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    "url_title": "Alien Enemies Act of 1798",
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    "modified": "2024-06-20T02:26:25",
    "title": "Alien Enemies Act of 1798",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <p>\n  The Alien Enemies Act of 1798 was part of four laws known as the Alien and Sedition Acts that enacted increasing press regulations and restrictions against aliens. It was used as the basis for incarcerating enemy aliens and confiscating their property during World War II. As a result, a number of Japanese, Germans, and Italians were arrested and interned for the duration of the war and were later deported to their nations of origins.\n </p>\n <p>\n  In 1798, the United States was on the verge of war with France. The Federalists, America's first political party, believed that Democratic-Republican criticism of their policies was disloyal. Additionally, they feared that aliens living in the United States would sympathize with the French during a war. As a result, a Federalist-controlled Congress passed four laws, collectively known as the Alien and Sedition Acts. These laws raised the residency requirements for citizenship from five to fourteen years and made aliens \"liable to be apprehended, restrained, secured, and removed\" in the Alien Enemies Act of 1798.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n    [1]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  However, these acts set off a firestorm of criticism against the Federalists as they revealed the limits of freedom of speech and the press and contributed to their defeat in the election of 1800. Currently, the Alien Enemies Act of 1798 is still in force in modified form and authorizes the President to detain, relocate, or deport enemy aliens in time of war.\n </p>\n <p>\n  In 1941, the Alien Enemies Act was utilized by government officials to incarcerate Japanese Americans. Immediately after Pearl Harbor, President\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Franklin_D._Roosevelt/\" title=\"Franklin D. Roosevelt\">\n   Franklin Delano Roosevelt\n  </a>\n  signed Proclamation 2525 in accordance with the Alien Enemies Act, giving the government the authority to detain enemy aliens and confiscate enemy property. The Proclamation permitted immediate apprehension of \"alien enemies deemed dangerous to the public health or safety of the United States by the Attorney General or Secretary of War.\"\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n    [2]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  On December 8, 1941, similar proclamations were issued for the arrest of suspect Germans and Italians. By February 16, 1942, the Department of Justice held 2,192 Japanese, 1,393 Germans, and 264 Italians, and arrests continued even after that date. Many arrested were Issei leaders of the Japanese American community and its organizations.\n </p>\n <p>\n  Upon conclusion of World War II, some internees used the Alien Enemies Act to block their deportation to Axis states. Some German internees from Latin American countries filed\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Habeas_corpus/\" title=\"Habeas corpus\">\n   habeas corpus\n  </a>\n  petitions challenging their detention by the United States, claiming that they were not \"alien enemies\" as defined by the Alien Enemy Act of 1798, because they were not natives or citizens of an enemy country. In January 1946, this effort failed when a federal district court ruled that the Latin American internees were \"alien enemies\" who could legally be detained. After this decision, 513 Japanese (over ninety percent from Peru), 897 Germans and 37 Italians from Latin America in United States internment camps were granted hearings pending deportation.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n    [3]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  The hearings were a formality leading to their deportation to Axis countries, although most of the remaining Latin American Japanese wished to return to Peru. Voluntary repatriation continued into 1946, with at least 130 Peruvian Japanese returning to Japan by June. (See\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Japanese_Latin_Americans/\" title=\"Japanese Latin Americans\">\n   Japanese Latin Americans\n  </a>\n  .)\n </p>\n <div id=\"authorByline\">\n  <b>\n   Authored by\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Kelli_Y._Nakamura/\" title=\"Kelli Y. Nakamura\">\n    Kelli Y. Nakamura\n   </a>\n   , University of Hawai'i\n  </b>\n </div>\n <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  Nakamura, Kelli\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Christensen, Erika L. \"Face of the Enemy: the Japanese-American Internment and its Significance on Ethnic Conflict in America.\" Master's thesis, Utah State University, 2010.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians\n     </i>\n     .\n    </a>\n    Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     German American Internee Coalition.\n    </a>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Miller, John Chester.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Crisis in Freedom: the Alien and Sedition Acts\n     </i>\n     .\n    </a>\n    Boston: Little, Brown, 1951.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Miyake, Lika C.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\";v=pdf\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     \"Forsaken and Forgotten: The U.S. Internment of Japanese Peruvians During World War II\"\n    </a>\n    (May 2002): 18666 words.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Neuman, Gerald L., and Charles F. Hobson.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     \"John Marshall and the Enemy Alien.\"\n    </a>\n    <i>\n     The Green Bag\n    </i>\n    (Autumn 2005).\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Peltner, Arndt. \"Unforgettable Justice.\"\n    <i>\n     The Atlantic Times\n    </i>\n    , May 2007.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Presidential Proclamation 2525.\n    </a>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Stone, Geoffrey R.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime From the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism\n     </i>\n     .\n    </a>\n    New York: W.W. Norton &amp; Co., 2004.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    United States. National Archives and Records Administration.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Our Documents: 100 Milestone Documents from the National Archives\n     </i>\n     .\n    </a>\n    New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        United States, National Archives and Records Administration,\n        <i>\n         Our Documents: 100 Milestone Documents from the National Archives\n        </i>\n        (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), 10.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians,\n        <i>\n         Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians\n        </i>\n        (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997), 54.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        <i>\n         Personal Justice Denied\n        </i>\n        , 312.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20240620022625\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.010 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.013 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 90/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 559/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 103/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 5/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 1281/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%    9.287      1 -total\n 28.67%    2.663      1 Template:Reflist\n 15.87%    1.474      1 Template:Published\n 15.74%    1.462      1 Template:AuthorByline\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:22-0!canonical and timestamp 20240620022625 and revision id 36396\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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