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    "url_title": "Anti-Discrimination Committee, JACL",
    "title_sort": "antidiscriminationcommitteejacl",
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    "modified": "2020-10-08T16:18:15",
    "title": "Anti-Discrimination Committee, JACL",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <p>\n  Lobbying arm of the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Japanese_American_Citizens_League/\" title=\"Japanese American Citizens League\">\n   Japanese American Citizens League\n  </a>\n  (JACL) set up in 1946 to spearhead the organization's legislative and legal efforts to attack discrimination against Japanese Americans and other minorities. The JACL set up the Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) as a separate organization to protect its tax status due to changes in federal laws regulating lobbyists.\n </p>\n <p>\n  The ADC was incorporated in the state of Utah on July 9, 1946, with then JACL President Hito Okada as chairman and many other JACL leaders in executive positions.\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Mike_Masaoka/\" title=\"Mike Masaoka\">\n   Mike Masaoka\n  </a>\n  , the league's wartime executive secretary, became the new organization's national legislative director, and his wife, Etsu Mineta Masaoka also joined the staff as a secretary. The Masaokas moved to Washington, DC, in 1947 and set up an office there. Mike set to work on a list of priorities established at the 1946 JACL convention that included seeking some form of \"evacuation claims\" and naturalization rights for the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Issei/\" title=\"Issei\">\n   Issei\n  </a>\n  . Masaoka kept JACL members and the public informed of their activities through a regular \"Letter from Washington\" column in the organization's\n  <i>\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Pacific_Citizen_(newspaper)/\" title=\"Pacific Citizen (newspaper)\">\n    Pacific Citizen\n   </a>\n  </i>\n  newspaper.\n </p>\n <p>\n  As its scope of activities grew, its staff ballooned to twenty-six by 1950 and it sought to raise money nationally through a network of local ADCs.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n    [1]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  Significantly, ADC membership and support targeted Issei as well as\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Nisei/\" title=\"Nisei\">\n   Nisei\n  </a>\n  —the JACL specifically excluded Issei from membership—with Issei citizenship the carrot for seeking their support.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n    [2]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  The ADC's activities culminated with the passage of the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Immigration_Act_of_1952/\" title=\"Immigration Act of 1952\">\n   Immigration Act of 1952\n  </a>\n  , a controversial measure that ended the ban on Issei naturalization but retained racist immigration quotas and included anti-Communist measures that many found troubling. After passage of this measure in 1952, Masaoka resigned to become a private lobbyist, and the ADC ceased its operations. The JACL published a celebratory final report for the ADC in the 1954 holiday edition of the\n  <i>\n   Pacific Citizen\n  </i>\n  .\n </p>\n <div id=\"authorByline\">\n  <b>\n   Authored by\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Brian_Niiya/\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n    Brian Niiya\n   </a>\n   , Densho\n  </b>\n </div>\n <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  Niiya, Brian\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    <i>\n     Final A.D.C. Report, 1946–1952\n    </i>\n    .\n    <i>\n     Pacific Citizen\n    </i>\n    , December 17, 1954, section C.\n    <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-26-51/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-26-51/\n    </a>\n    .\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Hegwood, Robert Alan. \"Erasing the Space Between Japanese and American: Progressivism, Nationalism, and Japanese American Resettlement in Portland, Oregon, 1945—1948.\" M.A. thesis, Portland State University, 2011.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Wu, Ellen.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"https://archive.org/details/colorofsuccessas00wuel\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      The Color of Success: Asian Americans and the Origins of the Model Minority\n     </i>\n    </a>\n    . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Larry Tajiri,\n        <i>\n         The Record Speaks,\n        </i>\n        <i>\n         Scene\n        </i>\n        , March 1950, reprinted in Larry Tajiri and Guyo Tajiri,\n        <i>\n         Pacific Citizens: Larry and Guyo Tajiri and Japanese American Journalism in the World War II Era\n        </i>\n        , edited, with an introduction and notes by Greg Robinson (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012), 213.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Mike Masaoka and Bill Hosokawa,\n        <i>\n         They Call Me Moses Masaoka\n        </i>\n        (New York: William Morrow, 1987), 221; Robert Alan Hegwood, \"Erasing the Space Between Japanese and American: Progressivism, Nationalism, and Japanese American Resettlement in Portland, Oregon, 1945—1948,\" M.A. thesis, Portland State University, 2011, 120.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20201114002021\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nCPU time usage: 0.034 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.041 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 86/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 459/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 514/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 58/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 1229/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   27.723      1 -total\n 25.14%    6.970      1 Template:Reflist\n  9.05%    2.510      1 Template:AuthorByline\n  7.61%    2.109      1 Template:Published\n-->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:2692-0!canonical and timestamp 20201114002021 and revision id 31159\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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