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    "url_title": "Charles Ernst",
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    "modified": "2020-08-24T14:50:01",
    "title": "Charles Ernst",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div id=\"databox-PeopleDisplay\">\n  <table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n   <tbody>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Name\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Charles Ernst\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Born\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      September 8 1886\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Died\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      July 29 1968\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n   </tbody>\n  </table>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-People\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   FirstName:Charles;\nLastName:Ernst;\nDisplayName:Charles Ernst;\nBirthDate:1886-09-08;\nDeathDate:1968-07-29;\nBirthLocation:;\nGender:Male;\nEthnicity:White;\nGenerationIdentifier:;\nNationality:US;\nExternalResourceLink:;\nPrimaryGeography:;\nReligion:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <div class=\"floatright\">\n </div>\n <div class=\"floatright\">\n </div>\n <p>\n  Charles E. Ernst was the first director of\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Topaz/\" title=\"Topaz\">\n   Topaz\n  </a>\n  , serving from June 1942 until he resigned in June 1944. He was succeeded by Luther T. Hoffman.\n </p>\n <p>\n  Charles Ernst graduated from Harvard in 1909. He started his career working South End House (a settlement house) in Boston. He moved twice to Seattle, working the second time for the city's Unemployment Relief Organization. It was while he was in Seattle that he further developed important political connections, earning an appointment from the governor as head of the Department of Social Security from 1937 to 1940. When a new administration took over he lost his appointment and moved to Washington, D.C. where he worked for the American Public Welfare Association, and became vice-chariman of the American Red Cross in San Francisco in 1941. Ernst was hired as director of Topaz by the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/War_Relocation_Authority/\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">\n   War Relocation Authority\n  </a>\n  (WRA) in June 1942.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n    [1]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  Ernst was known by some for his compassion and kindness, and by others for his status consciousness and arrogance. Ernst prided himself on keeping order in Topaz by fostering effective self-government. He was a central figure in facilitating Issei demands that the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Loyalty_questionnaire/\" title=\"Loyalty questionnaire\">\n   loyalty questionnaire\n  </a>\n  be revised in February 1943 (see\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Committee_of_Nine_(Topaz)/\" title=\"Committee of Nine (Topaz)\">\n   Committee of Nine (Topaz)\n  </a>\n  ). Ernst was in Washington, D.C. when a guard, Gerald B. Philpott, shot and killed\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Issei/\" title=\"Issei\">\n   Issei\n  </a>\n  inmate\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/James_Hatsuaki_Wakasa/\" title=\"James Hatsuaki Wakasa\">\n   James Hatsuaki Wakasa\n  </a>\n  on April 11, 1943. When he returned, Topaz was in turmoil. He attempted to reduce tensions by removing day guards from inside Topaz and securing an agreement that henceforth the remaining guards would be less heavily armed and would not enter Topaz without first receiving clearance from War Relocation Authority staff. However when inmates built a monument marking the spot where Wakasa had been killed, Ernst had it removed. Ernst resigned in June 1944 to take a position with the United Nations Relief and Administration.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n    [2]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <div id=\"authorByline\">\n  <b>\n   Authored by\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Cherstin_M._Lyon/\" title=\"Cherstin M. Lyon\">\n    Cherstin M. Lyon\n   </a>\n   , California State University, San Bernardino\n  </b>\n </div>\n <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  Lyon, Cherstin\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    \"\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Alice Tatsuno with Topaz administrators and staff\n    </a>\n    .\" Video taken by Dave Tatsuno, from the Dave Tatsuno Collection.\n    <i>\n     Discover Nikkei\n    </i>\n    .\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Arrington, Leonard.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\";context=honor_lectures\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      The Price of Prejudice\n     </i>\n    </a>\n    . Faculty Honor Lecture No. 25. Utah State University, Logan, Utah, 1962.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Hayashi, Brian Masaru.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Democratizing the Enemy: The Japanese American Internment\n     </i>\n    </a>\n    . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Lyon, Cherstin.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Prisons and Patriots: Japanese American Wartime Citizenship, Civil Disobedience, and Historical Memory.\n     </i>\n    </a>\n    Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Sekerak, Eleanor Gerard. \"A Teacher at Topaz,\" In\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Japanese Americans: From Relocation to Redress,\n     </i>\n    </a>\n    Revised Edition. Edited by Roger Daniels, Sandra C. Taylor, and Harry H.L. Kitano, 38-43. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1991.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Taylor, Sandra C.\n    <i>\n     Jewel of the Desert: Japanese American Internment at Topaz.\n    </i>\n    Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Brian Masaru Hayashi,\n        <i>\n         Democratizing the Enemy: The Japanese American Internment\n        </i>\n        (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004), 26-27.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Sandra Taylor,\n        <i>\n         Jewel of the Desert: Japanese American Internment at Topaz\n        </i>\n        (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 99-100, 141.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20230521153429\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.016 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.022 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 172/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 1619/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 273/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 6/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 868/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   14.734      1 -total\n 45.21%    6.661      1 Template:Databox-People\n 15.86%    2.337      1 Template:Reflist\n  9.03%    1.331      1 Template:AuthorByline\n  8.87%    1.307      1 Template:Published\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:1598-0!canonical and timestamp 20230521153429 and revision id 30913\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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