GET /api/0.1/articles/Committee%20of%2033%20(Topaz)/
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    "url_title": "Committee of 33 (Topaz)",
    "title_sort": "committeeof33topaz",
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    "modified": "2023-12-17T00:16:58",
    "title": "Committee of 33 (Topaz)",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <p>\n  The \"Committee of 33\" at\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Topaz/\" title=\"Topaz\">\n   Topaz\n  </a>\n  formed in 1943 and represented the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Nisei/\" title=\"Nisei\">\n   Nisei\n  </a>\n  and\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Kibei/\" title=\"Kibei\">\n   Kibei\n  </a>\n  responses to the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Loyalty_questionnaire/\" title=\"Loyalty questionnaire\">\n   \"loyalty questionnaire\"\n  </a>\n  and the formation of the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/442nd_Regimental_Combat_Team/\" title=\"442nd Regimental Combat Team\">\n   442nd Regimental Combat Team\n  </a>\n  . The\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Issei/\" title=\"Issei\">\n   Issei\n  </a>\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Committee_of_Nine_(Topaz)/\" title=\"Committee of Nine (Topaz)\">\n   Committee of Nine (Topaz)\n  </a>\n  had effectively halted the registration process for several days to put pressure on administrators to change the loyalty questionnaire title and revise\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Questions_27_and_28/\" title=\"Questions 27 and 28\">\n   question 28\n  </a>\n  . Issei did not want to be forced to choose between their Japanese citizenship (the only citizenship they were allowed by law) and their standing in the United States. Kibei at Topaz, supported by their Issei parents, wanted to use continued non-compliance with registration to force some changes to their situation as well. The majority of Kibei and a visible majority of Issei argued that no citizen should register until his civil rights were restored and citizenship fully recognized. When threatened by camp director\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Charles_Ernst/\" title=\"Charles Ernst\">\n   Charles Ernst\n  </a>\n  with prosecution under the Espionage Act if any citizen refused to register, the \"Committee of 33\" formed to draft a resolution in an effort to take the matter over the heads of camp administrators. When they received a response from major national figures such as Secretary of War\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Henry_Stimson/\" title=\"Henry Stimson\">\n   Henry Stimson\n  </a>\n  , Colonel William P. Scobey, and\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/War_Relocation_Authority/\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">\n   WRA\n  </a>\n  director\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Dillon_Myer/\" title=\"Dillon Myer\">\n   Dillon Myer\n  </a>\n  that rebuked citizen Nisei/Kibei for their petition and reaffirmed the message that they must first serve their country before their citizenship rights would be restored, the collective resistance at Topaz broke down and the registration process began. Individuals who chose to register their frustration answered\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Questions_27_and_28/\" title=\"Questions 27 and 28\">\n   Questions 27 and 28\n  </a>\n  with a\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/No-no_boys/\" title=\"No-no boys\">\n   \"No-No.\"\n  </a>\n  Most of the citizens who were sent to\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Tule_Lake/\" title=\"Tule Lake\">\n   Tule Lake\n  </a>\n  from Topaz for answering Questions 27 and 28 with a \"No-No\" were Kibei.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n    [1]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <div id=\"authorByline\">\n  <b>\n   Authored by\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Cherstin_M._Lyon/\" title=\"Cherstin M. Lyon\">\n    Cherstin M. Lyon\n   </a>\n   , California State University, San Bernardino\n  </b>\n </div>\n <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  Lyon, Cherstin\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Lyon, Cherstin.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Prisons and Patriots: Japanese American Wartime Citizenship, Civil Disobedience, and Historical Memory.\n     </i>\n    </a>\n    Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <i>\n     <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n      From a Silk Cocoon: A Japanese American Renunciation Story\n     </a>\n     .\n    </i>\n    Film produced by Kim Ina and Satsuki Ina, 2005.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        John F. Embree, \"Registration at Central Utah, 14-17, February, 1943,\" War Relocation Authority, Project Analysis Series No. 1, November 1943, Leflar Papers, box 2, folder 4, Special Collections, University of Arkansas; Russell A. Bankson, \"Registration at Topaz,\" RG 210, Field Basic Documentation, Central Utah, Project Reports division, reel 6, NARA, 31; FBI, \"Summary of Information: War Relocation Authority and Japanese Relocation Centers,\" (August 2, 1945), RG 65, box 84, folder 62-69030.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20240418160747\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.011 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.017 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 82/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 600/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 144/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 5/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 822/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   12.679      1 -total\n 18.28%    2.318      1 Template:Reflist\n 11.62%    1.473      1 Template:Published\n 11.10%    1.408      1 Template:AuthorByline\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:3397-0!canonical and timestamp 20240418160747 and revision id 35693\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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