Archaeology of the Japanese American incarceration

Although most of the buildings at the facilities where Japanese Americans were incarcerated during World War II were demolished, dismantled, or moved after the war, archaeological studies have documented the traces of structures, lost artifacts, and abandoned landscaping features that were left behind. At the broad political scale, archaeological findings have been used to expand protection and interpretation opportunities at these sites. At a more personal (yet universal) level, archaeology has documented the diverse ways in which the Japanese American prisoners adapted to and resisted their incarceration.

Early Archaeological Studies of Japanese American Incarceration Sites

Some of the earliest archaeological inventories at the World War II Japanese American incarceration sites were undertaken in recognition of the historic significance of this episode. For example, in 1983 Michael Gorman of the Wyoming Recreation Commission reviewed the history of the Heart Mountain camp and completed a National Register nomination for the hospital complex, which was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. [1] In other instances, archaeologists recorded artifacts and features at the incarceration sites as part of environmental studies for proposed development projects. The potential significance of the sites and their archaeological components was recognized in some reports, but not all. [2]

The first intensive archaeological work undertaken at the World War II Japanese American incarceration sites was conducted by the National Park Service (NPS) at Manzanar , shortly after it was designated a National Historic Site in 1992. The resulting three-volume report described not only the physical remains of the Japanese American incarceration, but also the archaeological traces of earlier Native American, ranching, and farming occupations of the site. [3] The archaeological work helped to dispel some misconceptions about the incarceration. For example, some residents in the surrounding communities denied that there ever were guard towers or fences at Manzanar, and they claimed that the inmates were "coddled" while other Americans suffered rationing and shortages. The archaeological evidence proved these assertions to be false, without resorting to diatribe or rhetoric. Equally important, archaeological survey determined that several significant Manzanar features were located outside of the boundary originally set aside by Congress. In 1996, Congress used the results to expand the boundary of the historic site to include some 300 additional acres to incorporate these features.

An Archaeological Overview: Confinement and Ethnicity

The same legislation that designated Manzanar as a National Historic Site also required the Park Service to "identify, evaluate, and nominate as national historic landmarks those sites, buildings, and structures that best illustrate or commemorate the period in American history from 1941 to 1946 when Japanese Americans were ordered to be detained, relocated, or excluded pursuant to Executive Order Number 9066, and other actions." [4] To help meet this mandate, the NPS published a review of the archaeological remains at 35 locations titled Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of Japanese American Relocation Sites . [5] The main focus was on the ten War Relocation Authority "relocation centers," but Department of Justice and U.S. Army facilities where Japanese Americans were held were also considered. Archaeological reconnaissance and survey were combined with archival research and interviews with former inmates to identify features, artifacts, and landscapes associated with the incarceration.

The results, describing myriad mundane features such as latrine and barracks foundations as well as remnants of guard towers and fences, garnered a surprisingly wide audience. The NPS filled over 10,000 requests for the overview, and then placed the report on its website [6] ; the University of Washington later printed a new edition. [7] The report concluded that although the level of preservation varied, nearly all of the sites retained enough integrity to warrant National Historic Register or National Historic Landmark status. The archaeological report was used by the White House Millennium Council to develop recommendations for the preservation and interpretation of World War II Japanese American incarceration sites across the country, [8] which resulted in the designation of the Minidoka Internment National Monument (now the Minidoka National Historic Site) in January of 2001. Confinement and Ethnicity was used by Congress to establish the list of sites eligible for the Japanese American Confinement Sites (JACS) grant program, which authorized up to $38 million in funds to "identify, research, evaluate, interpret, protect, restore, repair, and acquire historic confinement sites" where Japanese Americans were detained during World War II. [9]

Archaeology at Other Incarceration Sites

Oral histories and archival documents spoke of the lesser-known incarceration of Japanese American citizens and immigrants in Hawai'i, [10] but the related sites were unknown until the Japanese Cultural Center of Hawai'i was able to compile enough information to link the stories to places. An archaeological reconnaissance confirming the location of seven sites and documenting the search for an eighth was completed in 2007. The report also assessed the integrity of each site and provided recommendations for future research, interpretation, and management. [11]

The NPS has undertaken additional archaeological work at Minidoka , [12] and completed a detailed historic resources study at the Tule Lake Segregation Center . [13] Additionally, the NPS has completed archaeological surveys of the Topaz Relocation Center [14] and the Granada Relocation Center (Amache), [15] as well as a National Historic Landmark nomination, incorporating archaeological data, for Granada. [16] A historic resources inventory for the Poston Relocation Center [17] formed the basis for a National Register nomination, [18] and a National Historic Landmark nomination for the Poston Elementary School Unit 1 has been completed. [19] The archaeological assessment of Tule Lake [20] led to that site's designation as a unit of the World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument.

University-led Archaeological Research

While the NPS continues to sponsor archaeological investigations at park units to facilitate interpretation and management, academic institutions have begun to take lead roles in the archaeology of the World War II Japanese American incarceration. In 2005, the University of Denver began a long-term community-based archaeology and heritage project at Amache, integrating archaeology, archival research, oral history, and museum collections management. Three archaeology field school sessions were held at the site, and several papers and masters' theses have resulted from the investigations. [21]

In 2010, the University of Idaho began the Kooskia Internment Camp Archaeological Project at the Kooskia prison work camp in north-central Idaho. [22] Stacey Camp is leading a team of faculty, post-doctoral, graduate, and undergraduate researchers who have used geophysical survey, soil resistivity studies, shovel testing, and soil and macrobotanical analyses to search for historic gardens and other features and artifacts remaining from the camp's inmates and employees. [23] The University of Hawai'i - West O'ahu (UHWO) conducted three archaeological field classes at the Honouliuli Internment and Prisoner of War Camp, as part of an interdisciplinary research project involving faculty in psychology, sociology, history, Korean studies, English, and anthropology as well as archaeology. The archaeological work facilitated the site's listing on the National Register of Historic Places and was essential to determining whether the site should be considered for National Park status. [24] UHWO is developing an interdisciplinary certificate in Democratic Principles and Social Justice that will include field archaeology at Honouliuli, on-campus laboratory and collections management, oral histories, educational outreach, and coordination with community partners. [25]

Public Archaeology

Collaboration and communication between archaeologists, the Japanese American community, and other members of the public have been important aspects of this archaeology. Organizations like the Japanese Cultural Center of Hawai'i (JCCH), the Manzanar Committee, the Asian American Comparative Collection of the University of Idaho, and the Amache Preservation Society have compiled archival information and oral histories that have been used to determine where archaeological work would be most useful. Contributed resources and labor provided by organizations and individuals have been critical to the success of many of the archaeological investigations. For example, volunteers recruited by JCCH helped conduct the initial archaeological reconnaissance surveys of the Honouliuli Internment and Prisoner of War Camp; [26] The volunteers' interest and findings helped spark the UHWO's involvement with the site. Most of the ongoing archaeological investigations at Manzanar National Historic Site would be impossible without the labor of a dedicated cadre of volunteers. Often, former inmates have participated in the first stages of research, shaping research designs and identifying features not listed in the documentary records. Former inmates and their families and friends along with other members of the public often assist archaeologists with survey, excavation, and analysis.

For those who were incarcerated, the physical traces uncovered and recorded during archaeological projects have sparked memories and stories of daily life inside the camps. For other participants, finding a child's toy or fragment of porcelain forges a poignant connection to the people who lived there, while the often harsh weather and dusty conditions force an appreciation for the hardships faced by the incarcerated Japanese Americans. Those who cannot join the excavations are encouraged to join the discussions about the research: both the University of Denver and the University of Idaho maintain information for the public about their archaeology projects on their university websites, [27] and a UHWO student started a Facebook page for Honouliuli. The Kooskia project archaeologists share their results through public archaeology days, university lectures, and public meetings.

Archaeological Findings and Future Research Questions

The archaeological studies at the camps testify not only to the national political environment, but also to everyday life. Artifacts and features show how the inmates maintained their ethnicity in the face of adversity. For example, the presence of Japanese ceramics show that family heirlooms were brought to the camps even when luggage was strictly limited and military-issue "hotelware" was provided at mess halls; women served tea and traditional foods at their barracks despite rules forbidding cooking. [28] Lost goh pieces reflect the popularity of a traditional Japanese game, even while the children were playing with American-style army toys and marbles. [29] Wire stems found at the Manzanar cemetery indicate that Japanese-style paper flowers adorned grave sites. [30] Most pervasively, traces of inmate-built rock alignments, gardens, and ponds reflect not only the Japanese cultural ideals of order, beauty, and harmony, but also the social cohesiveness and organization required to construct such features. [31] Taken together, these overall patterns indicate the persistence of Japanese culture and its integration with "American" culture. The artifacts and features left at the camps illustrate and confirm the resilience of the Japanese American prisoners, even in the face of persecution, even when the dominant culture had defined "Japanese" as something to be afraid of and ashamed of.

Yet the overall archaeological legacy of the sites associated with the Japanese American incarceration is distinctly "American." Remnants of prisoner-built baseball diamonds and basketball courts coexist near sumō wrestling arenas, [32] showing the popularity of American sports as well as embodying the American ideals of diversity and inclusivity. (See Sports and recreation in camp .) Memorials and interpretation at the former prison sites talk about the abrogation of Constitutional rights that all Americans hold dear, and how the U.S. government itself determined the incarceration unjust and unnecessary. At one former prison camp in southern Arizona, now the Gordon Hirabayashi Recreation Site, the efforts of Japanese Americans to resist incarceration and stand up for American civil rights during World War II is commemorated. [33] Further, the archaeological data indicate there was no single homogenous "Japanese" cultural response to the incarceration. For example, graffiti at Manzanar reveals a wide range of individual emotions, thoughts, and reactions to incarceration; inscriptions preserved in concrete include militaristic slogans, poems, individual and group names, present and former addresses, whimsical sayings, and expressions of love. [34]

Research at Amache, Kooskia, and Manzanar will continue to focus on both large-scale landscapes and small-scale artifacts and features. At Manzanar, additional inmate-built gardens will be explored and restored with the help of volunteers. At Kooskia, Camp and her students will use tools such as ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic resistivity surveys, and soil chemistry analysis to locate internee gardens not depicted in camp photographs. [35] The University of Idaho archaeologists will also study how the all-male Kooskia camp compares to the WRA "relocation centers" where families were imprisoned. [36] As Stacey Camp argues, if generational and gender differences in prisoners' use of material culture can be identified, homogenous "Japanese" stereotypes can be challenged. [37] At Amache, University of Denver Professor Bonnie Clark and her students are investigating a variety of questions related to daily life, including identifying ways the prisoners adapted to their incarceration, and how their Japanese American identities were expressed. [38] A University of Denver graduate student is investigating how relative proximity to guard towers (and the surveillance they imply) affected inmate behavior, as reflected in artifacts related to children and to contraband activities such as alcohol containers. At Manzanar, the angry and defiant graffiti is found outside the central fenced area, suggesting that distance from guard towers and surveillance did indeed provide more freedom for expression. [39] A graduate student working at Manzanar is examining differences and similarities in how the prisoners modified internal and external surroundings such as barracks and gardens; she hopes to gain insight into the various strategies employed by different groups to cope with their incarceration, and the ways they defined themselves beyond their prisoner status. [40]

At other sites associated with the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II, archaeological analysis could address similar research questions, as well as explore how different inmate populations reacted to the different incarceration environments. For example, as both a civilian and military prison camp, Honouliuli has the potential to provide information about how the activities of imprisoned civilians from Hawai'i and prisoners of war may have differed. Civilian internees reportedly improved their surroundings with gardens and landscaping; preliminary archaeological survey identified the presence of landscaping features in the civilian compounds, but not the Japanese POW compounds. If the disparity is real rather than a factor of differential discovery or preservation, archaeological analysis could be used to investigate the cultural, social, or security factors that may be involved. While the presence of prisoner-built gardens may seem trivial, the research cited above has shown that gardens at other prison sites can have profound cultural, social, and psychological roots; some have been interpreted as symbols of hope for the future and faith in one's country, others as symbols of defiance.


By identifying the physical remains of the World War II Japanese American incarceration, archaeological studies have provided impetus and support for the preservation of associated sites. Archaeological studies have been used to designate and expand National Park units commemorating this episode, and to involve the public in the important discourse about difficult issues that are still relevant, such as racism and the challenges of balancing civil rights with national security. Further, historical archaeology can give voice to people who are not in the history books, and provide tangible connections to their daily lives. At the Japanese American confinement sites, toys and dishes and gardens show how people survived, not just physically but also emotionally and culturally. Finally, the landscapes and artifacts discovered through archaeology can enhance the power of the confinement sites to tell the story of the Japanese American removal and incarceration, with the goal of preventing similar discrimination from occurring again.

Authored by Mary M. Farrell , Trans-Sierran Archaeological Research, Lone Pine, California

For More Information

Online Resources

Amache Preservation Society.

Amache information at the University of Denver's website.

Burton, Jeffery F., Mary Farrell, Florence Lord, and Richard Lord. 1999 (rev. July 2000). [ "Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of Japanese American Relocation Sites."} Tucson: Western Archeological and Conservation Center Publications in Anthropology 74.

Burton, Jeffery F., and Mary M. Farrell. 2007. "World War II Japanese American Internment Sites in Hawai'i." Trans-Sierran Archaeological Research and Japanese Cultural Center of Hawai'i Research Center.

Camp, Stacey. 2012. "The archaeology of WWII Japanese Internees imprisoned in Northern Idaho." Ongoing blog, accessed August 13, 2012.

Kooskia Internment Camp Archaeological Project.

Manzanar National Historic Site.

Archaeology at Manzanar.


  1. Nominations for Heart Mountain and some of the other WRA Relocation Centers and related sites are available online at the National Register database: .
  2. See, for example: James Welch, Robert Rosenberg, and Michael Nash, "Class III Cultural Resource Inventory of Shoshone Municipal Water Supply Project, Park and Big Horn Counties, Wyoming," unpublished report by Frontier Archaeology, 1988, Cheyenne, Wyoming; Dori Penny et al., "Results of a Cultural Resource Inventory of Five Bureau of Reclamation Parcels in Park Count, Wyoming," MS on file, Bureau of Reclamation, Montana Project Office, Billings, 1990; James Rose, "An Assessment of the Heart Mountain Relocation Center, Park County, Wyoming," MS on file, Bureau of Reclamation, Montana Project Office, Billings, 1992; Thomas K. Larson et al., 1995, "Cultural Resources Investigations at the Heart Mountain Relocation Center, Wyoming" (paper presented at the Society for Historical Archaeology Conference, Washington, D.C., January 5-7, 1995); Mary Sullivan et al., "An Archaeological Survey of the Gila River Farms Expansion, Pinal County, Arizona," MS, Archaeological Consulting Services, Ltd, Tempe, Arizona, 1987; Monique Sawyer-Lang, "Recovery of Additional Information from the Gila River Farms Expansion Area: A Study of a Japanese-American Relocation Center," Cultural Resources Report 53, Archaeological Consulting Services, Ltd, Tempe, Arizona,1989; Orit Tamir et al., "Return to Butte Camp: A Japanese American World War II Relocation Center," Cultural Resources Report 82, Archaeological Consulting Services, Ltd, Tempe, Arizona, 1993; Scott Russell, Karolyn Jackman Jensen, and Jon Czaplicki, "The Historic Archaeology and Ethnohistory of a World War II Japanese-American Relocation Center in Central Arizona" (paper presented at the Society for Historic Archaeology 28th Annual Conference on Historical and Underwater Archaeology, Washington, D.C. January 5-7, 1995).
  3. Jeffery F. Burton, "Three Farewells to Manzanar: The Archeology of Manzanar National Historic Site, California," Western Arche¬ological and Conservation Center Publica¬tions in Anthropology 67, Tucson, Arizona, 1996.
  4. Public Law 102-248, "Japanese American National Historic Landmark Theme Study Act," March 3, 1992.
  5. Jeffery F. Burton, et al., "Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of Japanese American Relocation Sites," Western Archeological and Conservation Center Publications in Anthropology 74, 1999 (rev. July 2000).
  6. Burton et al., Confinement and Ethnicity ,
  7. Burton, et al., Confinement and Ethnicity: An Archaeological Overview of World War II Japanese American Relocation Sites . (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002).
  8. U.S. Department of the Interior, "Report to the President: Japanese-American Internment Sites Preservation," U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 2001.
  9. Public Law 109-44116 USC 461, "Preservation of Japanese American Confinement Sites,"
  10. For example, Patsy Sumie Saiki, Ganbare! An Example of Japanese Spirit (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1982) and Michi Weglyn, Years of Infamy: The Untold Story of America's Concentration Camp (New York: Morrow Quill, 1976).
  11. Jeffery F. Burton and Mary M. Farrell, "World War II Japanese American Internment Sites in Hawai'i," Trans-Sierran Archaeological Research and Japanese Cultural Center of Hawai'i Research Center, 2007, available online: .
  12. Jeffery F. Burton and Mary M. Farrell, "This is Minidoka: An Archeological Survey of Minidoka Internment National Monument, Idaho," Western Arche¬ological and Conservation Center Publica¬tions in Anthropology 80, 2001; Jeffery F. Burton, Laura Bergstresser, and Anna Tamura, "Archeology at the Gate: Archeological Investigations at the Entrance of the Minidoka Relocation Center, Minidoka Internment National Monument," National Park Service, Western Arche¬ological and Conservation Center, Tucson, 2003; Jeffery F. Burton and Mary M. Farrell, "The Fate of Things: Archeological Investigations at the Minidoka Relocation Center Dump," Western Archeological and Conservation Center Publications in Anthropology 90, 2005.
  13. Jeffery F. Burton and Mary M. Farrell, "Tule Lake Historic Resources Inventory," Western Archeological and Conservation Center, Tucson, Arizona, 2004.
  14. Sheri Murray Ellis, "Site Documentation and Management Plan for the Topaz Relocation Center, Millard County, Utah," report prepared for the Topaz Museum Board, Delta, Utah, 2002.
  15. Richard Carrillo and David Killam, "Camp Amache (5PW48): A Class III Cultural Resource Intensive Field Survey of the Granada Relocation Center, Prowers County, Colorado, Volume 1," report prepared for the Town of Granada, the Denver Optimist Club, and the State Historical Fund, Colorado Historical Society, 2004.
  16. Thomas H. Simmons and R. Laurie Simmons, "Granada Relocation Center National Historic Landmark Nomination," National Park Service, 2004,
  17. Jeffery F. Burton, "Poston Relocation Center, Historic Resources Inventory," National Park Service, Western Archeological and Conservation Center, Tucson, Arizona, June 2006.
  18. Jeffery F. Burton and Mary M. Farrell, "Poston Relocation Center National Register of Historic Places Nomination," July 2006.
  19. R. Laurie Simmons and Thomas H. Simmons, "National Historic Landmark Nomination, Poston Elementary School Unit 1," National Park Service, 2011.
  20. Burton and Farrell, "Tule Lake."
  21. For example, Stephanie Skiles and Bonnie Clark, "When the Foreign is Not Exotic: Ceramics at Colorado's WWII Japanese Internment Camp," in Trade and Exchange: Archaeological Studies from History and Prehistory , ed. Carolyn Dillian and Carolyn White (New York: Springer Press, 2010); Bonnie Clark, April Kamp-Whittaker, and Dana Ogo Shew, "The Tangible History of Amache: Archaeology Research Design and Methodology for Field Investigations, Summer 2008," University of Denver, 2008; April Kamp-Whittaker, "Through the Eyes of a Child: The Archaeology of WWII Japanese American Internment at Amache" (Master's Thesis, University of Denver, 2010); Stephanie Skiles, "Confined Cuisine: An Archaeological and Historical Examination of Culinary Practices at Amache, Colorado's WWII Japanese Internment Camp" (Master's Paper, University of Denver, 2008); Michelle Ann Slaughter, "An Archaeological and Ethnographic Examination of the Presence, Acquisition, and Consumption of Sake at Camp Amache, a World War II Japanese Internment Camp" (Master's Thesis, University of Colorado at Denver, 2006); Dana Ogo Shew, "Feminine Identity Confined: The Archaeology of Japanese Women at Amache, a World War II Internment Camp" (Master's Thesis, University of Denver, 2010).
  22. Stacey L. Camp, "Preliminary Archaeological Investigations at Idaho's Kooskia Internment Camp (May 1943 - May 1945) Phase I ~ October 2009 to May 2011," University of Idaho, Moscow, 2010.
  23. University of Idaho, "Welcome to the Kooskia Internment Camp Archaeological Project!" .
  24. Jeffery F. Burton and Mary M. Farrell, "Honouliuli National Register Nomination," Trans-Sierran Archaeological Research and Japanese Cultural Center of Hawai'i Research Center, Honolulu, Hawai'i, 2011; National Park Service, Honouliuli Special Resource Study, in preparation.
  25. University of Hawai'i – West O'Ahu, "Academic Plan 2012-2016," accessed August 14, 2012.
  26. Jeffery F. Burton and Mary M. Farrell, "Jigoku-Dani: An Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Honouliuli Internment Camp, O'ahu, Hawai'i." Trans-Sierran Archaeological Research and Japanese Cultural Center of Hawai'i Research Center, 2008, and Addendum I, 2009.
  27. University of Denver's Amache; the University of Idaho's Kooskia webpage is located at .
  28. Nicole Branton, "Rice Bowls and Resistance: Cultural Persistence at the Manzanar War Relocation Center, California, 1942-1945" (Master's thesis, University of Arizona, 2000) and "Drawing the Line: Places of Power in the Japanese-American Internment Eventscape" (Ph.D. Diss., University of Arizona, 2004); Burton, "Three Farewells"; Teresita Majewski, "Historical Ceramics," in Burton "Three Farewells"; Skiles and Clark, "When the Foreign is Not Exotic."
  29. For example, Burton, "Three Farewells"; Kamp-Whittaker "Eyes of a Child."
  30. Jeffery F. Burton, "America's World War II Internment Camps: Japanese American Patriotism and Defiance at Manzanar," in Historical Archaeologies of Cognition , ed. James Symonds, Anna Badcock, and Jeff Oliver (London: Equinox, 2013).
  31. For example, see: Stephen N. Archer, "Amache Garden Testing: Archaeobotanical Analysis, 2009" accessed online; Jeffery F. Burton, "Faith, Hope, and Charity in America's World War II Internment Camps: Japanese American Patriotism and Defiance at Manzanar" (paper presented at the Contemporary and Historical Archaeology in Theory Conference, Sheffield, England, November 23-25, 2007); Burton and Farrell, "Spring Breeze"; Jeffery F. Burton, "America's World War II Internment Camps: Japanese American Patriotism and Defiance at Manzanar," in Historical Archaeologies of Cognition , ed. James Symonds, Anna Badcock, and Jeff Oliver (London: Equinox, 2012); Bonnie J. Clark, "The Archaeology of Gardening at Amache, Summary Report-Summer 2010," University of Denver, Prepared for Dumbarton Oaks, August 2011, accessed online.
  32. For example, at Gila River (Burton et al., "Confinement and Ethnicity," 77-91).
  33. Nicole Branton, "Landscape Approaches in Historical Archaeology: The Archaeology of Places," in International Handbook of Historical Archaeology , ed. Teresita Majewski and David Gaimster (New York: Springer, 2011) 51-65. Jeffery Burton and Mary Farrell, "Gordon Hirabayashi, the Tucsonians and the U.S. Constitution: Negotiating Reconciliation in a Landscape of Exile," in Archaeologies of Internment , ed. Adrian Myers and Gabriel Moshenska (New York: Springer, One World Archaeology Series, 2011) 89-110.
  34. Jeffery F. Burton and Mary M. Farrell, "'Life in Manzanar Where There is a Spring Breeze': Graffiti at a World War II Japanese American Internment Camp," in Prisoner of War Internment: Archaeology, Memory and Heritage , ed. Harold Mytum and Gilly Carr (New York: Springer, 2012).
  35. Stacey Camp, "Preliminary Archaeological Investigations at Idaho's Kooskia Internment Camp (May 1943 - May 1945) Phase I ~ October 2009 to May 2011," University of Idaho, 2010. Accessed August 14, 2012 at .
  36. Andrea Clark Mason interview with Dr. Stacey Camp in "The Past in Pieces: Digging up a Japanese Internment Camp," Idaho Magazine , Volume 10 Number 11, pages 50-57.
  37. Stacey Camp, "The Utility of Comparative Research in Historical Archaeology" in The Importance of Material Things, Volume II , ed. Julie M. Schablitsky and Mark P. Leone (The Society for Historical Archaeology, Special Publication 9, 13-28) .
  38. Bonnie J. Clark and Christian Driver, "The Tangible History of Amache, Phase III: Archaeology Research Design and Methodology for Field Investigations, Summer 2012 – Final," University of Denver, 2012, pages 3-4. Accessed August 16, 2012.
  39. Burton and Farrell, "Spring Breeze."
  40. Laura Wai Ng, master's thesis, in preparation, University of Massachusetts Boston.

Last updated Dec. 6, 2023, 5:56 p.m..