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{
    "url_title": "Fresno (detention facility)",
    "title_sort": "fresnodetentionfacility",
    "links": {
        "json": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/articles/Fresno%20(detention%20facility)/",
        "html": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Fresno%20(detention%20facility)"
    },
    "modified": "2020-12-30T20:39:35",
    "title": "Fresno (detention facility)",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div id=\"databox-CampsDisplay\">\n  <table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n   <tbody>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      US Gov Name\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Fresno Assembly Center, California\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sites_of_incarceration/\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">\n       Facility Type\n      </a>\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sites_of_incarceration#Temporary_Assembly_Center/\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">\n       Temporary Assembly Center\n      </a>\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Administrative Agency\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Wartime Civil Control Administration\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Location\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Fresno, California (36.7333 lat, -119.7667 lng)\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Date Opened\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      May 6, 1942\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Date Closed\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      October 30, 1942\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Population Description\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Held people from Fresno and the surrounding area as well as other parts of the San Joaquin Valley\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      General Description\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Located at the Fresno County Fairgrounds in central California.\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Peak Population\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      5,120 (1942-09-04)\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Exit Destination\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Jerome, Gila River\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <td colspan=\"2\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"http://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/anthropology74/ce16a.htm\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n       National Park Service Info\n      </a>\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n   </tbody>\n  </table>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-Camps\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   SoSUID:a-fres;\nDenshoName:Fresno;\nUSGName:Fresno Assembly Center, California;\nType:\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sites_of_incarceration#Temporary_Assembly_Center/\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">\n    Temporary Assembly Center\n   </a>\n   ;\nAdminAgency:Wartime Civil Control Administration;\nDateOpened:May 6, 1942;\nDateClosed:October 30, 1942;\nLocationName:Fresno, California;\nCityName:Fresno;\nStateName:CA;\nDescription:Located at the Fresno County Fairgrounds in central California.;\nGISLat:36.7333;\nGISLng:-119.7667;\nGISTGNId:7014030;\nCurrentDisposition:;\nPopulationDescription:Held people from Fresno and the surrounding area as well as other parts of the San Joaquin Valley;\nExitDestination:Jerome, Gila River;\nPeakPopulation:5,120;\nPeakDate:1942-09-04;\nNPSMoreInfoResourceLink:\n   <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/anthropology74/ce16a.htm\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n    http://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/anthropology74/ce16a.htm\n   </a>\n   ;\nOfficialResourceLink:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <div class=\"floatright\">\n </div>\n <div class=\"floatright\">\n </div>\n <div class=\"floatright\">\n </div>\n <p>\n  The Fresno Assembly Center, built on the site of the Fresno County Fairgrounds just east of downtown Fresno, was populated from May 6 to October 30, a total of 177 days, making it one of the longest running\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Assembly_centers/\" title=\"Assembly centers\">\n   assembly centers\n  </a>\n  and the last to close. Its population came almost entirely from the Central Valley, including the city and county of Fresno as well as Kings County, Tulare County and part of the Florin/Elk Grove community south of Sacramento. Medium sized among assembly centers in population with a peak of 5,120, it was located only about twelve miles from the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Pinedale_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Pinedale (detention facility)\">\n   Pinedale Assembly Center\n  </a>\n  . Nearly its entire population was transferred to the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Jerome/\" title=\"Jerome\">\n   Jerome\n  </a>\n  , Arkansas\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/War_Relocation_Authority/\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">\n   WRA\n  </a>\n  concentration camp.\n </p>\n <div class=\"toc\" id=\"toc\">\n  <div class=\"toctitle\" dir=\"ltr\" lang=\"en\">\n   <h2>\n    Contents\n   </h2>\n  </div>\n  <ul>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Site_History.2FLayout.2FFacilities\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      1\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Site History/Layout/Facilities\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-2\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Camp_Population\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      2\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Camp Population\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-3\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Staffing\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      3\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Staffing\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-4\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Institutions.2FCamp_Life\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      4\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Institutions/Camp Life\n     </span>\n    </a>\n    <ul>\n     <li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-5\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#Community_Government\">\n       <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n        4.1\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"toctext\">\n        Community Government\n       </span>\n      </a>\n     </li>\n     <li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-6\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#Education\">\n       <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n        4.2\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"toctext\">\n        Education\n       </span>\n      </a>\n     </li>\n     <li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-7\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#Medical_Facilities\">\n       <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n        4.3\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"toctext\">\n        Medical Facilities\n       </span>\n      </a>\n     </li>\n     <li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-8\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#Library\">\n       <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n        4.4\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"toctext\">\n        Library\n       </span>\n      </a>\n     </li>\n     <li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-9\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#Newspaper\">\n       <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n        4.5\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"toctext\">\n        Newspaper\n       </span>\n      </a>\n     </li>\n     <li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-10\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#Religion\">\n       <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n        4.6\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"toctext\">\n        Religion\n       </span>\n      </a>\n     </li>\n     <li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-11\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#Recreation\">\n       <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n        4.7\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"toctext\">\n        Recreation\n       </span>\n      </a>\n     </li>\n     <li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-12\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#Store.2FCanteen\">\n       <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n        4.8\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"toctext\">\n        Store/Canteen\n       </span>\n      </a>\n     </li>\n     <li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-13\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#Visitors\">\n       <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n        4.9\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"toctext\">\n        Visitors\n       </span>\n      </a>\n     </li>\n     <li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-14\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#Other\">\n       <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n        4.10\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"toctext\">\n        Other\n       </span>\n      </a>\n     </li>\n    </ul>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-15\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Chronology\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      5\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Chronology\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-16\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Quotes\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      6\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Quotes\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-17\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Aftermath\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      7\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Aftermath\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-18\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#For_More_Information\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      8\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      For More Information\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-19\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Footnotes\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      9\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Footnotes\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n  </ul>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Site_History/Layout/Facilities\">\n  <h2>\n   <span id=\"Site_History/Layout/Facilities\">\n   </span>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Site_History.2FLayout.2FFacilities\">\n    Site History/Layout/Facilities\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    The Fresno Assembly Center was built on the 160-acre Fresno County Fairgrounds site and two adjacent lots totaling sixty acres leased from private parties. The site was located just east of Fresno city limits and just twelve miles from the Pinedale Assembly Center. The camp was bisected by Butler Avenue—which was closed off while the camp was in operation—with the bulk of the residential barracks within the bounds of the fairgrounds racetrack north of Butler stretching to Ventura Avenue. The remaining barracks along with the outdoor recreational area were south of Butler. Later in the summer, a 3,000 capacity outdoor amphitheater inmates dubbed the \"Hollywood Bowl\" opened in this area.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-1\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-1\">\n      [1]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    There were ten residential\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Block/\" title=\"Block\">\n     blocks\n    </a>\n    at Fresno, each with around twenty barracks. Six of the blocks, designated by letters A through F, were within the boundaries of the racetrack, while four of the blocks, H through K, were located across Butler. (Block G, located south of the racetrack, but north of Butler, consisted of seventeen warehouse buildings.) Block A consisted of the bachelor's quarters and had only seventeen barracks buildings. While each of the other blocks had twenty barracks buildings, four of the buildings were set aside for purposes other than housing: three recreational buildings (B-20, E-1, and I-10) and a library/information building (E-11). Thus, there were a total of 193 residential barracks. Each block had its own mess hall, along with three latrine buildings and two bathhouses. There were three hospital buildings, five laundry buildings, and four administration buildings.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-2\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-2\">\n      [2]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    The barracks measured 20' x 100' and were subdivided in most cases into five \"apartment\" units of varying sizes. As was the case in other confinement sites, the partitions between units did not go to the ceiling, allowing sounds to travel throughout a given barrack. Most barracks had wood floors, but some had either concrete or asphalt floors. Units had small screened windows. The only furniture provided were army cots equipped with canvas mattresses that inmates had to fill with straw. As at other assembly centers, there were daily head counts. In her memoir,\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Mary_Tsukamoto/\" title=\"Mary Tsukamoto\">\n     Mary Tsukamoto\n    </a>\n    wrote that these took place between 10 and 11 every night. \"It seemed so unnecessary,\" she wrote. \"No one ever talked about escaping. There was nowhere to go!\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-3\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-3\">\n      [3]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    One of the pervasive aspects of the Fresno summer was the heat. Former inmates who lived in barracks with asphalt floors recalled that the legs of their cots would sink into the asphalt in the heat. Tsukamoto wrote that the \"penetrating heat of the Fresno sun turned the asphalt into a soft substance by midday.\" She added, \"[t]he floor sank when we stepped on it, and when we sat on our cots the legs penetrated the soft asphalt.\" In a 1980 oral history, Kikuo H. Taira remembered with indignation that electric fans were not allowed, because they would cause electrical fuses to blow out. In a May 26 report, Camp Manager Ellis Pulliam noted two heat related items among the three principal complaints of the inmates: a lack of drinking water facilities and a lack of shade. [The third was \"some sort of bug in straw ticks [i.e. the mattresses] that bites the individuals\"] Another inmate recalled that the only trees to be found in the camp were along Butler Avenue, making that a popular spot on hot days.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-4\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-4\">\n      [4]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Ten mess halls served the ten blocks. The mess halls were relatively small—a capacity of about 150—which resulted in meals being served in multiple shifts. Inmates sat at tables of eight. In a contemporaneous letter Minnie Umeda wrote of getting tired of \"wenies and cabbage\" and that the messhalls\" have no sugar, so they use syrup instead of sugar in the coffee and grapefruit without sugar.\" Four days after Umeda's August 23 letter, a chef, Walter B. Lewis, was arrested by the FBI on charges that he stole food stuffs from the mess halls. One of the mess halls was also the site of a mass food poisoning episode in May, likely the result of improperly refrigerated food.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-5\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-5\">\n      [5]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Each block had three 8 x 16 x 7 latrines, \"some [with] cement floors, others dirt floors,\" according to a May 26 report. The toilets themselves were a wood bench with holes cut into them suspended over a trough. Every few minutes, a can would tip, \"flushing\" the trough, a system found in a number of assembly centers. Many inmates recalled that whomever was sitting in the last seat would have to be careful to avoid getting splashed by the sewage filled water when the \"flush\" took place. The toilets were initially unpartitioned, but partitions were added later after much inmate objection. There were no doors or curtains in the front. Inmate complaints also led to the addition of toilet seats over the holes in the bench.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-6\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-6\">\n      [6]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Each block also had two 50 x 20 bathhouses. The shower room portion was 10 x 20 and had ten shower heads. In a May 22 letter, inmate Sam Nakano wrote that \"today was the first time that I ever got warm water.\" The shower area had concrete floors covered by wood slabs. The wash basins were made of tin. As with the toilets, partitions were added to at least the women's showers later.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-7\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-7\">\n      [7]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    The five 20 x 100 laundry buildings were spread throughout the camp. Each was divided into two sections with twelve double sinks each.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-8\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-8\">\n      [8]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Camp_Population\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Camp_Population\">\n    Camp Population\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Essentially the entire population of the Fresno Assembly Center came from Central California, with most coming from the city of Fresno, the rest of Fresno County and neighboring Kings and Tulare Counties, including the towns of Delano, Hanford, and Lindsay. The rest of the population came from the Florin/Elk Grove community south of Sacramento. The Kings and Tulare County group targeted by\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Civilian_exclusion_orders/\" title=\"Civilian exclusion orders\">\n     Civilian Exclusion Orders\n    </a>\n    #44 and 45, about 1,100 people, were the first to arrive between May 9 and May 13. Next came the Fresno group, numbering about 2,700, from May 15 to 17. The Florin/Elk Grove group numbering about 1,200 arrived from May 27 to May 29. The peak population of the camp, 5,120, was recorded on September 4.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-9\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-9\">\n      [9]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <table class=\"wikitable\">\n    <caption>\n     Population by Exclusion Order\n    </caption>\n    <tbody>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       Exclusion Order #\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Deadline\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Location\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Number\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       44\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       May 13\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       West Tulare County\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       566\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       45\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       May 8\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Kings County\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       584\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       62\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       May 17\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       South Fresno County\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       861\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       63\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       May 17\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Madera and Fresno Counties, north and west of City of Fresno\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       539\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       64\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       May 17\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       City of Fresno\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       1,349\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       92\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       May 30\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Amador and south Sacramento Counties\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       1,219\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n    </tbody>\n   </table>\n   <p>\n    Source: John L. Dewitt,\n    <i>\n     Final Report: Japanese Evacuation from the West Coast, 1942\n    </i>\n    (Washington D.C.: U.S. Army, Western Defense Command), 363–66. Exclusion orders with fewer than fifty inductees not listed. Deadline dates come from the actual exclusion order posters, which can be found in The Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement: A Digital Archive, Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley,\n    <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/jarda/ucb/text/cubanc6714_b016b01_0001_1.pdf\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/jarda/ucb/text/cubanc6714_b016b01_0001_1.pdf\n    </a>\n    and\n    <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/jarda/ucb/text/cubanc6714_b016b01_0001_2.pdf\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/jarda/ucb/text/cubanc6714_b016b01_0001_2.pdf\n    </a>\n    .\n   </p>\n   <table class=\"wikitable\">\n    <caption>\n     Arrivals at Fresno\n    </caption>\n    <tbody>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       Arrival Date\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Number\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       May 6\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       20\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       May 7\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       9\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       May 9\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       106\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       May 10\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       201\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       May 11\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       3\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       May 12\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       476\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       May 13\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       411\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       May 14\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       2\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       May 15\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       766\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       May 16\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       983\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       May 17\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       878\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       May 21\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       1\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       May 22\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       13\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       May 23\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       5\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       May 25\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       1\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n    </tbody>\n   </table>\n   <p>\n    Source: [Ellis P. Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, May 26, 1942, Report – Secretary of War, Fresno Center Manager, General Correspondence File, Fresno Assembly Center, Reel 313, NARA San Bruno. Note that the group from Florin/Elk Grove (Exclusion Order 92) arrived after this report was filed (starting on May 27) and are thus not represented in this table.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <br/>\n    There were thirty-two births and twelve deaths during the life of the Fresno camp.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-10\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-10\">\n      [10]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Nearly the entire population of the Fresno camp was transferred to the Jerome WRA concentration camp in October. The first advance group of \"volunteers\" departed on October 2, with the rest of population leaving block-by-block starting on October 12. The final group departed on October 30 and were the very last group to leave any of the assembly centers.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-11\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-11\">\n      [11]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    The lone group that didn't go to Jerome were about 150 TB patients and their families, who were sent to the\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Gila_River/\" title=\"Gila River\">\n     Gila River\n    </a>\n    , Arizona, WRA camp with the rationale that the desert conditions would be better for such patients.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-12\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-12\">\n      [12]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Transfers chart\n   </p>\n   <table class=\"wikitable\">\n    <caption>\n     Transfers to WRA Camps\n    </caption>\n    <tbody>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       October 2\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       advance group\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Jerome\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       202\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       October 12\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Block A, part of B\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Jerome\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       463\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       October 14\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Block K\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Jerome\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       472\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       October 16\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Block J\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Jerome\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       466\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       October 16\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Stockton + TB families\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Gila River\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       156\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       October 18\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Block I\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Jerome\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       468\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       October 20\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Block H\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Jerome\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       459\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       October 22\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Block F\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Jerome\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       437\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       October 24\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Block E\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Jerome\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       438\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       October 26\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Block D\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Jerome\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       462\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       October 28\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Block C\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Jerome\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       479\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n     <tr>\n      <td>\n       October 30\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Block B\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       Jerome\n      </td>\n      <td>\n       415\n      </td>\n     </tr>\n    </tbody>\n   </table>\n   <p>\n    Sources:\n    <i>\n     Fresno Grapevine\n    </i>\n    , Oct. 7, 4 and Oct. 14, 1, 5; Dewitt,\n    <i>\n     Final Report\n    </i>\n    , 284.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Staffing\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Staffing\">\n    Staffing\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Ellis P. Pulliam, an engineer drawn from the ranks of the WPA, was the manager at Fresno for the life of the camp, starting with his arrival on April 15. Ernest Dunn, a Wisconsin native, was the assistant manager.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-13\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-13\">\n      [13]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Other key staffers included:\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Frank Goblirsch, head of Supply Section, who was born in Austria\n    <br/>\n    Frank Bliss was the first head of mess and lodging. Upon Bliss's departure in mid-August, he was replaced by Clifton E. Snelson\n    <br/>\n    Clinton H. Merrill was head of the Works Division, assisted by Jack Milloy\n    <br/>\n    Douglas T. Cowart was head of finance; he was born in Glasgow, Scotland\n    <br/>\n    Walter E. Pollock was head of the Service Division, which included hospitals, education, recreation, and religion\n    <br/>\n    Carl Bengston worked under Pollock as the recreation supervisor. He had held the same position at Pinedale and came over after Pinedale's closure in July.\n    <br/>\n    Charles Wheeler was the store manager\n    <br/>\n    Max Armstrong was chief steward; he had held the same position at the\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Tulare_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Tulare (detention facility)\">\n     Tulare Assembly Center\n    </a>\n    <br/>\n    Woodrow W. Vaughn was chief of police; he was former chief of police of San Antonio, Texas\n    <br/>\n    Chester A. Packard was the fire chief\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-14\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-14\">\n      [14]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    <br/>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    In 1943 interviews, two different inmates described Pulliam as \"stern,\" \"strict,\" cold,\" and aloof,\" while Dunn was seen as \"sympathetic\" and \"friendly and outgoing.\" Inmates were also critical of Pollock, with contemporaneous accounts describe him as \"unreasonable\" and holding \"a personal antipathy toward the Japanese people as a whole.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-15\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-15\">\n      [15]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    As was the case with the other assembly centers, many of the staff members came from the WPA. Besides Pulliam, Dunn, Cowart, Goblirsch, Merrill, Pollack, and many support staff came from WPA District #4.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-16\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-16\">\n      [16]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Institutions/Camp_Life\">\n  <h2>\n   <span id=\"Institutions/Camp_Life\">\n   </span>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Institutions.2FCamp_Life\">\n    Institutions/Camp Life\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Community_Government\">\n  <h3>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Community_Government\">\n    Community Government\n   </span>\n  </h3>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    After the last groups arrived at the camp at the end of May, the camp administration assembled an informally elected General Council made up of two members from each of the ten blocks. This council then elected a five-person executive board and a chairman of the board, Thomas T. Yatabe, a Fresno dentist who was one of the founders of the\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Japanese_American_Citizens_League/\" title=\"Japanese American Citizens League\">\n     Japanese American Citizens League\n    </a>\n    . According to Pulliam's June 23 weekly report, he met weekly with this executive board to \"discuss the general operation of the Center and suggest such betterments or restrictions that they deem advisable.\" But, he added, \"[t]he final decision on all matters rests entirely with the Management.\" Among the main charges of the council was to try to get inmates to take on the less desirable mess hall jobs and to maintain \"cleanliness and orderliness of bath houses and latrines.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-17\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-17\">\n      [17]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    After the\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Wartime_Civil_Control_Administration/\" title=\"Wartime Civil Control Administration\">\n     WCCA\n    </a>\n    abolished such councils in August, the administration instituted an election of a Japanese American Advisory Board in mid-August. The inmates elected a body of twenty-one that included fifteen Nisei and six Issei. According to Pulliam's October 6 report, the group met daily among themselves to help plan the move out and with administrative staff every other day.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-18\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-18\">\n      [18]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Education\">\n  <h3>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Education\">\n    Education\n   </span>\n  </h3>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Fresno had one of the more extensive educational programs among assembly centers with both a summer school program and an ambitious fall program in the camp's last weeks. The summer program began at the end of May when an inmate education committee formed and put together a school program in consultation with the administration. Inez Nagai, one of the few Nisei to have held a teaching position prior to the war (she had been a PE teacher at Edison Junior High in Fresno) became the inmate education head. Eventually, thirty inmate teachers were hired. Making do with a lack of supplies and classroom space—recreation halls were used for classes and some classes even met outside—along with discarded school books donated by the Fresno City Schools, classes for children and adults were held. A group of Girl Scouts also ran a nursery school. There were also adult classes; among the teachers were Mary Tsukamoto, who taught public speaking to high schoolers and English to adults, and\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Henry_Sugimoto/\" title=\"Henry Sugimoto\">\n     Henry Sugimoto\n    </a>\n    , who taught art classes. Later, classes in such topics as wood carving and business law were added to the adult program. Some 1,600 children and adults took part in the summer school program. The summer school program ended on August 29.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-19\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-19\">\n      [19]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    After a three-week break, mandatory fall classes for elementary students began on September 21. About 850 enrolled. A warehouse building in Block G was converted into a school building with \"a large assembly room and four separate classrooms.\" In combination with preschool and adult students, a total of 2,005 people enrolled in the fall educational program.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-20\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-20\">\n      [20]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    As was the case with many other assembly centers, a graduation ceremony was held at Fresno for graduating high school seniors who missed their graduation ceremonies due to the mass incarceration. On June 19, a ceremony in the camp amphitheater was held for 144 high school graduates before a crowd of 3,000.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-21\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-21\">\n      [21]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Medical_Facilities\">\n  <h3>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Medical_Facilities\">\n    Medical Facilities\n   </span>\n  </h3>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Three barracks buildings served as hospital facilities: Hospital 1 was east of Block C; Hospital 2 was east of Block E, and Hospital 3 was across Butler Ave. between Blocks H and K. All were staffed by inmates, with Drs. Kikuto Koda, Kikuo Taira and G. Hashiba in charge of Hospitals 1–3 respectively. Since it was in the middle of the camp, Hospital 2 had the outpatient clinic and the dental office.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-22\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-22\">\n      [22]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    In his May 26 report, camp manager Pulliam explained one hospital was used for communicable diseases, one for women and children, and one for men and boys, though he does not indicate which was which. He also wrote that \"hospital supplies were very inadequate,\" initially and that they \"still are handicapped by a lack of many essential items of equipment.\" He also noted the need for air conditioning in the hospitals.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-23\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-23\">\n      [23]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Library\">\n  <h3>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Library\">\n    Library\n   </span>\n  </h3>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    The library was located in Block E, sharing a building with the Information Center. It was headed by Robert Kimura who had a staff of three assistants. The collection of about 500 books and several hundred magazines came via donations from both inside and outside the camp. A branch library opened in Block I on June 15 to serve those living south of Butler.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-24\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-24\">\n      [24]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Newspaper\">\n  <h3>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Newspaper\">\n    Newspaper\n   </span>\n  </h3>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    The\n    <i>\n     Fresno Grapevine\n    </i>\n    had one of the longest runs of any assembly center paper, forty-four issues. In addition to the twice weekly newspaper, Grapevine staff members also printed various forms and announcements for the administration and produced a one hundred page yearbook titled\n    <i>\n     Vignette\n    </i>\n    upon the camp's closing. Ellen Ayako Noguchi was the editor throughout the paper's lifespan.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    As with other camp newspapers, the\n    <i>\n     Grapevine\n    </i>\n    provided inmates with basic news about the camp—announcements of events, sports results, news of weddings and births, profiles of white administrators and inmate workers, and the like. It featured regular columns by Editor Noguchi (\"Pineknot Portrait\") and City Editor Richard Itanaga (\"Between the Barracks\") along with updates on other camps, editorials, and cartoons by Eddie Kurushima. Associate Editor Howard Renge handled the editorial page. The paper also printed various official pronouncement by Camp Manager Ellis P. Pulliam and other staff. Also as with other assembly center newspapers, the\n    <i>\n     Grapevine\n    </i>\n    was subject to censorship, which was acknowledged in a July 4 story about how the paper was put together.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    The first issue of the paper was titled the\n    <i>\n     Fresno Center News\n    </i>\n    and appeared on May 23, 1942, seventeen days after the official opening of the camp. This first issue ran six pages, four in English and two in Japanese. Subsequent issues would include only English. With the second issue on May 27, the name\n    <i>\n     Grapevine\n    </i>\n    had been chosen, based on \"a careful study of the 46 suggestions received.\" From the third issue, a six-page format was established that would rarely vary. One of the most stable of the assembly center papers, the\n    <i>\n     Grapevine\n    </i>\n    appeared regularly on Wednesdays and Saturdays. With the exception of the Japanese language staff that disappeared after the first issue, the rest of the staff remained nearly entirely intact for the run of the paper. Housed initially in a cramped space in the administrative section, the\n    <i>\n     Grapevine\n    </i>\n    office moved to a larger space in Section A in early June.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    The editorial staff was very young and many had ties to the Japanese American Citizens League, including Noguchi and Itanaga, and reporters Fred Harada and John Hirohata. As was true for the population at large, most came from Fresno and the surrounding rural counties. Editor Noguchi, a native of Tulare, California, and well-known for her prewar contributions to the\n    <i>\n     <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Rafu_Shimpo_(newspaper)/\" title=\"Rafu Shimpo (newspaper)\">\n      Rafu Shimpo\n     </a>\n    </i>\n    and\n    <i>\n     <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Nichibei_Shimbun_(newspaper)/\" title=\"Nichibei Shimbun (newspaper)\">\n      Nichibei Shimbun\n     </a>\n    </i>\n    newspapers, was just twenty-two years old, while Itanaga, a Fresno native, was twenty-two and Associate Editor Howard Renge, a law student at the University of California, was twenty-three. Two of the reporters, Lily Koyama and Sam Nakagama (who wrote a weekly sports column) were just seventeen.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    In a special two-page edition issued on Monday, September 28, the\n    <i>\n     Grapevine\n    </i>\n    announced that the Jerome, Arkansas, camp would be the destination of Fresno inmates. The remaining issues focused on the imminent departure, providing necessary information and looking back at the time at Fresno. The final issue of the paper was dated October 17, just under two weeks before the official closing of the camp on October 30. Additionally, the staff put out\n    <i>\n     Vignette: A Pictorial Record of Life in the Fresno Assembly Center\n    </i>\n    , an expansively illustrated (mostly with drawings by Eddie Kurushima) 100-page yearbook that reviewed nearly every aspect of life at the camp.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-25\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-25\">\n      [25]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Religion\">\n  <h3>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Religion\">\n    Religion\n   </span>\n  </h3>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Both Buddhists and Protestants had regular services on Sundays in two of the recreation buildings. According to a May 26 report, there were four Protestant and two Buddhist ministers and a combined total of 900 who attended the Sunday services.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-26\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-26\">\n      [26]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Recreation\">\n  <h3>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Recreation\">\n    Recreation\n   </span>\n  </h3>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Recreation programs were limited for the first month due to the lack of facilities. Given that facilities were initially limited to the recreation barracks and small playground areas, the May 26 report noted that, \"[a]ctivities conducted to date consist mainly of social recreation programs including community singing, dances and talent programs, also semi-organized physical recreation.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-27\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-27\">\n      [27]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    With the addition of facilities including baseball/softball fields, basketball and volleyball courts, and a sumo ring as well as the 3,000 capacity amphitheater in an area south of Butler, a fuller recreational program emerged. Under the leadership of a Baseball Advisory Board that included the legendary Issei pioneer\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Kenichi_Zenimura/\" title=\"Kenichi Zenimura\">\n     Kenichi Zenimura\n    </a>\n    , a six team \"A\" league and eight team \"B\" league formed. In the \"A\" division, the Florin team went undefeated at 13–0. Feature movie screenings in the amphitheater began on Aug. 20, with the first movie,\n    <i>\n     It Started With Eve\n    </i>\n    , drawing a crowd of 1,700.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-28\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-28\">\n      [28]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Store/Canteen\">\n  <h3>\n   <span id=\"Store/Canteen\">\n   </span>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Store.2FCanteen\">\n    Store/Canteen\n   </span>\n  </h3>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    The camp store was located in a barrack building just south of the racetrack area—thus more or less in the middle of the camp—that it shared with the post office, occupying a 60 x 20 space. Managed by Charles A. Wheeler and with a staff of twelve inmates, the store opened on May 22. Popular store items included tobacco, candy, ice cream, cold drinks, and newspapers. Sales totaled about $15,000 per month.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-29\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-29\">\n      [29]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Visitors\">\n  <h3>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Visitors\">\n    Visitors\n   </span>\n  </h3>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    The Visitors Reception Hall opened on June 11. Visitors were allowed only from 2 to 4 pm. In a June 12 letter, Sam Nakano wrote, \"Visiting privileges being offered here as compared to some other centers is a farce.\" He added, \"[o]nly 200 visitors a day are allowed within a space of two hours—60 persons every half an hour.\" Given the small barrack room set aside for visitors, the strong demand, and short hours, the visiting room was always crowded.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-30\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-30\">\n      [30]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Other\">\n  <h3>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Other\">\n    Other\n   </span>\n  </h3>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    The camp Post Office occupied a 20 x 40 space in a barrack building shared with the store. A staff of ten sorted the mail there and subsequently delivered it to each barrack.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-31\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-31\">\n      [31]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Two information centers were set up after the first induction, each staffed by two clerks and three messengers. The lost and found was also run out of this office.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-32\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-32\">\n      [32]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    The Fire Department was staffed by a chief and two assistants, all of whom were white, along with two Japanese American captains and thirteen inmate firemen.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-33\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-33\">\n      [33]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    As was true at a few other assembly centers, some inmates from Fresno left the camp starting in June to harvest sugar beets in Montana, Utah, and Colorado.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-34\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-34\">\n      [34]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Perhaps alone among assembly centers, Fresno had an agricultural program that grew squash, radishes, and string beans that was distributed to camp mess halls.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-35\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-35\">\n      [35]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Because the camp remained open through the summer into the fall, Fresno inmates helped to clean up two other assembly centers upon their closing. At the end of July, sixty to eighty went to Pinedale, some working there for over a week. A work crew went to Tulare in early September for a day.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-36\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-36\">\n      [36]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Chronology\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Chronology\">\n    Chronology\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    May 6\n    <br/>\n    The first twenty inmates arrive.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    May 14\n    <br/>\n    Post office opens in the camp. The camp postmaster is Mas Kimura.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    May 16\n    <br/>\n    First Center \"hop\" held at Recreation Hall E under the supervision of Henry Yoshikawa.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    May 20\n    <br/>\n    300 people are struck down with food poisoning, all after eating at the same mess hall. The camp hospital and medical facilities are unable to provide care to this many patients.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    \"Whole block got sick because of the stuff that they served. And it wasn't the administration's fault. It was the inexperienced cook, preparing, then leaving food out in a hundred something temperature, because of inadequate refrigeration. Macaroni salad or something, that's deadly stuff in the summer. Well, anyway, people ate that and got sicker than heck. Thought some were going to die.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-37\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-37\">\n      [37]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    May 23\n    <br/>\n    First issue of\n    <i>\n     Fresno Center News\n    </i>\n    published. It becomes the\n    <i>\n     Fresno Grapevine\n    </i>\n    with the second issue, published on May 27.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    May 25\n    <br/>\n    First meeting of block representative held; Dr. T. T. Yatabe was elected chairman.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    May 29\n    <br/>\n    Instruction begins in elementary summer school at Recreation Hall 2 led by inmate teachers.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    June 1\n    <br/>\n    The camp library opens, with head librarian Robert Kimura. 259 books and 75 magazines checked out the first day.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    June 5\n    <br/>\n    The first 36 workers leave Fresno on short term leave to pick sugar beets in Montana. A group of 101 left to pick beets in Utah in September. 44 more went to Montana later in September.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    June 11\n    <br/>\n    Visitors Reception Hall opens. Outside visitors are allowed to visit between the hours of 2 and 4 pm.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    June 16\n    <br/>\n    The first wedding in the camp saw Mary Inada of Gilroy marry Henry Yoshikawa of Fresno, the ceremony presided over by Rev. C. Kai.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    June 18\n    <br/>\n    First adult forum held.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    June 19\n    <br/>\n    Graduation ceremony held in amphitheater for 144 high school graduates before a crowd of 3,000. Dr. Hubert Phillips delivered the graduation address.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    June 28\n    <br/>\n    A and B baseball leagues begin play.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    July 2–3\n    <br/>\n    East vs. West Sumo Tournament takes place before crowd of 1,500. The big match ends in a draw.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Aug. 19\n    <br/>\n    Election for Center Advisory Panel takes place. Inmates over age sixteen are eligible to vote for the panel of 21. Out of the 32 candidates, ten were Issei and twenty-two Nisei.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Aug. 20\n    <br/>\n    First movie screening,\n    <i>\n     It Started With Eve\n    </i>\n    , takes place at the Center Bowl at 8 pm.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Aug. 25\n    <br/>\n    Fumiko Ichiba leaves the camp to attend college at the University of Denver, becoming the first such student to leave Fresno. She had been a pre-nursing student at Fresno State College. Two others are scheduled to leave the following week for the University of Colorado at Boulder.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Sept. 5\n    <br/>\n    The entire camp was searched for contraband, the search extending from 8 am to 7 pm.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Sept. 9\n    <br/>\n    Center Young Buddhists' Minstrel Show presented at the Center Bowl.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Sept. 21\n    <br/>\n    The fall school term starts.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Sept. 28\n    <br/>\n    Special issue of the\n    <i>\n     Grapevine\n    </i>\n    announces that the inmates will be transferred to Jerome starting on October 14.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Oct. 2\n    <br/>\n    Advance crew of 185 leaves for Jerome. Regular groups of between 400 and 500 begin leaving for Jerome on October 12.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Oct. 17\n    <br/>\n    Final issue of the\n    <i>\n     Grapevine\n    </i>\n    appears.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Oct. 30\n    <br/>\n    The final group leaves Fresno for Jerome.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Quotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Quotes\">\n    Quotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    \"The attitude of the evacuees toward the program is very favorable. I believe that they are agreeably surprised at the type of treatment they receive and the quality and quantity of food provided.\"\n    <br/>\n    Ellis P. Pulliam, 1942\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-38\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-38\">\n      [38]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    <br/>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    \"Welcome to your new temporary home. This Assembly Center is not an internment center in the usually accepted meaning of that term. This Center has been established in compliance with military necessity for the protection not only of the American people as a whole, but also for those who will occupy the Center.\"\n    <br/>\n    Ellis P. Pulliam, in first issue (May 23, 1942) of the\n    <i>\n     Fresno Center News\n    </i>\n    <br/>\n    <br/>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    \"Camp life is progressing along as smoothly as expected, if not better. The main reason for that is that the populace itself comes in the majority from the Central California region, where the people are more or less intimate and have been living in close vicinity for many years. The people themselves get along as one big, happy family.\"\n    <br/>\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-39\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-39\">\n      [39]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    <br/>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    \"Visiting privileges being offered here as compared to some other centers is a farce. Only 200 visitors a day are allowed within a space of two hours—60 persons every half and hour.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-40\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-40\">\n      [40]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    <br/>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    \"Other than the extreme heat, most of us seem to be getting along quite well. All in all, I'd say that this was a model center, and the center administration can vouch for that.\"\n    <br/>\n    Sam Nakano, 1942\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-41\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-41\">\n      [41]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    <br/>\n    <br/>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    \"Well, every night, I can still hear the bugle from the grandstand, that was a curfew signal. The bugle would blow the Taps, and then we could hear people scurrying around to get back to the cabin. And of course, people who had to go to the outdoor community toilet, they were in trouble because the MP came and knocked on our door and opened it and put the flashlight into our faces and make sure all of us, nine of us, were in our room. So that happened every night.\"\n    <br/>\n    Saburo Masada, 2004\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-42\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-42\">\n      [42]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Aftermath\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Aftermath\">\n    Aftermath\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Upon the closing of the camp, the property was transferred to the Fourth Air Force Technical Training Command on Nov. 9, 1942.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-43\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-43\">\n      [43]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Fresno Assembly Center was one of the twelve California temporary detention centers to share California Historical Landmark #934, so named in 1980. A California State Historical Marker was dedicated in 1992 at the entrance to the fairgrounds.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-44\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-44\">\n      [44]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    In 2009, the local community undertook a project to expand and renovate the memorial/marker at the fairgrounds. The new memorial was dedicated on October 5, 2011. Located just inside the Chance Avenue gate, he $180,000 project includes storyboards and banners with historic photos framed with wood from the original barracks, as well as a wall on which names of former inmates are inscribed. Funding from the project came from a grant from the California Civil Liberties Public Education fund and local donors.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-45\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-45\">\n      [45]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <div id=\"authorByline\">\n    <b>\n     Authored by\n     <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Brian_Niiya/\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n      Brian Niiya\n     </a>\n     , Densho\n    </b>\n   </div>\n   <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n    Niiya, Brian\n   </div>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Burton, Jeffery F., Mary M. Farrell, Florence B. Lord, and Richard W. Lord.\n    <i>\n     Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II Japanese American Relocation Sites\n    </i>\n    . Western Archeological and Conservation Center, National Park Service, 1999, 2000. Foreword by Tetsuden Kashima. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002. The Fresno section of 2000 version accessible online at\n    <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/anthropology74/ce16a.htm\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     http://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/anthropology74/ce16a.htm\n    </a>\n    .\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <i>\n     <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZAq1428wpEo\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n      Fresno Assembly Center\n     </a>\n    </i>\n    video. Japanese American Memorial Pilgrimages, 2018.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"https://cdm16855.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p16855coll4/id/11365\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Kikuo H. Taira oral history by Yoshino Hasegawa, May 28, 1980\n    </a>\n    . \"Success Through Perseverance.\" California State University Fresno. [Taira (1911–95) was one of the physicians at Fresno AC.]\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Masumoto, David Mas.\n    <i>\n     Gathering Before the Storm: Fresno Assembly Center, 1942\n    </i>\n    . Del Rey, CA: Inaka Countryside Publications, 1991.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5k7p/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Nakano, Sam, correspondence with Virginia Galbraith, May 15, to October 6, 1942\n    </a>\n    . Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Study, University of California, Berkeley, call number BANC MSS 67/14 c, folder B12.43. [A Nisei from Fresno born in 1914 who was active in the JACL before and after the war, Nakano wrote to JERS research assistant Galbraith describing conditions at the Fresno Assembly Center throughout his stay there.]\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Pinedale Memorial Assembly Center website:\n    <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://pinedalememorial.org/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     http://pinedalememorial.org/\n    </a>\n    .\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Tsukamoto, Mary, and Elizabeth Pinkerton.\n    <i>\n     We the People: A Story of Internment in America\n    </i>\n    . San Jose: Laguna Publishers, 1987.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <i>\n     <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/kt7k4005zt/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n      Vignette: A Pictorial Record of Life in the Fresno Assembly Center\n     </a>\n    </i>\n    . Guy &amp; Marguerite Cook Nisei Collection. University of the Pacific Library, Holt-Atherton Department of Special Collections. October, 1942.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap mw-references-columns\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-1\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Note: This article draws heavily on records of the Wartime Civil Control Administration on microfilm at the San Bruno, California, branch of the National Archives and Records Administration. All of the cited records come the Fresno Assembly Center records on Reel 313. WCCA Press Release, Mar. 28, 1942, John M. Flaherty Collection of Japanese Internment Records San Jose State University Department of Special Collections and Archives, California State University Japanese American Digitization Project, accessed on Jan. 27, 2020 at\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"https://cdm16855.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p16855coll4/id/7255\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         https://cdm16855.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p16855coll4/id/7255\n        </a>\n        ; [Ellis P. Pulliam], Initial Report (April 6 through April 30), Report—Weekly, Fresno Center Manager, General Correspondence File, Fresno Assembly Center, Reel 313, NARA San Bruno; Jeffrey F. Burton, et al.,\n        <i>\n         Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II Japanese American Relocation Site\n        </i>\n        (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002), 352–53; Kenji Maruko Interview by Jill Shiraki and Tom Ikeda, Segment 17, March 9, 2010, Preserving California's Japantowns Collection, Densho Digital Repository,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1010/ddr-densho-1010-8-transcript-08fb786506.htm\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         http://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1010/ddr-densho-1010-8-transcript-08fb786506.htm\n        </a>\n        ; Mary Tsukamoto and Elizabeth Pinkerton,\n        <i>\n         We the People: A Story of Internment in America\n        </i>\n        (San Jose: Laguna Publishers, 1987), 104.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-2\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        <i>\n         Fresno Grapevine\n        </i>\n        , June 3, 1942, 6 and Oct. 10, 1942, 1; [Ellis P. Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, May 26, 1942, pp. 1, 9, Report – Secretary of War, Fresno Center Manager, General Correspondence File, Fresno Assembly Center, Reel 313, NARA San Bruno.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-3\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-3\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 9; [Virginia Galbraith], \"Fresno Reception Center,\" p. 1, The Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement: A Digital Archive, Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley, BANC MSS 67/14 c, folder B8.03,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5g3x/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5g3x/\n        </a>\n        ; [Pulliam], Initial Report; Tsukamoto and Pinkerton,\n        <i>\n         We the People\n        </i>\n        , 86, 104.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-4\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-4\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Tsukamoto and Pinkerton,\n        <i>\n         We the People\n        </i>\n        , 84; Ben Tonooka Interview by Martha Nakagawa, Segment 15, Los Angeles, Feb. 6, 2012, Densho Visual History Collection, Densho Digital Repository,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/ddr-densho-1000-390-transcript-33e54e0acf.htm\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         http://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/ddr-densho-1000-390-transcript-33e54e0acf.htm\n        </a>\n        ; Kikuo H. Taira oral history by Yoshino Hasegawa, May 28, 1980, p. 13, \"Success Through Perseverance,\" California State University Fresno, California State University Japanese American Digitization Project, accessed on Jan. 27, 2020,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"https://cdm16855.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p16855coll4/id/11365\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         https://cdm16855.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p16855coll4/id/11365\n        </a>\n        ; [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 5; Private voluntary interview with Miss F concerning Fresno Assembly Center by Anne O. Freed, ca. Apr. 1943, p. 2, Community Analysis Reports and Community Analysis Trend Reports of the War Relocation Authority, 1942-1946, Reel 3, Washington, [D.C.]: National Archives, National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1984.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-5\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-5\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Ellis P. Pulliam], Weekly Reports, June 2, 1942 and Sept. 1, 1942, Report—Weekly, Fresno Center Manager, General Correspondence File, Fresno Assembly Center, Reel 313, NARA San Bruno; [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 8; interview with Miss F, 2; Letter, Minnie Umeda to [Margaret Waegell], Aug. 23, 1942, Japanese American Archival Collection, California State University, Sacramento, California State University Japanese American Digitization Project, accessed on Jan. 27, 2020 at\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"https://cdm16855.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p16855coll4/id/7360\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         https://cdm16855.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p16855coll4/id/7360\n        </a>\n        ; Kikuo H. Taira oral history, 14; Sam Nakano letter to Virginia Galbraith, May 22, 1942, The Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement: A Digital Archive, Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley, BANC MSS 67/14 c, folder B12.43\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5k7p/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5k7p/\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-6\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-6\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 6, 9; [Galbraith], \"Fresno Reception Center,\" 2; Ben Tonooka Interview, Segment 16; Private voluntary interview with Miss E concerning Fresno Assembly Center by Anne O. Freed, April 17, 1943, p. 1, Community Analysis Reports and Community Analysis Trend Reports of the War Relocation Authority, 1942-1946, Reel 3, Washington, [D.C.]: National Archives, National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1984; interview with Miss F, 2; Doris Nitta Interview by Richard Potashin, Segment 12, Aug. 10, 2010, Las Vegas, Nevada, Manzanar National Historic Site Collection, Densho Digital Repository,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-manz-1/ddr-manz-1-108-transcript-29331d4747.htm\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-manz-1/ddr-manz-1-108-transcript-29331d4747.htm\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-7\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-7\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 9; Letter, Nakano to Galbraith, May 22, 1942; [Galbraith], \"Fresno Reception Center,\" 2; interview with Miss F, 2.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-8\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-8\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 9.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-9\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-9\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        John L. Dewitt,\n        <i>\n         Final Report: Japanese Evacuation from the West Coast, 1942\n        </i>\n        (Washington D.C.: U.S. Army, Western Defense Command), 227, 363–66;\n        <i>\n         Fresno Grapevine\n        </i>\n        , Aug. 19, 1942, 4; Sam Nakano letter to Virginia Galbraith, May 28, 1942, The Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement: A Digital Archive, Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley, BANC MSS 67/14 c, folder B12.43,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5k7p/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5k7p/\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-10\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-10\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Dewitt,\n        <i>\n         Final Report\n        </i>\n        , 202.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-11\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-11\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Dewitt,\n        <i>\n         Final Report\n        </i>\n        , 282–84;\n        <i>\n         Fresno Grapevine\n        </i>\n        , Oct 7, 4 and Oct. 14, 1, 5.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-12\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-12\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Ellis P. Pulliam], Weekly Report, Oct. 6, 1942, Report—Weekly, Fresno Center Manager, General Correspondence File, Fresno Assembly Center, Reel 313, NARA San Bruno; Dewitt,\n        <i>\n         Final Report\n        </i>\n        , 284.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-13\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-13\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Ayako Noguchi, ed,\n        <i>\n         Vignette: A Pictorial Record of Life in the Fresno Assembly Center\n        </i>\n        (Fresno, Calif.: October 1942), 5, 7; [Pulliam], Initial Report.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-14\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-14\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Noguchi, ed,\n        <i>\n         Vignette\n        </i>\n        , 1–2, 11, 27, 33–34, 43–44, 53, 56, 60, 63;\n        <i>\n         Fresno Grapevine\n        </i>\n        , Aug. 8, 1942, 3 and Aug. 19, 1942, 4.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-15\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-15\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Interview with Miss E, 2; Interview with Miss F, 3; Sam Nakano letter to Virginia Galbraith, June 29, 1942, The Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement: A Digital Archive, Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley, BANC MSS 67/14 c, folder B12.43,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5k7p/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5k7p/\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-16\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-16\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 1–2.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-17\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-17\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Ellis P. Pulliam], Weekly Report, June 23, 1942, Report—Weekly, Fresno Center Manager, General Correspondence File, Fresno Assembly Center, Reel 313, NARA San Bruno; Noguchi, ed,\n        <i>\n         Vignette\n        </i>\n        , 7; [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 9–10.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-18\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-18\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Ellis P. Pulliam], Weekly Reports, August 18, Aug. 25, and Oct. 6, 1942, Report—Weekly, Fresno Center Manager, General Correspondence File, Fresno Assembly Center, Reel 313, NARA San Bruno.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-19\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-19\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 18; Terry Lee Marzell,\n        <i>\n         Chalkboard Champions: Twelve Remarkable Teachers Who Education America's Disenfranchised Students\n        </i>\n        (Tucson, Ariz.: Wheatmark, 2012), 191–92; Noguchi, ed,\n        <i>\n         Vignette\n        </i>\n        , 12–13; Tsukamoto and Pinkerton,\n        <i>\n         We the People\n        </i>\n        , 92–96; [Ellis P. Pulliam], Weekly Report, Sept. 1, 1942, Report—Weekly, Fresno Center Manager, General Correspondence File, Fresno Assembly Center, Reel 313, NARA San Bruno.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-20\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-20\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Ellis P. Pulliam], Weekly Reports, Sept. 1, Sept. 8, Sept. 22, and Sept. 29, 1942, Report—Weekly, Fresno Center Manager, General Correspondence File, Fresno Assembly Center, Reel 313, NARA San Bruno.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-21\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-21\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Sam Nakano letter to Virginia Galbraith, June 18, 1942, The Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement: A Digital Archive, Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley, BANC MSS 67/14 c, folder B12.43\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5k7p/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5k7p/\n        </a>\n        ;\n        <i>\n         Fresno Grapevine\n        </i>\n        , June 20, 1942, 1.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-22\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-22\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Noguchi, ed,\n        <i>\n         Vignette\n        </i>\n        , 16–20; [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 16.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-23\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-23\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 16–18.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-24\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-24\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 20; Noguchi, ed,\n        <i>\n         Vignette\n        </i>\n        , 26.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-25\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-25\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Information in this section taken from Brian Niiya, \"Fresno Grapevine (newspaper),\" Densho Encyclopedia,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Fresno_Grapevine_(newspaper)/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Fresno_Grapevine_(newspaper)/\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-26\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-26\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 19.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-27\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-27\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 18.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-28\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-28\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Ellis P. Pulliam], Weekly Reports, June 2 and Aug. 25, 1942, Report—Weekly, Fresno Center Manager, General Correspondence File, Fresno Assembly Center, Reel 313, NARA San Bruno; Tsukamoto and Pinkerton,\n        <i>\n         We the People\n        </i>\n        , 104.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-29\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-29\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Pulliam], Initial Report; [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 19, 21; Noguchi, ed,\n        <i>\n         Vignette\n        </i>\n        , 27.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-30\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-30\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Noguchi, ed,\n        <i>\n         Vignette\n        </i>\n        , 32; Sam Nakano letter to Virginia Galbraith, June 12, 1942, The Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement: A Digital Archive, Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley, BANC MSS 67/14 c, folder B12.43\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5k7p/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5k7p/\n        </a>\n        ; interview with Miss F, 4.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-31\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-31\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 20.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-32\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-32\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 20.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-33\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-33\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Pulliam], Report to Secretary of War, 7.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-34\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-34\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        <i>\n         Fresno Grapevine\n        </i>\n        , June 6, Sept. 12, and Sept. 19, 1942, all on p. 1; [Ellis P. Pulliam], Weekly Reports, June 30, Sept. 22, and Oct. 6, 1942, Report—Weekly, Fresno Center Manager, General Correspondence File, Fresno Assembly Center, Reel 313, NARA San Bruno.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-35\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-35\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Ellis P. Pulliam], Weekly Reports, Sept. 1, Sept. 8, and Sept. 22, 1942, Report—Weekly, Fresno Center Manager, General Correspondence File, Fresno Assembly Center, Reel 313, NARA San Bruno.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-36\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-36\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        [Ellis P. Pulliam], Weekly Reports, July 28, Aug. 4, and Sept. 8, 1942, Report—Weekly, Fresno Center Manager, General Correspondence File, Fresno Assembly Center, Reel 313, NARA San Bruno.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-37\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-37\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Kikuo H. Taira oral history, 14.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-38\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-38\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Ellis P. Pulliam, Report to Secretary of War, May 26, 1942, p. 5, Report – Secretary of War, Fresno Center Manager, General Correspondence File, Fresno Assembly Center, Reel 313, NARA San Bruno\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-39\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-39\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Sam Nakano letter to Virginia Galbraith, June 3, 1942, The Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement: A Digital Archive, Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley, BANC MSS 67/14 c, folder B12.43,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5k7p/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5k7p/\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-40\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-40\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Sam Nakano letter to Virginia Galbraith, June 12, 1942, The Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement: A Digital Archive, Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley, BANC MSS 67/14 c, folder B12.43,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5k7p/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5k7p/\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-41\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-41\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Sam Nakano letter to Virginia Galbraith, July 2, 1942, The Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement: A Digital Archive, Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley, BANC MSS 67/14 c, folder B12.43,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5k7p/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/28722/bk0013c5k7p/\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-42\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-42\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Saburo Masada interview by Kristen Luetkemeier, Segment 8 Fresno, Sept. 11, 2004, Manzanar National Historic Site Collection, Densho Digital Repository,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-manz-1/ddr-manz-1-157-transcript-fec87c5273.htm\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         http://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-manz-1/ddr-manz-1-157-transcript-fec87c5273.htm\n        </a>\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-43\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-43\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Dewitt,\n        <i>\n         Final Report\n        </i>\n        , 184.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-44\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-44\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Barbara Wyatt, ed.,\n        <i>\n         Japanese Americans in World War II: National Historic Landmarks Theme Study\n        </i>\n        (Washington, D.C.: National Historic Landmarks Program, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 2012), 111.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-45\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-45\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Samantha Masunaga, \"Recalled Fresno Assembly Center,\"\n        <i>\n         Rafu Shimpo\n        </i>\n        , July 17, 2010, 1, 4; \"Fresno Memorial Set to Open,\"\n        <i>\n         Rafu Shimpo\n        </i>\n        , Sept. 21, 2011, 1, 4;\n        <i>\n         Pacific Citizen\n        </i>\n        , Oct. 7–20, 2011, 10; \"Fresno Assembly Center Memorial,\" The Big Fresno Fair website, accessed on Sept. 15, 2020 at\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"https://www.fresnofair.com/p/education/museums/big-fresno-fair-museum/assembly-center-memorial\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         https://www.fresnofair.com/p/education/museums/big-fresno-fair-museum/assembly-center-memorial\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20201230203935\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nCPU time usage: 0.212 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.227 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 923/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 2762/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 3595/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 1157/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 23179/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%  104.058      1 -total\n 36.14%   37.610      1 Template:Reflist\n  5.39%    5.612      1 Template:Databox-Camps\n  2.66%    2.768      1 Template:AuthorByline\n  2.29%    2.385      1 Template:Published\n-->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:107-0!canonical and timestamp 20201230203935 and revision id 33036\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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    "authors": [
        "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/authors/Brian%20Niiya/"
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