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{
    "url_title": "Chicago, South Ellis Avenue (detention facility)",
    "title_sort": "chicagosouthellisavenuedetentionfacility",
    "links": {
        "json": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/articles/Chicago,%20South%20Ellis%20Avenue%20(detention%20facility)/",
        "html": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Chicago,%20South%20Ellis%20Avenue%20(detention%20facility)"
    },
    "modified": "2021-05-24T20:25:32",
    "title": "Chicago, South Ellis Avenue (detention facility)",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div id=\"databox-CampsDisplay\">\n  <table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n   <tbody>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      US Gov Name\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Chicago Detention Station\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sites_of_incarceration/\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">\n       Facility Type\n      </a>\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sites_of_incarceration#Immigration_Detention_Station/\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">\n       Immigration Detention Station\n      </a>\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Administrative Agency\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Immigration and Naturalization Service\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Location\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Chicago, Illinois ( lat,  lng)\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Date Opened\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Date Closed\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Population Description\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Held Japanese immigrants; also held German and other European nationals.\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      General Description\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Private residence used by INS as detention site\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Peak Population\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n   </tbody>\n  </table>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-Camps\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   SoSUID:i-seat;\nDenshoName:Chicago;\nUSGName:Chicago Detention Station;\nType:\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sites_of_incarceration#Immigration_Detention_Station/\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">\n    Immigration Detention Station\n   </a>\n   ;\nAdminAgency:Immigration and Naturalization Service;\nDateOpened:;\nDateClosed:;\nLocationName:Chicago, Illinois;\nCityName:Chicago;\nStateName:IL;\nDescription:Private residence used by INS as detention site;\nGISLat:;\nGISLng:;\nGISTGNId:;\nCurrentDisposition:;\nPopulationDescription:Held Japanese immigrants; also held German and other European nationals.;\nExitDestination:;\nPeakPopulation:;\nPeakDate:;\nNPSMoreInfoResourceLink:;\nOfficialResourceLink:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <p>\n  The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) used a privately owned mansion in Chicago to intern several Japanese and German immigrants after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. The INS used this home as a detention facility on and off until at least August 1943.\n </p>\n <div aria-labelledby=\"mw-toc-heading\" class=\"toc\" id=\"toc\" role=\"navigation\">\n  <input class=\"toctogglecheckbox\" id=\"toctogglecheckbox\" role=\"button\" style=\"display:none\" type=\"checkbox\"/>\n  <div class=\"toctitle\" dir=\"ltr\" lang=\"en\">\n   <h2 id=\"mw-toc-heading\">\n    Contents\n   </h2>\n   <span class=\"toctogglespan\">\n    <label class=\"toctogglelabel\" for=\"toctogglecheckbox\">\n    </label>\n   </span>\n  </div>\n  <ul>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Background_and_Facilities\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      1\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Background and Facilities\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-2\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Internees\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      2\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Internees\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-3\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#For_More_Information\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      3\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      For More Information\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-4\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Footnotes\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      4\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Footnotes\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n  </ul>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Background_and_Facilities\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Background_and_Facilities\">\n    Background and Facilities\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    The mansion was located at 4800 South Ellis Avenue in the Kenwood neighborhood of Chicago. It was designed by architect Charles S Frost and built in 1892 for Edward C Potter who was a steel company executive in Chicago. It was a three-storied yellow brick mansion with turrets. Kenwood was an upscale area with mansions that had been built for Chicago industrialists such as meatpacker Gustavus Swift, and Sears, Roebuck and Co owner Julius Rosenwald, but the status of the neighborhood was declining by the 1940s. It is not clear why the INS used this private home as a detention facility.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    According to Eberhard E Fuhr, a former detainee, \"[t]here was a guard house next to the front door. All the guards were armed and would run off people who approached the fence.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-1\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-1\">\n      [1]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    He recalled that\"[g]uards with sidearm and rifles sat at the front door and walked the fence line—four guards per shift, three shifts per day. They did not talk much. Their job was to give you three meals a day and keep you. If it wasn't in the manual they did not do it.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-2\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-2\">\n      [2]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    The mansion had a capacity of 158 detainees.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-3\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-3\">\n      [3]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Fuhr remembered that \"the mansion had a large assembly room about 30' x 30' on the main floor and seven bedrooms on the second floor, each of which had tiled bathroom and four Army cots. The top floor had been a steep-roofed ballroom and was used as a recreation room with ping pong tables when the number of detainees did not exceed about twenty five.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-4\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-4\">\n      [4]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Within four days after the Pearl Harbor attack, nine Japanese and thirty-one Germans nationals were arrested in Chicago. First they were taken to the New Post Office building which housed the immigration and naturalization services, where they were questioned and identified by authorities. Later they were taken to Fort Sheridan in army trucks to await removal to detention camps.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-5\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-5\">\n      [5]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    FBI arrests of Japanese continued in Chicago throughout 1943.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Internees\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Internees\">\n    Internees\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    From the fact that Charles Yasuma Yamazaki, one of last Japanese arrested on December 3, 1943, was given a Chicago Arrest Serial No. J-14, it can be presumed that about fourteen Japanese in total were arrested by FBI in the Chicago area after the outbreak of the war in 1941.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-6\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-6\">\n      [6]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    \" Out of these fourteen, at least five—including one arrested in Cincinnati—were held for a time at the Ellis Avenue mansion. Each arrived between December 1941 and February 1943.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Shoji Osato, a photographer, journalist, and publicity and advertising agent for the Japanese tourism board and for the government railways was apprehended in Chicago on December 8, 1941. He was transferred to Fort Sheridan the next day, then transferred to the Ellis Avenue mansion on December 26, 1941. His hearing was on January 3, 1942, and he was paroled on June 3, 1942, after he had found sponsors.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-7\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-7\">\n      [7]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    His daughter, Sono Osato, the famous ballet dancer, described her visit with her father at the mansion in her memoir\n    <i>\n     Distant Dances\n    </i>\n    as follows:\n   </p>\n   <blockquote>\n    <p>\n     He was detained, along with some Germans, in a large house that had formerly been a mansion on the South Side of the city, miles from our apartment. Mother and I could visit him but we were never allowed to speak with him privately. An armed guard sat with us at a card table in a bleak, empty room, adding a painful strain to our conversation with his silence. Even the magazines we brought Father were thoroughly examined to determine whether they concealed any weapons.\n     <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-8\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-8\">\n       [8]\n      </a>\n     </sup>\n    </p>\n   </blockquote>\n   <p>\n    Hiroshi Yamada was detained at the mansion from January 19 to May 22, 1942. He was the director of the Foreign Trade Bureau, which was a subsidiary of Japanese government located in the Japanese Consulate. After he was moved from the mansion in May, Yamada was sent to\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Camp_McCoy_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Camp McCoy (detention facility)\">\n     Camp McCoy\n    </a>\n    in Wisconsin,\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Camp_Forrest_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Camp Forrest (detention facility)\">\n     Camp Forrest\n    </a>\n    in Tennessee and\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Ellis_Island_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Ellis Island (detention facility)\">\n     Ellis Island\n    </a>\n    in New York to board the first exchange ship back to Japan, the\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/The_Gripsholm_WWII_Exchanges/\" title=\"The Gripsholm WWII Exchanges\">\n     <i>\n      M.S. Gripsholm\n     </i>\n    </a>\n    , in June 1942.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-9\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-9\">\n      [9]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    In the report compiled as of July 14, 1942, about six weeks after Osato left, two Japanese, twelve Germans and one \"not specified\" detainee were reported at the mansion.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-10\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-10\">\n      [10]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    One of those two Japanese must have been Harvey Mitaro Kayano, a restaurant owner in Chicago. Kayano appeared in a list of alien Japanese furnished by the FBI on December 8, 1941 but had been released to Thomas Tsutomu Yamauchi, another restaurant owner, as his sponsor. Two months later, Kayano was apprehended because his sponsor, Yamauchi, reported that Kayano was at risk of disappearing for several days and his whereabouts would be unknown.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    According to the records, on February 17, 1942, Kayano was first held in Room 1202 at the Post Office Building for interrogation and was arrested on February 18, 1942, by the FBI because he had mental problems. He was considered \"dangerous, that not only because he was a Japanese alien, but because of his mental condition he could be used as a tool for persons who desired to become engaged in subversive activities.\" After the hearing on February 20, 1942, he was placed in custody at the mansion. Learning that he would be interned for the duration of the war, he wrote a letter from the mansion on June 11, 1942 to the US District Attorney in Chicago begging for his release, explaining that \"I would be able to find employment at once and would under no circumstances become a public burden and be able to do my small part to further the war effort of the United States\". But these efforts were in vain, as Kayano was sent to\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Camp_Livingston_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Camp Livingston (detention facility)\">\n     Camp Livingston\n    </a>\n    in Louisiana, via Camp McCoy in Wisconsin, around November 25, 1942.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-11\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-11\">\n      [11]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Frank Eizo Yanagi was another Japanese who was arrested right after the Pearl Harbor attack, on December 11, 1941. Though he was released after his hearing on January 4, 1942, he was arrested again on October 28, 1942, as part of a roundup of African American radical groups in September 1942, along with eighty-five African Americans. Yanagi was suspected of having a connection with one of the radical groups, and was turned over to Immigration and Naturalization authorities the Ellis Avenue mansion on the same day. He was moved from the mansion on November 28, 1942 to be interned at Camp McCoy in Wisconsin.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-12\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-12\">\n      [12]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    In spring 1943, Eberhard E Fuhr, a seventeen-year-old German man, was sent to the mansion from Cincinnati and held there for approximately three months. He described his experience in the mansion as follows:\n   </p>\n   <blockquote>\n    <p>\n     Twenty-five or thirty men were already there, most from Chicago, a Romanian priest, a Hungarian priest, an Austrian, three Italians. The rest were Krauts like me.\"\n    </p>\n    <p>\n     ...\n    </p>\n    <p>\n     The treatment was humane-very nice, very orderly. The food left a lot to be desired. The detainees, most of them in their 30s or 40s, were up early and had the bathroom cleaned and their beds made by nine in the morning. Chores-kitchen duty and scrubbing the floors were rotated, but there was little to do, besides read books or newspapers.  At night the shades were pulled and the men were told to stay away from the windows because someone had once fired shots at the house.\n     <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-13\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-13\">\n       [13]\n      </a>\n     </sup>\n    </p>\n   </blockquote>\n   <p>\n    Once when Fuhr was permitted to be outside to work in a small garden, he found the guards' stockpile of guns and ammunition in a two-storied coach house in the backyard.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-14\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-14\">\n      [14]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Fuhr noted that his fellow detainees stayed for various lengths of time: some had arrived when he did and were still there when he left, while others disappeared quickly.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-15\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-15\">\n      [15]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Although Fuhr did not mention Japanese detainees in the mansion, Asataro Yamaguchi was one of them: he had arrived before Fuhr and had to stay after Fuhr was permitted to leave. Yamaguchi was arrested in Cincinnati on December 3, 1942, because he mentioned racial ties between Japanese and African Americans. He was sent to the mansion on February 23, 1943, and was detained there until he was transferred to\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Kooskia_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Kooskia (detention facility)\">\n     Kooskia Camp\n    </a>\n    in Idaho on August 6 1943.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-16\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-16\">\n      [16]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    After the war, the mansion was completely restored. Today it is a privately owned single-family home.\n   </p>\n   <div id=\"authorByline\">\n    <b>\n     Authored by\n     <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Takako_Day/\" title=\"Takako Day\">\n      Takako Day\n     </a>\n     , Independent researcher, Illinois\n    </b>\n   </div>\n   <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n    Day, Takako\n   </div>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Day, Takako. \"\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"http://www.discovernikkei.org/en/journal/2019/3/27/eizo-yanagi-1/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Suspicious Points of Contact in Pre-War Chicago: Eizo Yanagi.\n    </a>\n    \" Discover Nikkei, Mar. 27–28, 2019.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap mw-references-columns\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-1\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        \"4800 Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois,\" German American Internee Coalition (GAIC), accessed on Feb. 10, 2021 at gaic.info/internment-camps/temporary-detention facilities/4800-ellis-avenue-chicago-illinois/.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-2\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Kraus, Kitry, \"Dangerous Enemy Alien,\"\n        <i>\n         Chicago Reader\n        </i>\n        , Sept. 3, 1993.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-3\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-3\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Tetsuden Kashima,\n        <i>\n         Judgment without Trial:  Japanese American Imprisonment during World War II\n        </i>\n        (Seattle:  University of Washington Press, 2003), 252.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-4\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-4\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        \"4800 Ellis Avenue,\" GAIC.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-5\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-5\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        <i>\n         Chicago Tribune\n        </i>\n        , Dec. 10 &amp; 11, 1941.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-6\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-6\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        FBI report 12/6/1943, Charles Yasuma Yamazaki, File No. 146-13-2-23-531, RG 60, Box 266, NARA, College Park, Maryland.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-7\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-7\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        <i>\n         Chicago Tribune\n        </i>\n        , Oct. 11, 1938; Shoji Osato, INS card, File No. 146-13-2-23-78, General Records of the Department of Justice WWII Alien Enemy Internment Case Files 1941-1951, RG 60, Box 255, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), College Park, Maryland.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-8\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-8\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Sono Osato,\n        <i>\n         Distant Dances\n        </i>\n        (New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1980), 199.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-9\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-9\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Diplomatic Archives of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, A-7-0-0-9-24-1 Nichibei Kokan-sen Kankei.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-10\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-10\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Kashima,\n        <i>\n         Judgment without Trial\n        </i>\n        , 252.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-11\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-11\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Harvey Mitaro Kayano, File No. 146-13-2-23-159, RG 60, Box 257, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), College Park, Maryland.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-12\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-12\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Eizo Yanagi, File No. 146-13-2-23-107, RG 60, Box 255, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), College Park, Maryland.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-13\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-13\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Kraus, \"Dangerous Enemy Alien.\"\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-14\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-14\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        \"4800 Ellis Avenue,\" GAIC.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-15\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-15\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Kraus, \"Dangerous Enemy Alien.\"\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-16\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-16\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Asataro Yamaguchi, File No. 146-13-2-58-176, RG 60, Box 541, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), College Park, Maryland.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20220111214442\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.022 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.030 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 343/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 2777/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 737/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 5/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 5176/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   21.477      1 -total\n 20.92%    4.493      1 Template:Reflist\n  9.55%    2.052      1 Template:Databox-Camps\n  8.05%    1.728      1 Template:AuthorByline\n  7.10%    1.524      1 Template:Published\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:4354-0!canonical and timestamp 20220111214442 and revision id 33582\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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    "authors": [
        "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/authors/Takako%20Day/"
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