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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<div id=\"databox-BooksDisplay\">\n<table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Title</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">The Pigtail Twins</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Author</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Anne M. Halladay</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Illustrator</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Janet Smalley</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Original Publisher</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">Friendship Press</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Original Publication Date</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">1943</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">Pages</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\">126</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">WorldCat Link</th>\n<td style=\"text-align:left;\"><a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.worldcat.org/title/pigtail-twins/oclc/1003744\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.worldcat.org/title/pigtail-twins/oclc/1003744</a></td>\n</tr>\n</table>\n</div>\n<div id=\"databox-Books\" style=\"display:none;\">\n<p>Title:The Pigtail Twins;\nAuthor:Anne M. Halladay;\nIllustrator:Janet Smalley;\nOrigTitle:;\nCountry:;\nLanguage:;\nSeries:;\nGenre:;\nPublisher:Friendship Press;\nPubDate:1943;\nCurrentPublisher:;\nCurrentPubDate:;\nMediaType:;\nPages:126;\nAwards:;\nISBN:;\nWorldCatLink:<a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.worldcat.org/title/pigtail-twins/oclc/1003744\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.worldcat.org/title/pigtail-twins/oclc/1003744</a>;\n</p>\n</div>\n<div class=\"rgonly\">\n<!--\"rgdatabox-CoreDisplay\" removed-->\n<div id=\"rgdatabox-Core\" style=\"display:none;\">\n<p>RGMediaType:books;\nTitle:The Pigtail Twins \nCreators=;\nCreators:;\nInterestLevel:;\nReadingLevel:;\nGuidedReadingLevel:;\nLexile:;\nTheme:;\nGenre:;\nPoV:;\nRelatedEvents:;\nAvailability:Widely available;\nFreeWebVersion:No;\nPrimarySecondary:;\nHasTeachingAids:No;\nWarnings:;\nDenshoTopic:;\nGeography:;\nChronology:;\nFacility:;\n</p>\n</div>\n</div>\n<p>Children's book published in 1943 that may have been the first book-length work of fiction to mention the Japanese American exclusion and incarceration, if obliquely. The book was authored by Anne M. Halladay and published by Friendship Press.\n</p><p>The 126 page book is set in \"Mountain Valley,\" Colorado, and centers around a third grade class taught by Miss Emeline that includes children of German, Italian, Japanese, and Mexican descent, as well as other white students of indeterminate origin—including the twin sisters of the title—referred to as \"native Americans.\" The story is about how the children's friendships forged in the classroom and a devoted teacher help the parents and larger community overcome their prejudices.\n</p><p>Among the students in the class as the book begins is Kasumi Ozamoto, described as the \"child of a Japanese market gardener.\" One of the book's subplots involves the arrival of his cousins, Tooru and Satoko Oyama. In announcing their arrival, Miss Emeline tells the class \"Tooru and Satoko have come from California to live with Kasumi and his mother and father. Now they will not have to go to one of the wartime camps.\"<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\"><a href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">[1]</a></sup> No additional explanation is provided. We later meet the Ozamoto and Oyama mothers, sisters who appear to be Nisei and Christian, though Kasumi's mother doesn't speak English well. Mrs. Oyama, who had taught English in California, later offers to teach an English class for <a href=\"/wiki/Issei\" title=\"Issei\">Issei</a> in the area.\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a href=\"/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">Brian Niiya</a>, Densho</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Niiya, Brian</div>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2>\n<p>Halladay, Anne M. <i>The Pigtail Twins</i>. New York: Friendship Press, 1943.\n</p>\n<h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">Footnotes</span></h2>\n<div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n<ol class=\"references\">\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">Anne M. Halladay, <i>The Pigtail Twins</i> (New York: Friendship Press, 1943), 33.</span>\n</li>\n</ol></div>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.088 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.092 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 334/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 2375/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 4078/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 556/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:2597-0!*!0!!*!*!* and timestamp 20170310091302 and revision id 23436\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "authors": [
        "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/authors/Brian%20Niiya/"
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    "url_title": "The Pigtail Twins",
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    "title": "The Pigtail Twins",
    "url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/articles/The%20Pigtail%20Twins/",
    "absolute_url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/The%20Pigtail%20Twins/",
    "title_sort": "PigtailTwins",
    "modified": "2016-08-18T23:02:37",
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