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{
    "url_title": "Fort Richardson (detention facility)",
    "title_sort": "fortrichardsondetentionfacility",
    "links": {
        "json": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/articles/Fort%20Richardson%20(detention%20facility)/",
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    "modified": "2021-07-29T19:10:29",
    "title": "Fort Richardson (detention facility)",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div id=\"databox-CampsDisplay\">\n  <table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n   <tbody>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      US Gov Name\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Fort Richardson Internment Camp\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sites_of_incarceration/\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">\n       Facility Type\n      </a>\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sites_of_incarceration#U.S._Army_Internment_Camp/\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">\n       U.S. Army Internment Camp\n      </a>\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Administrative Agency\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      U.S. Army\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Location\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Fort Richardson, Alaska (61.2500 lat, -149.6833 lng)\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Date Opened\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Date Closed\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Population Description\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Held Japanese immigrants from Alaska, plus two German nationals.\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      General Description\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Located 9 miles north of downtown Anchorage, Alaska.\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Peak Population\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      17 (1942-02-14)\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <td colspan=\"2\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"http://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/anthropology74/ce17o.htm\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n       National Park Service Info\n      </a>\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n   </tbody>\n  </table>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-Camps\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   SoSUID:u-rich;\nDenshoName:Fort Richardson;\nUSGName:Fort Richardson Internment Camp;\nType:\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sites_of_incarceration#U.S._Army_Internment_Camp/\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">\n    U.S. Army Internment Camp\n   </a>\n   ;\nAdminAgency:U.S. Army;\nDateOpened:;\nDateClosed:;\nLocationName:Fort Richardson, Alaska;\nCityName:Fort Richardson;\nStateName:AK;\nDescription:Located 9 miles north of downtown Anchorage, Alaska.;\nGISLat:61.2500;\nGISLng:-149.6833;\nGISTGNId:2335498;\nCurrentDisposition:;\nPopulationDescription:Held Japanese immigrants from Alaska, plus two German nationals.;\nExitDestination:;\nPeakPopulation:17;\nPeakDate:1942-02-14;\nNPSMoreInfoResourceLink:\n   <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/anthropology74/ce17o.htm\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n    http://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/anthropology74/ce17o.htm\n   </a>\n   ;\nOfficialResourceLink:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <p>\n  Army-run internment camp outside of Anchorage, Alaska, that held at least seventeen enemy aliens from Alaska between December 1941 and June 1942.\n </p>\n <p>\n  In anticipation of a possible war with Japan, Fort Richardson and the associated Elmendorf Airfield were built in 1940 about nine miles northwest of Anchorage. In the days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the FBI rounded up eleven enemy aliens in Alaska—nine Issei and two Germans—who were interned at Fort Richardson. By February 14, 1942, fifty-five enemy aliens in Alaska were in custody, of whom seventeen were held at Fort Richardson. By this time, construction had begun on a separate internment camp facility located east of the main army compound along what is now Davis Highway. About 650' square, the camp was surrounded by a double barbed wire with guard towers at the four corners. Internees lived in 16' x 16' winterized military tents on wooden platforms; wooden walkways connected them to a mess hall and latrines. Period sources list the number of tents as varying from 26 to 48. By June 1942, 104 enemy aliens in Alaska were in custody, including ninety-two Issei men, two Issei women, nine German men and one Italian man. It is not known how many of this group—if any—were held at Fort Richardson. By June 10, Alaska's interned enemy aliens had been moved to camps in the continental U.S. The group at Fort Richardson was sent first to\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Fort_Lewis_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Fort Lewis (detention facility)\">\n   Fort Lewis, Washington\n  </a>\n  . From there, nearly all were sent to\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Fort_Sam_Houston_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Fort Sam Houston (detention facility)\">\n   Fort Sam Houston, Texas\n  </a>\n  , and then to the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Lordsburg_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Lordsburg (detention facility)\">\n   Lordsburg, New Mexico\n  </a>\n  internment camp.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-1\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-1\">\n    [1]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  According to research by Morgan R. Blanchard, the internees known to have been at Fort Richardson included Naoyoshi Akimoto, Wada Hikohachi Fukuyama, Ginichi (Jimmy) Fujii, Hideo Hama, Haruzo (Roy) Haruki, Takami Kanaeko,\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Harry_Sotaro_Kawabe/\" title=\"Harry Sotaro Kawabe\">\n   Harry Sotaro Kawabe\n  </a>\n  , Yusuke (Harry) Kimura, Johan Ferdinand Kube, Guenther Paul Victor Kurtz, Shigematsu (George) Nishiyama, Minoru (Roy) Omura, Harushi Oyama, Kichijiro (George) Suzuki, Shonosuke Tanaka, and Kichirobei (James) Tatsuda. Many were among the leaders of Japanese American communities in Alaska.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-2\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-2\">\n    [2]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  The site remains a military base today as Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson (JBER), created in 2010 when Fort Richardson and Elmendorf Air Force Base were combined. In 2016, JBER hosted a Day of Remembrance event at which descendants of internees held there were recognized.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-3\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-3\">\n    [3]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <div id=\"authorByline\">\n  <b>\n   Authored by\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Brian_Niiya/\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n    Brian Niiya\n   </a>\n   , Densho\n  </b>\n </div>\n <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  Niiya, Brian\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-1\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Morgan R. Blanchard, \"Level II Cultural Resources Survey of the Fort Richardson Internment Camp (FRIC), Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson (JBER), Alaska (Redacted),\" (Anchorage, Alaska: Northern Land Use Research Alaska, LLC, 2016), 2, 16, 20–21, 24–25; Tetsuden Kashima,\n        <i>\n         Judgment Without Trial: Japanese American Imprisonment during World War II\n        </i>\n        (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002), 89, 91.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-2\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Blanchard, \"Level II Cultural Resources Survey of the Fort Richardson Internment Camp (FRIC),\" 32.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-3\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-3\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Blanchard, \"Level II Cultural Resources Survey of the Fort Richardson Internment Camp (FRIC),\" 15; Kyle Johnson, \"JBER Hosts Ceremony Honoring Families of Those Interned at Recently Discovered Camp,\" Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson website, accessed on May 28, 2020 at Feb. 24, 2016,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"https://www.jber.jb.mil/News/News-Articles/Article/771152/jber-hosts-ceremony-honoring-families-of-those-interned-at-recently-discovered/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         https://www.jber.jb.mil/News/News-Articles/Article/771152/jber-hosts-ceremony-honoring-families-of-those-interned-at-recently-discovered/\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20220111214536\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.015 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.022 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 205/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 3114/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 896/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 5/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 1833/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   16.868      1 -total\n 16.61%    2.801      1 Template:Reflist\n 12.59%    2.123      1 Template:Databox-Camps\n  9.26%    1.562      1 Template:Published\n  8.88%    1.498      1 Template:AuthorByline\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:1218-0!canonical and timestamp 20220111214536 and revision id 34006\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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