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    "url_title": "Executive Order 9066",
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    "modified": "2020-08-24T14:40:48",
    "title": "Executive Order 9066",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <p>\n  Executive Order 9066, signed by President\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Franklin_D._Roosevelt/\" title=\"Franklin D. Roosevelt\">\n   Franklin D. Roosevelt\n  </a>\n  on February 19, 1942, authorized what was to become the mass forced removal and incarceration of all Japanese Americans on the West Coast. The order authorized the secretary of war and any military commander designated by him \"to prescribe military areas…from which any or all persons may be excluded.\" The order does not mention Japanese Americans by name. As a result of this order, some 110,000 Japanese Americans living on the West Coast were removed from the West Coast, most to inland concentration camps.\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Public_Law_503/\" title=\"Public Law 503\">\n   Public Law 503\n  </a>\n  , enacted a month later, allowed federal courts to enforce the military orders resulting from EO 9066.\n </p>\n <p>\n  The signing of the order culminated in an internal conflict within the administration between\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Francis_Biddle/\" title=\"Francis Biddle\">\n   Francis Biddle\n  </a>\n  ’s Justice Department on the one hand and\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Henry_Stimson/\" title=\"Henry Stimson\">\n   Henry Stimson\n  </a>\n  ’s War Department and the army on the other. The key proponents of mass exclusion—led by Western Defense Commander\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/John_DeWitt/\" title=\"John DeWitt\">\n   John L. DeWitt\n  </a>\n  and army strategist\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Karl_Bendetsen/\" title=\"Karl Bendetsen\">\n   Karl Bendetsen\n  </a>\n  along with Assistant Secretary of War\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/John_McCloy/\" title=\"John McCloy\">\n   John J. McCloy\n  </a>\n  —eventually won over the president, citing \"military necessity\" as the core rationale.\n </p>\n <p>\n  The order withstood legal challenge before the Supreme Court, which upheld the constitutionality of the order in the case of\n  <i>\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Korematsu_v._United_States/\" title=\"Korematsu v. United States\">\n    Korematsu v. United States\n   </a>\n  </i>\n  . However in the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Coram_nobis_cases/\" title=\"Coram nobis cases\">\n   <i>\n    coram nobis\n   </i>\n   cases\n  </a>\n  some forty years later, it was disclosed that government lawyers withheld crucial evidence that disputed the claim of \"military necessity.\"\n </p>\n <p>\n  Executive Order 9066 lapsed at the end of the war and was eventually\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Termination_of_Executive_Order_9066/\" title=\"Termination of Executive Order 9066\">\n   terminated by Proclamation 4417\n  </a>\n  , signed by President Gerald Ford on February 19, 1976.\n </p>\n <div id=\"authorByline\">\n  <b>\n   Authored by\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Brian_Niiya/\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n    Brian Niiya\n   </a>\n   , Densho\n  </b>\n </div>\n <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  Niiya, Brian\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians.\n    <i>\n     Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians\n    </i>\n    .  Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982. Foreword by Tetsuden Kashima. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Daniels, Roger.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Prisoners Without Trial: Japanese Americans in World War II\n     </i>\n     .\n    </a>\n    New York: Hill and Wang, 1993.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Executive Order 9066. Accessed at\n    <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\";doc=74&amp;page=transcript\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n;doc=74&amp;page=transcript\n    </a>\n    .\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Irons, Peter.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Justice at War: The Story of the Japanese American Internment Cases\n     </i>\n     .\n    </a>\n    New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.\n   </p>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20230521153430\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.005 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.007 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 33/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 367/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 58/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 0/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%    2.680      1 -total\n 49.14%    1.317      1 Template:Published\n 49.07%    1.315      1 Template:AuthorByline\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:90-0!canonical and timestamp 20230521153430 and revision id 30895\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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