GET /api/0.1/articles/California%20Joint%20Immigration%20Committee/
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    "url_title": "California Joint Immigration Committee",
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    "modified": "2023-12-13T18:02:02",
    "title": "California Joint Immigration Committee",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <p>\n  The successor organization to the Japanese Exclusion League, the California Joint Immigration Committee (CJIC) continued its\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Anti-Japanese_exclusion_movement/\" title=\"Anti-Japanese exclusion movement\">\n   anti-Japanese activities\n  </a>\n  after\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Immigration_Act_of_1924/\" title=\"Immigration Act of 1924\">\n   Japanese exclusion\n  </a>\n  was secured in 1924 and advocated mass removal and incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. Groups like the CJIC provide a tangible link between the anti-Japanese movement of the 1920s and the mass exclusion policy of World War II.\n </p>\n <div aria-labelledby=\"mw-toc-heading\" class=\"toc\" id=\"toc\" role=\"navigation\">\n  <input class=\"toctogglecheckbox\" id=\"toctogglecheckbox\" role=\"button\" style=\"display:none\" type=\"checkbox\"/>\n  <div class=\"toctitle\" dir=\"ltr\" lang=\"en\">\n   <h2 id=\"mw-toc-heading\">\n    Contents\n   </h2>\n   <span class=\"toctogglespan\">\n    <label class=\"toctogglelabel\" for=\"toctogglecheckbox\">\n    </label>\n   </span>\n  </div>\n  <ul>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Formation_and_1930s_Activity\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      1\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Formation and 1930s Activity\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-2\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#World_War_II\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      2\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      World War II\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-3\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#For_More_Information\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      3\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      For More Information\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-4\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Footnotes\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      4\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Footnotes\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n  </ul>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Formation_and_1930s_Activity\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Formation_and_1930s_Activity\">\n    Formation and 1930s Activity\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    The Japanese Exclusion League of California was formed at a meeting on September 2, 1920, in San Francisco, with the purpose of seeking legislation that would end further Japanese immigration to the United States. Its president was State Senator J. M. Inman and officials of the Native Sons, American Legion, California State Federation of Labor, California State Federation of Women's Clubs, California State Grange, Farm Bureau and Loyal Order of the Moose were vice-presidents. However, according to historian Roger Daniels, the \"real power in the organization\" was wielded by\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/V.S._McClatchy/\" title=\"V.S. McClatchy\">\n     V. S. McClatchy\n    </a>\n    , a wealthy retired newspaper publisher who led the exclusion movement.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n      [1]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    In an effort to remove the taint of racism from the movement, McClatchy later decided to downplay the role of the League, making the focus on immigration reform in a more general sense. After the passage of the Immigration Act of 1924, which did end Japanese immigration, the California Joint Immigration Committee was formed as a successor to the Exclusion League. McClatchy would lead the organization until his death in 1938.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    The CJIC continued to monitor Japanese American issues, working to insure that the exclusion law would not be overturned, seeking to extend\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Alien_land_laws/\" title=\"Alien land laws\">\n     alien land laws\n    </a>\n    into states that did not have them, and even having passages that were favorable to Japanese Americans removed from textbooks in California and Hawai'i.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n      [2]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    The organization also targeted other non-white immigrant groups, in particular immigrations from the Philippines and Mexico. But the group's effort to deny Mexican immigrants the right to naturalization failed.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n      [3]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"World_War_II\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"World_War_II\">\n    World War II\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    The CJIC saw the attack on Pearl Harbor as an opportunity to further their anti-Japanese efforts. As CJIC executive secretary H. J. McClatchy (the son of V. S.) put it at the group's February 7, 1942, meeting, \"I know that the Committee has received more active and more general support in the last month than it has received in the last thirty years of its existence, and what we want, we ought to get now.\" Committee member Charles M. Goethe was even more blunt: \"This is our time to get things done that we have been trying to get done for a quarter of a century,\" he told the group.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n      [4]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Somewhat predictably, the CJIC sent out a release decrying Nisei\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Dual_citizenship/\" title=\"Dual citizenship\">\n     dual citizenship\n    </a>\n    and charging that Japanese Americans engaged in\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Fifth_column/\" title=\"Fifth column\">\n     fifth column\n    </a>\n    activity in Hawai'i. They later put out a statement advocating mass removal of Japanese Americans, since \"it was impossible to separate the loyal from the disloyal. While the loyal might therefore suffer in mass treatment, this was preferable to endangering the welfare of the nation.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n      [5]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    The CJIC was also among the groups that opposed the repeal of\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Chinese_Exclusion_Act/\" title=\"Chinese Exclusion Act\">\n     Chinese exclusion\n    </a>\n    in 1943. The CJIC continued its agitation after the war, supporting California's\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Proposition_15_(1946)/\" title=\"Proposition 15 (1946)\">\n     Proposition 15\n    </a>\n    in 1946, which would have made the alien land law a part of the state constitution, though its influence, as with other anti-Japanese organizations, waned dramatically subsequently.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\">\n      [6]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <div id=\"authorByline\">\n    <b>\n     Authored by\n     <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Brian_Niiya/\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n      Brian Niiya\n     </a>\n     , Densho\n    </b>\n   </div>\n   <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n    Niiya, Brian\n   </div>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\";titlesAZ=c;idT=UCb106793317\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     California Joint Immigration Committee Collection, 1924-1936.\n    </a>\n    Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Daniels, Roger.\n    <i>\n     The Politics of Prejudice: The Anti-Japanese Movement in California and the Struggle for Japanese Exclusion\n    </i>\n    . 1962. 2nd edition. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Grodzins, Morton.\n    <i>\n     Americans Betrayed: Politics and the Japanese Evacuation\n    </i>\n    . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Molina, Natalia. \"'In a Race All their Own': The Quest to Make Mexicans Ineligible for U.S. Citizenship.\"\n    <i>\n     Pacific Historical Review\n    </i>\n    79.2 (May 2010): 167–201.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Roger Daniels,\n        <i>\n         The Politics of Prejudice: The Anti-Japanese Movement in California and the Struggle for Japanese Exclusion\n        </i>\n        (1962, 2nd edition, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977), 91.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians,\n        <i>\n         Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians\n        </i>\n        (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997), 36.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Natalia Molina, \"'In a Race All their Own': The Quest to Make Mexicans Ineligible for U.S. Citizenship,\"\n        <i>\n         Pacific Historical Review\n        </i>\n        79.2 (May 2010): 182–84.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Morton Grodzins,\n        <i>\n         Americans Betrayed: Politics and the Japanese Evacuation\n        </i>\n        (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949), 20.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Grodzins,\n        <i>\n         Americans Betrayed\n        </i>\n        , 47.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Kevin Allen Leonard, \"'Is That What We Fought For?' Japanese Americans and Racism in California, The Impact of World War II,\"\n        <i>\n         The Western Historical Quarterly\n        </i>\n        21. 4 (1990), 471. Proposition 15 was voted down by California voters in November 1946, the first time an anti-Japanese ballot initiative was rejected in California. Writing in 1948, Nisei journalist\n        <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Larry_Tajiri/\" title=\"Larry Tajiri\">\n         Larry Tajiri\n        </a>\n        claimed that organization \" exists today only in the letter writing proclivities of... H. J. McClatchy.\" See Larry and Guyo Tajiri,\n        <i>\n         Pacific Citizens: Larry and Guyo Tajiri and Japanese American Journalism in the World War II Era,\n        </i>\n        edited, with an introduction and notes by Greg Robinson (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012), 201.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20231213180202\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.012 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.016 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 131/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 514/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 58/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 5/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 3105/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   10.912      1 -total\n 31.50%    3.437      1 Template:Reflist\n 14.91%    1.627      1 Template:AuthorByline\n 13.24%    1.445      1 Template:Published\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:43-0!canonical and timestamp 20231213180202 and revision id 35619\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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