war-ii/oclc/1347939/editions?editionsView=true&amp;referer=br\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.worldcat.org/title/managed-casualty-the-japanese-american-family-in-world-war-ii/oclc/1347939/editions?editionsView=true&amp;referer=br</a></td>\n</tr>\n</table>\n</div>\n<div id=\"databox-Books\" style=\"display:none;\">\n<p>Title:The Managed Casualty: The Japanese-American Family in World War II;\nAuthor:Leonard Broom and John I. Kitsuse;\nIllustrator:;\nOrigTitle:;\nCountry:;\nLanguage:;\nSeries:;\nGenre:;\nPublisher:University of California Press;\nPubDate:1956;\nCurrentPublisher:;\nCurrentPubDate:;\nMediaType:;\nPages:226;\nAwards:;\nISBN:;\nWorldCatLink:<a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.worldcat.org/title/managed-casualty-the-japanese-american-family-in-world-war-ii/oclc/1347939/editions?editionsView=true&amp;referer=br\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.worldcat.org/title/managed-casualty-the-japanese-american-family-in-world-war-ii/oclc/1347939/editions?editionsView=true&amp;referer=br</a>;\n</p>\n</div>\n<p>A sociological study of the impact of mass incarceration on the Japanese family unit examining ten representative cases that trace their experiences in America from their prewar life, pre-incarceration experiences, relocation, and postwar adjustment. \n</p>\n<div class=\"toc\" id=\"toc\"><div id=\"toctitle\"><h2>Contents</h2></div>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\"><a href=\"#Background_of_Authors_and_Publication_History\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">1</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Background of Authors and Publication History</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-2\"><a href=\"#Overview_and_Significance\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">2</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Overview and Significance</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-3\"><a href=\"#For_More_Information\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">3</span> <span class=\"toctext\">For More Information</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-4\"><a href=\"#Reviews\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">4</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Reviews</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-5\"><a href=\"#Footnotes\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">5</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Footnotes</span></a></li>\n</ul>\n</div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Background_of_Authors_and_Publication_History\">Background of Authors and Publication History</span></h2>\n<p><a href=\"/wiki/Nisei\" title=\"Nisei\">Nisei</a> John Itsuro Kitsuse (1923–2003) was born in Imperial Valley, California, before moving to Los Angeles as a child. In 1942, Kitsuse was incarcerated at <a href=\"/wiki/Manzanar\" title=\"Manzanar\">Manzanar</a> but after one year moved to Massachusetts where he attended Boston University and earned a B.A. He later graduated with a M.A. and a Ph.D. from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). As a sociologist focusing on issues of deviance, criminology, and social problems, he was a professor at San Diego State University, the University of Washington, and Northwestern University where he taught for sixteen years before he moved to the University of California, Santa Cruz. His work brought him into contact with fellow sociologist Leonard Broom (1911–2009) who was also known as Bloom. In 1941, Broom was the second sociologist hired in UCLA's newly established department of sociology and anthropology and as a result of his research on the effects of the mass incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II, Broom was highly critical of government policies during World War II. This event would shape his interest in discrimination and social inequality against minorities. Broom would collaborate with Ruth Riemer in 1949 to write <i>Removal and Return</i>, which describes the socio-economic impact of the war on Japanese Americans. In 1956, Kitsuse and Broom wrote <i>The Managed Casualty</i>, which examines the effects of the impact of incarceration on Japanese American families. This book was later republished in 1976 by the University of California Press. \n</p>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Overview_and_Significance\">Overview and Significance</span></h2>\n<p>As one of the first sociological studies on the impact of incarceration on the Japanese American family unit, <i>The Managed Casualty</i> was one the few studies that was not associated with any of the wartime sociology projects such as the <a href=\"/wiki/Japanese_American_Evacuation_and_Resettlement_Study\" title=\"Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Study\">Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Study</a> (JERS) or <a href=\"/wiki/Bureau_of_Sociological_Research,_Poston\" title=\"Bureau of Sociological Research, Poston\">Bureau of Sociological Research</a> (BSR). Broom and Kitsuse included a representative swath in their research in the categories of education, urbanization, religion, occupation, age, degree of acculturation, and generation composition within the ten case studies that comprise the majority of the book. \n</p><p>The first chapter details the social and cultural background of the Japanese American population, focusing on economic and family adjustment as well as political and religious participation. The second chapter examines the administrative context of relocation and incarceration, noting the impact of the war on incarceration policies and the formation of the War Relocation Authority. The authors describe the organization of the incarceration centers including the registration and segregation of the Japanese American population, and finally the closure of these centers. In the third chapter, the authors focus on the complexities of the family decision-making process and the impact of administrative policies before analyzing these collective themes in the case studies. As Broom and Kitsuse note, the incarceration of the Japanese American population was based upon two irreconcilable approaches: \"the logical orientation which regarded the movement of a civilian population . . . as if it were a military operation\" and \"a humanistic attitude which . . . was expressed in such decisions as the maintenance of the family unit and the ultimate objective of reintegrating the population into national life.\"<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">[1]</a></sup> As the case studies would demonstrate, these two contradictory aims would impact Japanese American families in different ways. \n</p><p>The majority of the book is comprised of case studies of ten Japanese American families and the impact of their incarceration during World War II. The cases themselves extensively detail family data such as religion, holidays, diet, and even reading matter and are told in such an impartial manner that one reviewer commented that \"the facts in each case are given so compactly that the cultural and emotional conflicts that must have lain behind them often do not come through very sharply.\"<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">[2]</a></sup> The accompanying charts and maps that are part of each case do help to illustrate the fact that many of the participants spent much of their early life on the West Coast, particularly California, although some did travel between Hawai'i and Japan. Following their incarceration, a number of individuals moved to areas like the East Coast and Midwest as a result of their displacement. As Broom and Kitsuse note as a result of the war \"original Japanese family forms . . . underwent change and all but the most conservative rural families lost authority\" as the family became the scene of cultural conflict between generations that was exacerbated by war.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">[3]</a></sup> While some families were able to successfully adjust as a group, others came to comprise the large group of \"unrelocatables\" revealing how variations within the family structure, cohesiveness, and cultural characteristics affected adjustment to administrative policies.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">[4]</a></sup>\n</p><p>Although the individuals in the case studies are not specifically identified, contemporary authors such as Greg Robinson, John Howard, and Jere Takahashi have cited these case studies as they examine the transformative effect of incarceration on the Japanese American population in the postwar period. Broom and Kitsuse do not make any generalizations of the impact of incarceration on Japanese American families but rather \"suggest the variety of individuals and families that passed through the experience of the evacuation.\"<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">[5]</a></sup> This book serves to illustrate the multiplicity of experiences and impacting variables that influenced Japanese Americans families prior to, during, and after World War II.\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a href=\"/wiki/Kelli_Y._Nakamura\" title=\"Kelli Y. Nakamura\">Kelli Y. Nakamura</a>, University of Hawai'i</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Nakamura, Kelli</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2>\n<p>\"Broom Collection.\" National Library of Australia. <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.nla.gov.au/selected-library-collections/leonard-broom-collection\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.nla.gov.au/selected-library-collections/leonard-broom-collection</a>.\n</p><p>Broom, Leonard and Ruth Riemer. <i>Removal and Return: the Socio-Economic Effects of the War on Japanese Americans</i>. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1949.\n</p><p><i>Leonard Broom, 1911–2009, Santa Barbara. </i>Santa Barbara Independent<i>, Nov. 23, 2009. <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.independent.com/obits/2009/nov/23/leonard-broom/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.independent.com/obits/2009/nov/23/leonard-broom/</a>.</i>\n</p><p>McNulty, Jennifer. \" Sociologist John Kitsuse, Internment Camp Survivor, Dies at 80.\" University of Santa Cruz Newscenter, Dec. 3, 2003. <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://news.ucsc.edu/2003/12/432.html\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://news.ucsc.edu/2003/12/432.html</a>.\n</p><p>Reinarman, Craig, et al. \"In Memorium: John Itsuro Kitsuse.\" <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://senate.universityofcalifornia.edu/inmemoriam/JohnItsuroKitsuse.htm\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://senate.universityofcalifornia.edu/inmemoriam/JohnItsuroKitsuse.htm</a>.\n</p>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Reviews\">Reviews</span></h2>\n<p>Caldwell, Russell L. <i>Pacific Historical Review</i> 26.3 (Aug. 1957): 304–05.\n</p><p>Caudill, William. <i>American Anthropologist</i>, New Series 60.4 (Aug. 1958): 798.\n</p><p>Ishino, Iwao. <i>American Sociological Review</i> 22.5 (Oct. 1957): 606–07. \n</p><p>Miyakawa, T. Scott. <i>Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science</i> 314 (Nov. 1957): 206–07.\n</p>\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">Footnotes</span></h2>\n<div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n<ol class=\"references\">\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Leonard Broom and John I. Kitsuse, <i>The Managed Causality: The Japanese-American Family in World War II</i> (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973), 16.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">William Caudill, review of <i>The Managed Causality: The Japanese-American Family in World War II</i>, by Leonard Broom and John I. Kitsuse. <i>American Anthropologist</i>, New Series 60: 4 (Aug., 1958), 798.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Broom, 11.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Broom, 48.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Broom, 49.</span>\n</li>\n</ol></div>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.096 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.098 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 288/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 1588/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 2733/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 838/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:2305-0!*!0!!en!*!* and timestamp 20170309214422 and revision id 14454\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "title": "The Managed Casualty: The Japanese-American Family in World War II (book)",
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