GET /api/0.1/articles/Conscience%20and%20the%20Constitution%20(film)/
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    "url_title": "Conscience and the Constitution (film)",
    "title_sort": "conscienceandtheconstitutionfilm",
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    "modified": "2023-12-18T18:55:57",
    "title": "Conscience and the Constitution (film)",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div class=\"rgonly\">\n  <!--\"rgdatabox-CoreDisplay\" removed-->\n  <div id=\"rgdatabox-Core\" style=\"display:none;\">\n   <p>\n    RGMediaType:films;\nTitle:Conscience and the Constitution;\nCreators:;\nInterestLevel:Grades 9-12; Adult;\nReadingLevel:;\nGuidedReadingLevel:;\nLexile:;\nTheme:Convention and rebellion; Illusion of power; Injustice; Power of the past; Rights - individual or societal;\nGenre:Documentary;\nPoV:Told from perspective of draft resisters;\nRelatedEvents:;\nAvailability:Widely available;\nFreeWebVersion:No;\nPrimarySecondary:;\nHasTeachingAids:No;\nWarnings:;\nDenshoTopic:;\nGeography:;\nChronology:1940s;\nFacility:Heart Mountain [5] - Cody, Wyoming;\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-FilmsDisplay\">\n  <table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n   <tbody>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Title\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Conscience and the Constitution\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Date\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      2000\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n       Genre\n      </a>\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Documentary\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Director\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Frank Abe\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Producer\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Frank Abe; Shannon Gee\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Writer\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Frank Abe\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Narrator\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Lawson Fusao Inada\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Starring\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Mits Koshiyama (interviewee); Frank Emi (interviewee); Yosh Kuromiya (interviewee); Bill Hosokawa (interviewee); Michi Nishiura Weglyn (interviewee); Gloria Kubota (interviewee); Dave Kawamoto (interviewee); Grace Kubota Ybarra (interviewee); Jim Akutsu (interviewee); Roger Daniels (interviewee); Art Hansen (interviewee); Art Emi (interviewee); Clifford Uyeda (interviewee); Ben Kuroki (interviewee); James Omura (interviewee); Paul Tsuneishi (interviewee); Tak Hoshizaki (interviewee); Andy Noguchi (interviewee); George Takei (voice); Mako (voice); Stephen Sumida (voice); Jim French (voice)\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Music\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Alan Koshiyama\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Cinematography\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Phil Sturholm\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Editing\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Lillian Benson, A.C.E.\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Studio\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Independent Television Service\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Distributor\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n Productions\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Runtime\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      57 minutes\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Budget\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      $275,000\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n       IMDB\n      </a>\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n       Conscience and the Constitution\n      </a>\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n   </tbody>\n  </table>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-Films\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   Title:Conscience and the Constitution;\nDate:2000; \nGenre:Documentary;\nReleased:;\nDirector:Frank Abe;\nProducer:Frank Abe; Shannon Gee;\nWriter:Frank Abe;\nScreenplay:;\nStory:;\nBasedOn:;\nNarrator:Lawson Fusao Inada;\nStarring:Mits Koshiyama (interviewee); Frank Emi (interviewee); Yosh Kuromiya (interviewee); Bill Hosokawa (interviewee); Michi Nishiura Weglyn (interviewee); Gloria Kubota (interviewee); Dave Kawamoto (interviewee); Grace Kubota Ybarra (interviewee); Jim Akutsu (interviewee); Roger Daniels (interviewee); Art Hansen (interviewee); Art Emi (interviewee); Clifford Uyeda (interviewee); Ben Kuroki (interviewee); James Omura (interviewee); Paul Tsuneishi (interviewee); Tak Hoshizaki (interviewee); Andy Noguchi (interviewee); George Takei (voice); Mako (voice); Stephen Sumida (voice); Jim French (voice);\nMusic:Alan Koshiyama;\nCinematography:Phil Sturholm;\nEditing:Lillian Benson, A.C.E.;\nStudio:Independent Television Service;\ Productions;\nRuntime:57 minutes;\nCountry:;\nLanguage:;\nBudget:$275,000;\nGross:;\nIMDBLink:\n   <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n   </a>\n   ;\nTrailerLink:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <p>\n  Influential documentary film that tells the story of the draft resistance movement at\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Heart_Mountain/\" title=\"Heart Mountain\">\n   Heart Mountain\n  </a>\n  . Journalist Frank Abe produced, directed, and wrote the hour-long film, which was released in 2000.\n </p>\n <div aria-labelledby=\"mw-toc-heading\" class=\"toc\" id=\"toc\" role=\"navigation\">\n  <input class=\"toctogglecheckbox\" id=\"toctogglecheckbox\" role=\"button\" style=\"display:none\" type=\"checkbox\"/>\n  <div class=\"toctitle\" dir=\"ltr\" lang=\"en\">\n   <h2 id=\"mw-toc-heading\">\n    Contents\n   </h2>\n   <span class=\"toctogglespan\">\n    <label class=\"toctogglelabel\" for=\"toctogglecheckbox\">\n    </label>\n   </span>\n  </div>\n  <ul>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Synopsis\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      1\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Synopsis\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-2\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Background_and_Impact\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      2\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Background and Impact\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-3\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#For_More_Information\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      3\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      For More Information\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-4\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Reviews\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      4\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Reviews\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-5\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Footnotes\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      5\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Footnotes\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n  </ul>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Synopsis\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Synopsis\">\n    Synopsis\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Made in a conventional documentary style.\n    <i>\n     Conscience and the Constitution\n    </i>\n    tells the story more or less chronologically, starting with the mass forced removal of Japanese Americans from the West Coast, the strategy of cooperation promoted by the\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Japanese_American_Citizens_League/\" title=\"Japanese American Citizens League\">\n     Japanese American Citizens League\n    </a>\n    (JACL) and their advocacy of military service as a way for\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Nisei/\" title=\"Nisei\">\n     Nisei\n    </a>\n    to demonstrate their \"loyalty,\" the \"\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Loyalty_questionnaire/\" title=\"Loyalty questionnaire\">\n     loyalty questionnaire\n    </a>\n    \" and its aftermath, and the rise of the organized\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Draft_resistance/\" title=\"Draft resistance\">\n     draft resistance\n    </a>\n    at Heart Mountain in the form of the\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Heart_Mountain_Fair_Play_Committee/\" title=\"Heart Mountain Fair Play Committee\">\n     Heart Mountain Fair Play Committee\n    </a>\n    (FPC) once the draft is reinstituted for Nisei in 1944. Featuring interviews with leaders of the FPC and Heart Mountain resisters, we follow the two trials—the first for 63 draft resisters, the second for six leaders of the FPC and journalist\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/James_Omura/\" title=\"James Omura\">\n     James Omura\n    </a>\n    —and their aftermath, including the steep price the resisters paid in the postwar years. The film ends by noting the turn in public opinion about the resisters over time, with even the JACL passing a resolution of apology to them in 2000.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    In addition to resisters and their family members, others interviewed include JACL leaders\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Bill_Hosokawa/\" title=\"Bill Hosokawa\">\n     Bill Hosokawa\n    </a>\n    and\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Clifford_Uyeda/\" title=\"Clifford Uyeda\">\n     Clifford Uyeda\n    </a>\n    , journalist Omura, and historians Roger Daniels, Art Hansen, and\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Michi_Nishiura_Weglyn/\" title=\"Michi Nishiura Weglyn\">\n     Michi Nishiura Weglyn\n    </a>\n    . The interviews are augmented by historical footage, including color film of Heart Mountain by Eiichi Edward Sakauye. Actors George Takei,\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Mako/\" title=\"Mako\">\n     Mako\n    </a>\n    , Stephen Sumida, and Jim French read key documents in support of the narration by poet\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Lawson_Fusao_Inada/\" title=\"Lawson Fusao Inada\">\n     Lawson Fusao Inada\n    </a>\n    .\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Background_and_Impact\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Background_and_Impact\">\n    Background and Impact\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Filmmaker Frank Abe grew up in Cleveland and Northern California and moved to Seattle at age 25 in 1976. A graduate from the University of California at Santa Cruz in theater directing, was a founding member of the Asian American Theater Workshop in San Francisco and worked as a actor including a key role in the film adaptation of\n    <i>\n     <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/Farewell_to_Manzanar_(film)/\" title=\"Farewell to Manzanar (film)\">\n      Farewell to Manzanar\n     </a>\n    </i>\n    . In Seattle, he helped organize the first\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Days_of_Remembrance/\" title=\"Days of Remembrance\">\n     Day of Remembrance\n    </a>\n    . Abe worked for fourteen years as a news reporter for KIRO Newsradio in Seattle and subsequently as director of communications for two King County executives and for the Metropolitan King County Council.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n      [1]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    As a child of the 1960s, Abe had long been interested in Japanese American resistance to their forced removal and incarceration, searching in vain for such stories. In the 1980s, he met\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Frank_Emi/\" title=\"Frank Emi\">\n     Frank Emi\n    </a>\n    and James Omura through playwright Frank Chin and began work with Chin on the documentary a decade later. Starting with a $2,000 bequest from Michi and Walter Weglyn, he, Chin, and videographer Phil Sturholm began interviewing resisters in Los Angeles. The project received a $100,000 grant from the\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Civil_Liberties_Public_Education_Fund/\" title=\"Civil Liberties Public Education Fund\">\n     Civil Liberties Public Education Fund\n    </a>\n    , the largest grant awarded to an individual; further funds from the Independent Television Service/Corporation for Public Broadcasting, the Motoda Foundation, Anheuser-Busch Companies, and Brooks and Sumi Iwakiri helped complete the film. Subsequent grants from the\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/California_Civil_Liberties_Public_Education_Program/\" title=\"California Civil Liberties Public Education Program\">\n     California\n    </a>\n    and\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Washington_Civil_Liberties_Public_Education_Program/\" title=\"Washington Civil Liberties Public Education Program\">\n     Washington state Civil Liberties Public Education Programs\n    </a>\n    funded educational programs and the project website,, which was launched in 1999.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n      [2]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <i>\n     Conscience and the Constitution\n    </i>\n    was completed in the spring of 2000 and had its world premiere on May 23, 2000, in Los Angeles as part of the VC FilmFest 2000. Numerous subsequent screenings took place through 2000 and 2001 including screenings in Singapore and Japan. It received a national PBS broadcast on November 30, 2000, with home video sales beginning after that. Among the many awards it received were national awards from the Asian America Journalists Association and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists in 2001. In 2011, Abe released a two-disc DVD collector's edition that included two hours of bonus footage, with extended interview footage (including an archival 1988 radio interview with Masaoka) and a short update featurette on the JACL apology to the resisters.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n      [3]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Often grouped with Emiko Omori's\n    <i>\n     <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/Rabbit_in_the_Moon_(film)/\" title=\"Rabbit in the Moon (film)\">\n      Rabbit in the Moon\n     </a>\n    </i>\n    (1999), which also highlighted resistance in the concentration camps,\n    <i>\n     Conscience and the Constitution\n    </i>\n    has been praised for how it \"... superbly challenge[s] a grand narrative about Japanese American history since the attack on Pearl Harbor\" as historian Naoko Shibusawa wrote in\n    <i>\n     The Journal of American History\n    </i>\n    . In\n    <i>\n     The Oral History Review\n    </i>\n    , Troy Reeves wrote that the film \"should serve as a launching point for scholars or any interested parties to revisit this period and challenge the 'master narrative.'\" Writing in the\n    <i>\n     Rafu Shimpo\n    </i>\n    , George Johnston wrote that \"Abe put much time and effort into it and even if you don't like the stance the resisters took, it's worth it to watch.\" However, Shibusawa adds that both Omori and Abe \"exaggerate JACL's influence on the federal government and its coercive power over the Japanese Americans\" and that Abe's \"casting JACL leaders as... misguided, arrogant youth... oversimplifies the specific context under which they operated.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n      [4]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <div id=\"authorByline\">\n    <b>\n     Authored by\n     <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Brian_Niiya/\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n      Brian Niiya\n     </a>\n     , Densho\n    </b>\n   </div>\n   <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n    Niiya, Brian\n   </div>\n   <p>\n    Might also like\n    <i>\n     <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/Rabbit_in_the_Moon_(film)/\" title=\"Rabbit in the Moon (film)\">\n      Rabbit in the Moon\n     </a>\n    </i>\n    (1999);\n    <i>\n     <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n      The Color of Honor: The Japanese American Soldier in WWII\n     </a>\n    </i>\n    (1987);\n    <i>\n     <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n      From a Silk Cocoon\n     </a>\n    </i>\n    (2005)\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Official website.\n    </a>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Amazon Prime streaming link.\n    </a>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Reviews\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Reviews\">\n    Reviews\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Banks, Taunya Lovell. \"Outsider Citizens: Film Narratives About the Internment of Japanese Americans.\"\n    <i>\n     Suffolk University Law Review\n    </i>\n    42 (2009): 769–94.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Nakagawa, Martha. \"Conscience' DVD Set Full of Valuable Material,\"\n    <i>\n     Rafu Shimpo\n    </i>\n    , Sept. 22, 2011.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Reeves, Troy.\n    <i>\n     The Oral History Review\n    </i>\n    29.1 (2002): 117–19.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Shibusawa, Naoko.\n    <i>\n     The Journal of American History\n    </i>\n    88.3 (Dec. 2001): 1209–11.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Andrew Hamlin, \"Filmmaker Frank Abe Ensure Resisters Are Never Forgotten,\"\n        <i>\n         Northwest Asian Weekly\n        </i>\n        , Mar. 10–16, 2012, accessed on June 16, 2017 at\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        ; Robert Sadamu Shimabukuro,\n        <i>\n         Born in Seattle: The Campaign for Japanese American Redress\n        </i>\n        (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001), 41–42; Koji Seven, \"8 Questions with Frank Abe of Conscience and the Constitution,\"\n        <i>\n         8Asians\n        </i>\n        blog, Oct. 20, 2011, accessed on June 16, 2017 at\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Seven, \"8 Questions\"; Hamlin, \"Filmmaker Frank Abe\"; \"News Updates in 1999,\" accessed on June 16, 2017 at\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        ; \"News Updates in 2001,\" accessed on June 16, 2017 at\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        . The $100,000 grant from the CLPEF proved to be controversial, as it contributed to the perception by some that the organization harbored an anti-JACL bias. See Alexandra L. Wood, \"After Apology: Public Education as Redress for Japanese American and Japanese Canadian Confinement\" (Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 2013), 182–83.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        \"News Updates in 2000,\" accessed on June 16,\n 2017 at\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        ; \"News Updates in 2001\"; Nakagawa, Martha, \"'Conscience' DVD Set Full of Valuable Material,\"\n        <i>\n         Rafu Shimpo\n        </i>\n        , Sept. 22, 2011, accessed on June 16, 2017.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Naoko Shibusawa, Review of\n        <i>\n         Rabbit in the Moon\n        </i>\n        and\n        <i>\n         Conscience and the Constitution\n        </i>\n        ,\n        <i>\n         The Journal of American History\n        </i>\n        88.3 (Dec. 2001), 1210–11; Troy Reeves,\n        <i>\n         The Oral History Review\n        </i>\n        29.1 (2002), 119; George T. Johnston, \"Into the Next Stage: Conscience Also Tells a Worthy Story\",\n        <i>\n         Rafu Shimpo\n        </i>\n        , June 8, 2000, accessed on June 16, 2017.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20240418160749\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.023 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.029 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 474/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 9960/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 3424/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 5/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 3442/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   19.310      1 -total\n 15.46%    2.985      1 Template:Reflist\n 12.98%    2.507      1 Template:Databox-Films\n 12.30%    2.376      1 Template:RGDatabox-Core\n  7.37%    1.423      1 Template:Published\n  7.12%    1.375      1 Template:AuthorByline\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:1631-0!canonical and timestamp 20240418160749 and revision id 35701\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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