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    "url_title": "Bad Day at Black Rock (film)",
    "title_sort": "baddayatblackrockfilm",
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    "modified": "2024-04-30T17:56:43",
    "title": "Bad Day at Black Rock (film)",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div id=\"databox-FilmsDisplay\">\n  <table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n   <tbody>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Title\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Bad Day at Black Rock\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Date\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      1955-01-01\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n       Genre\n      </a>\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Drama\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Director\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      John Sturges\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Producer\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Dore Schary (producer); Herman Hoffman (associate producer)\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Screenplay\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Millard Kaufman\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Story\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Howard Breslin\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Based On\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Bad Time at Honda\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Starring\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Spencer Tracy (John J. McGready); Robert Ryan (Reno Smith); Ernest Borgnine (Coley Trimble); Walter Brennan (Doc Velie); John Ericson (Pete Wirth); Ann Francis (Liz Wirth); Dean Jagger (Tim Horn); Lee Marvin (Hector David)\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Music\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      André Previn\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Cinematography\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      William C. Mellor (director of photography)\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Editing\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Newell P. Kimlin\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Studio\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      MGM\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Runtime\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      81 minutes\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Budget\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      $1.3 million\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n       IMDB\n      </a>\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n       Bad Day at Black Rock\n      </a>\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n   </tbody>\n  </table>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-Films\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   Title:Bad Day at Black Rock;\nDate:1955-01-01; \nGenre:Drama;\nReleased:;\nDirector:John Sturges;\nProducer:Dore Schary (producer); Herman Hoffman (associate producer);\nWriter:;\nScreenplay:Millard Kaufman;\nStory:Howard Breslin;\nBasedOn:Bad Time at Honda;\nNarrator:;\nStarring:Spencer Tracy (John J. McGready); Robert Ryan (Reno Smith); Ernest Borgnine (Coley Trimble); Walter Brennan (Doc Velie); John Ericson (Pete Wirth); Ann Francis (Liz Wirth); Dean Jagger (Tim Horn); Lee Marvin (Hector David);\nMusic:André Previn;\nCinematography:William C. Mellor (director of photography);\nEditing:Newell P. Kimlin;\nStudio:MGM;\nDistributor:;\nRuntime:81 minutes;\nCountry:;\nLanguage:;\nBudget:$1.3 million;\nGross:;\nIMDBLink:\n   <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n   </a>\n   ;\nTrailerLink:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <div class=\"floatright\">\n </div>\n <div class=\"rgonly\">\n  <!--\"rgdatabox-CoreDisplay\" removed-->\n  <div id=\"rgdatabox-Core\" style=\"display:none;\">\n   <p>\n    RGMediaType:films;\nTitle:Bad Day at Black Rock;\nCreators:;\nInterestLevel:Grades 9-12; Adult;\nReadingLevel:;\nGuidedReadingLevel:;\nLexile:;\nTheme:Evils of racism; Fear of other;\nGenre:Thriller;\nPoV:Disabled Caucasian American World War II veteran;\nRelatedEvents:;\nAvailability:Widely available;\nFreeWebVersion:No;\nPrimarySecondary:;\nHasTeachingAids:No;\nWarnings:NR (Not Rated);\nDenshoTopic:;\nGeography:Black Rock, Arizona;\nChronology:1945;\nFacility:;\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <p>\n  Critically acclaimed 1955 movie starring Spencer Tracy whose plot is built around the murder of the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Issei/\" title=\"Issei\">\n   Issei\n  </a>\n  father of a\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Nisei/\" title=\"Nisei\">\n   Nisei\n  </a>\n  war hero in a forlorn desert town and its subsequent cover up. Though it was one of the first movies to note the discrimination Japanese Americans faced during World War II, no Japanese American characters appear in it.\n  <i>\n   Bad Day at Black Rock\n  </i>\n  was nominated for three Academy Awards.\n </p>\n <div aria-labelledby=\"mw-toc-heading\" class=\"toc\" id=\"toc\" role=\"navigation\">\n  <input class=\"toctogglecheckbox\" id=\"toctogglecheckbox\" role=\"button\" style=\"display:none\" type=\"checkbox\"/>\n  <div class=\"toctitle\" dir=\"ltr\" lang=\"en\">\n   <h2 id=\"mw-toc-heading\">\n    Contents\n   </h2>\n   <span class=\"toctogglespan\">\n    <label class=\"toctogglelabel\" for=\"toctogglecheckbox\">\n    </label>\n   </span>\n  </div>\n  <ul>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Background\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      1\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Background\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-2\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Plot_and_Impact\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      2\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Plot and Impact\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Related_Articles\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      3\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Related Articles\n     </span>\n    </a>\n    <ul>\n     <li class=\"toclevel-2\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#\">\n       <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n        3.1\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"toctext\">\n       </span>\n      </a>\n     </li>\n    </ul>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-3\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#For_More_Information\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      4\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      For More Information\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-4\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Footnotes\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      5\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Footnotes\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n  </ul>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Background\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Background\">\n    Background\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    The story originated in a short story by Howard Breslin titled \"Bad Time at Honda\" in 1947 in\n    <i>\n     The American Magazine\n    </i>\n    that was adapted into a script by Don McGuire and pitched to MGM production head Dore Schary. Head of production at MGM since 1948, Schary was known throughout his career as a liberal who favored message movies that attacked social problems. Among these was\n    <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/Go_for_Broke!_(film)/\" title=\"Go for Broke! (film)\">\n     <i>\n      Go for Broke!\n     </i>\n    </a>\n    , on the exploits of the\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/442nd_Regimental_Combat_Team/\" title=\"442nd Regimental Combat Team\">\n     442nd Regimental Combat Team\n    </a>\n    , which Schary produced in 1951.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n      [1]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Schary bought the script, but had it rewritten by Millard Kaufman and decided to rename the town because of the similarity to the recent John Wayne movie\n    <i>\n     Hondo\n    </i>\n    , with Kaufman coming up with \"Black Rock\" after a real town in Arizona. Though he was much older (55) than the platoon leader who was supposed to be in his mid-thirties, Schary saw Spencer Tracy in the lead role of John J. Macready and convinced the star to take the role. Kaufman finished the script in the fall of 1953. Just a month prior to the July 1954 start of shooting, director John Sturges was signed to direct. Schary's production team built the dilapidated small town in eleven days near Lone Pine, California—ironically in the shadow of the real life location of\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Manzanar/\" title=\"Manzanar\">\n     Manzanar\n    </a>\n    . Schary decided to shoot the $1.3 million movie in color and to use Cinemascope, feeling that the new widescreen technology would emphasize the town's isolation and menace. The cast and crew braved the 100 degree plus desert temperatures before the production moved to the studio lot in Culver City on August 9.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    The film had its first screening at Loew's 72nd Street theater in New York on December 8, 1954, and opened nationally early in 1955.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Plot_and_Impact\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Plot_and_Impact\">\n    Plot and Impact\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    John J. Macreedy (Tracy), a mysterious stranger with a crippled arm, arrives in the tiny desert town of Black Rock in 1945 and is immediately greeted with mysterious hostility by the locals. That hostility increases when he announces his desire to visit Adobe Flats and asks about a Japanese farmer named Kamoko. When Macreedy asks the town's leader, Reno Smith (Robert Ryan), about Kamoko, he tells Macreedy that  Kamoko was \"a Japanese farmer, never had a chance. Got here in '41 just before Pearl Harbor. Three months later, they shipped him off to a relocation center. Tough.\" Meanwhile, the townspeople debate over what to do about the intruder, deciding to kill him. Macreedy visits Adobe Flats to find a burned out home and a grave and deduces both that Smith killed Kamoko and that he and the townspeople plan to kill him as well that evening. Realizing his only hope is to appeal to the consciences of some of the townspeople, he enlists their help in foiling their plan and exposing the killing of Kamoko. One of them reveals that Smith has leased the land at Adobe Flats to Kamoko, thinking he was swindling him since there was no water. But Kamoko dug a deep well, making the land profitable. Bitter about that and angry over Pearl Harbor, Smith and a mob killed Kamoko shortly after Dec. 7, and the rest of the town has been keeping the secret ever since. It turns out that Macreedy served in Europe with Kamoko's son, who saved his life but was killed in action; Macreedy came to town only because he wanted to deliver his son's medal to Kamoko.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <i>\n     Bad Day at Black Rock\n    </i>\n    received almost universally positive reviews at the time with many reviewers noting its Western-like elements, often comparing it favorably to the acclaimed Western\n    <i>\n     High Noon\n    </i>\n    and praising cinematographer William C. Mellor's use of the wide screen to heighten the isolation and menace of Black Rock.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n      [2]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Philip T. Hartung of\n    <i>\n     The Commonweal\n    </i>\n    calls it \"a tight and suspenseful melodrama\" and \"excellent throughout,\" while Arthur Knight in\n    <i>\n     The Saturday Review\n    </i>\n    calls it \"...a refreshingly taut and surprisingly thoughtful little melodrama.\" John O'Hara in\n    <i>\n     Colliers Weekly\n    </i>\n    simply refers to it as \"one of the finest motion pictures ever made.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n      [3]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    The film appeared on the\n    <i>\n     New York Times\n    </i>\n    ten best list for 1955 and received three Academy Award Nominations: Tracy for best actor, Sturges for best director, and Kaufman for best screenplay.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n      [4]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    More recently, Janey Place astutely observes that \"... opinion as to what its message is has changed considerably since the film was originally released... Reviewers of the time saw the film's theme as one of civil responsibility, individual integrity, and group complacency.... No reviewers of the time, however, saw the message that seems so clear today:\n    <i>\n     Bad Day at Black Rock\n    </i>\n    is a scathing indictment of the blacklist in Hollywood.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n      [5]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    In the 1992 film\n    <i>\n     History and Memory: For Akiko and Takashige\n    </i>\n    , filmmaker Rea Tajiri uses footage from\n    <i>\n     Bad Day at Black Rock\n    </i>\n    to critique mainstream representations of Asian Americans, or in this case the lack of such representation even in a movie largely built around the travails of an Asian American character.\n   </p>\n   <div id=\"authorByline\">\n    <b>\n     Authored by\n     <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Brian_Niiya/\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n      Brian Niiya\n     </a>\n     , Densho\n    </b>\n   </div>\n   <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n    Niiya, Brian\n   </div>\n   <p>\n    Might also like \"\n    <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/Japanese_War_Bride_(film)/\" title=\"Japanese War Bride (film)\">\n     Japanese War Bride\n    </a>\n    <i>\n     (1952);\n    </i>\n    <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/Go_for_Broke!_(film)/\" title=\"Go for Broke! (film)\">\n     Go For Broke!\n    </a>\n    <i>\n     (1951);\n    </i>\n    <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/The_Steel_Helmet_(film)/\" title=\"The Steel Helmet (film)\">\n     The Steel Helmet\n    </a>\n    <i>\n     (1951)\n    </i>\n   </p>\n   <div id=\"RelatedArticlesDisplay\">\n    <div class=\"section\" id=\"Related_Articles\">\n     <h2>\n      <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Related_Articles\">\n       Related Articles\n      </span>\n     </h2>\n     <div class=\"section_content\">\n      <p class=\"mw-empty-elt\">\n      </p>\n      <div id=\"RelatedArticlesSectionDisplay\">\n       <div class=\"section\" id=\"\">\n        <h3>\n         <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"\">\n         </span>\n        </h3>\n        <div class=\"section_content\">\n         <p class=\"mw-empty-elt\">\n         </p>\n         <ul>\n          <li>\n           <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Dramatic_films/videos_on_incarceration/\" title=\"Dramatic films/videos on incarceration\">\n            Dramatic films/videos on incarceration\n           </a>\n          </li>\n         </ul>\n        </div>\n       </div>\n      </div>\n     </div>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    \"Bad Day at Black Rock.\" In American Film Institute Catalog: Within Our Gates: Ethnicity in American Feature Films, 1911–1960. Edited by Alan Gevinson. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. 61–62.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Curtis, James.\n    <i>\n     Spencer Tracy: A Biography\n    </i>\n    . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2011.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Latteier, Pearl. \"The Hollywood Social Problem Film, 1946–1959.\" PhD diss., University of Wisconsin, Madison, 2010.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Place, Janey. \"Bad Day at Black Rock.\" In Frank N. Magill.\n    <i>\n     Magill's Survey of Cinema: English Language Films, First Series, Volume 1\n    </i>\n    . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Salem Press, 1980.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Schary, Dore.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Heyday: An Autobiography\n     </i>\n     .\n    </a>\n    Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1979.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Turner Classic Movies.\n    </a>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Pearl Latteier, \"The Hollywood Social Problem Film, 1946–1959\" (PhD diss., University of Wisconsin, Madison, 2010), 97–105.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Among the many to make the\n        <i>\n         Hign Noon\n        </i>\n        comparison are Bosley Crowther in the\n        <i>\n         New York Times\n        </i>\n        (Feb. 2, 1955; accessed on March 28, 2013 at\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\";res=9E01EFDB1F3FE035A65751C0A9649C946492D6CF&amp;oref=slogin\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n;res=9E01EFDB1F3FE035A65751C0A9649C946492D6CF&amp;oref=slogin\n        </a>\n        ); Philip T. Hartung in\n        <i>\n         The Commonweal\n        </i>\n        (\"From High Noon On,\"  Jan. 14, 1955, 407); G. N. Fenin in\n        <i>\n         Film Culture\n        </i>\n        1.3 (May-June 1955), 27; and Robert Hatch in\n        <i>\n         The Nation\n        </i>\n        (Feb. 19, 1955, 165–66). Relative to\n        <i>\n         High Noon\n        </i>\n        , Hatch writes, \"The new picture is the better by a variety of measurements.\" Among those praising Mellor's use of CinemaScope are\n        <i>\n         Newsweek\n        </i>\n        (Feb. 21, 1955, 94);\n        <i>\n         Time\n        </i>\n        (Jan. 17, 1955, 74);\n        <i>\n         Variety\n        </i>\n        (Dec. 15, 1954, 6); and Fenin in\n        <i>\n         Film Culture\n        </i>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Hartung,\n        <i>\n         The Commonweal\n        </i>\n        , Arthur Knight,\n        <i>\n         The Saturday Review\n        </i>\n        , Jan. 29, 1955, p. 26; John O'Hara, \"Appointment with O'Hara,\"\n        <i>\n         Colliers Weekly\n        </i>\n        , March 18, 1955, p. 6, accessed on March 26, 2013 at\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\";SearchView=PDFHits&amp;pages=6\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n;SearchView=PDFHits&amp;pages=6\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        All lost out to their counterparts in\n        <i>\n         Marty\n        </i>\n        ; best actor award winner Ernest Borgnine was a supporting player in\n        <i>\n         Black Rock\n        </i>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Janey Place, \"Bad Day at Black Rock.\" In Frank N. Magill,\n        <i>\n         Magill's Survey of Cinema: English Language Films, First Series, Volume 1\n        </i>\n        (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Salem Press, 1980), 116.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20240509204647\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.027 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.043 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 503/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 10007/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 2130/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 6/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 3195/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   31.013      1 -total\n 34.70%   10.760      1 Template:RelatedArticles\n 10.04%    3.114      1 Template:Reflist\n  8.46%    2.623      1 Template:Databox-Films\n  8.19%    2.541      1 Template:RGDatabox-Core\n  4.93%    1.528      1 Template:RelatedArticlesSection\n  4.82%    1.494      1 Template:Published\n  4.59%    1.425      1 Template:AuthorByline\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:1550-0!canonical and timestamp 20240509204647 and revision id 36218\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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