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    "url_title": "Harvey M. Coverley",
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    "modified": "2023-12-18T19:10:14",
    "title": "Harvey M. Coverley",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div id=\"databox-PeopleDisplay\">\n  <table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n   <tbody>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Name\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Harvey M. Coverley\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Born\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      April 25 1903\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Died\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      February 7 1994\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Birth Location\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      California\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n   </tbody>\n  </table>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-People\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   FirstName:Harvey M.;\nLastName:Coverley;\nDisplayName:Harvey M. Coverley;\nBirthDate:1903-04-25;\nDeathDate:1994-02-07;\nBirthLocation:California;\nGender:Male;\nEthnicity:White;\nGenerationIdentifier:;\nNationality:US;\nExternalResourceLink:;\nPrimaryGeography:;\nReligion:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <p>\n  Director of\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Tule_Lake/\" title=\"Tule Lake\">\n   Tule Lake\n  </a>\n  (December 30, 1942 to August 1, 1943) and briefly of\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Manzanar/\" title=\"Manzanar\">\n   Manzanar\n  </a>\n  (September 22 to November 5, 1942).\n </p>\n <p>\n  Harvey Mills Coverley was born in California on April 25, 1903, to John and Flossy Coverley and was the eldest of five children. He attended Stanford University, graduating cum laude in 1924, where he ran track and also took classes from pioneering\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Issei/\" title=\"Issei\">\n   Issei\n  </a>\n  professor\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Yamato_Ichihashi/\" title=\"Yamato Ichihashi\">\n   Yamato Ichihashi\n  </a>\n  , who would later be one of his inmates at Tule Lake. In the same year, he married Georgia Mamie Barnes, a woman nearly a decade his senior, and the couple had a daughter later that year. The couple divorced soon after. Upon graduation, he became a mortgage banker. In 1934, he began working for the federal government, first for the Voluntary Farm Debt Adjustment Bureau in the Department of Agriculture, then for the Farm Security Administration as assistant director of the Rural Rehabilitation Program. In this position, he ran migrant labor camps and a relief program for migrant families.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n    [1]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  With the formation of the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/War_Relocation_Authority/\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">\n   War Relocation Authority\n  </a>\n  (WRA), its first director,\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Milton_Eisenhower/\" title=\"Milton Eisenhower\">\n   Milton Eisenhower\n  </a>\n  , brought Coverley in to head the community services division, based in San Francisco. When the embattled Roy Nash left as director of Manzanar in September 1942, Coverley filled in for a little over a month, returning to the San Francisco office afterwards. But when another troubled director—Tule Lake's\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Elmer_Shirrell/\" title=\"Elmer Shirrell\">\n   Elmer Shirrell\n  </a>\n  —was reassigned just over a month later, Coverley was again tapped to fill in, arriving at Tule Lake at the end of December 1942.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n    [2]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  WRA officials considered Shirrell to be too lenient with inmates and at least implicitly blamed him for the near constant unrest at Tule Lake that began in the fall of 1942. Though the unrest had seemingly faded by the end of the year, Coverley took a harder line stance.\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/James_Sakoda/\" title=\"James Sakoda\">\n   James Sakoda\n  </a>\n  , an inmate and researcher for the Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Study (JERS), wrote in a 1945 report that Coverley \"came to the project with a policy which laid emphasis on the maintenance of strict administrative procedure\" and that his \"attitude agreed more with the reactionary elements within the administration than with the liberal elements.\" Harold S. Jacoby, the director of internal security under Coverley and a member of the \"liberal\" bloc of WRA staffers, wrote in his memoir that Coverley seemed to be \"under instruction to strengthen the control of the center..., a task which suited quite well his personality and temperament.\" In a March 1943 memo, another JERS researcher,\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Robert_H._Billigmeier/\" title=\"Robert H. Billigmeier\">\n   Robert Billigmeier\n  </a>\n  , wrote that Coverley kept aloof from both other WRA staffers and inmates, quoting a WRA colleague as saying \"I do not think that we will be calling Mr. Coverley, 'Harvey.'\" This combination of a by-the-books approach with lack of communication turned the February 1943\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Loyalty_questionnaire/\" title=\"Loyalty questionnaire\">\n   registration\n  </a>\n  into a full-blown crisis as mass resistance to registration saw nearly 30% of inmates required to register refuse to do so and nearly 16% of those who did register answer \"no\" to question 28. He also sent armed soldiers to one block to remove thirty-four resistance leaders to a separate detention camp. This mass resistance to registration was the major factor in Tule Lake later being designated the WRA's \"segregation center\" that fall. Criticized by colleagues and inmates alike and blamed for the disappointing results of registration by WRA higher-ups, he resigned as Tule Lake director at the end of July.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n    [3]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  Upon leaving Tule Lake, Coverley attended the U.S. Army School of Military Government at the University of Virginia. He later saw active duty in the army and took part in the invasion of Normandy.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n    [4]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <div id=\"authorByline\">\n  <b>\n   Authored by\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Brian_Niiya/\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n    Brian Niiya\n   </a>\n   , Densho\n  </b>\n </div>\n <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  Niiya, Brian\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Cates, Rita Takahashi. \"Comparative Administration and Management of Five War Relocation Authority Camps: America's Incarceration of Persons of Japanese Descent during World War II.\" Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1980.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Jacoby, Harold S.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Tule Lake: From Relocation to Segregation\n     </i>\n    </a>\n    . Grass Valley, Calif.: Comstock Bonanza Press, 1996.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        \"Harvey Mills Coverley,\"\n        <i>\n         FamilySearch\n        </i>\n        , accessed on July 21, 2020 at\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        ; \"Introducing... Harvey Coverley,\"\n        <i>\n         Manzanar Free Press\n        </i>\n        , Sept. 28, 1942, 2; Letter, Yamato Ichihashi to Payson Treat, Feb. 26, 1943, in Gordon E. Chang,\n        <i>\n         Morning Glory, Evening Shadow: Yamato Ichihashi and His Internment Writings, 1942-1945\n        </i>\n        (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1997), 188;\n        <i>\n         Pacific Citizen\n        </i>\n        , Dec. 31, 1942, 8.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        \"Introducing... Harvey Coverley\";\n        <i>\n         Manzanar Free Press\n        </i>\n        , Sept. 24 and Nov. 5, 1942; Harvey M. Coverley, Weekly Report, Week Ending Jan. 1, 1943, Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Records (JAERR), Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley BANC MSS 67/14 c, folder R1.15:1, accessed on July 21, 2020 at\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Diary, Mrs. Elmer Shirrell [Eleanor Jones Shirrell], Dec. 4, 1942, Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement: A Digital Archive (JAERDA), Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley, BANC MSS 67/14 c, folder R 25.10:2**,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        ; Robert Henry Billigmeier, \"The Caucasian Staff at Tule Lake,\" Feb. 3, 1944, p. 11, JAERDA BANC MSS 67/14 c, folder R 20.01,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        ; Shotaro Frank Miyamoto, \"Chapter VIII: The Ebb of Rebellion,\" The Tule Lake Report, Nov. 30, 1944, pp. 43–45, JAERDA BANC MSS 67/14 c, folder R 20.65:4,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        ; James M. Sakoda, \"The Segregation Program in Tule Lake,\" Dec. 1, 1945, pp. 46–47,  JAERDA BANC MSS 67/14 c, folder R 20.90:1,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        ; Harold S. Jacoby,\n        <i>\n         Tule Lake: From Relocation to Segregation\n        </i>\n        (Grass Valley, Calif.: Comstock Bonanza Press, 1996), 74; Memo, Henny and Bob Billigmeier, March 20, 1943, p. 5, JAERDA BANC MSS 67/14 c, folder R 20.03:2\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        ;\n        <i>\n         The Evacuated People: A Quantitative Description\n        </i>\n        (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, [1946]), 128, 165; Shotaro Frank Miyamoto, Chapter X. The Registration Crisis Tule Lake, pp. 181–92, JAERDA 20.36:2,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        ; Rita Takahashi Cates, \"Comparative Administration and Management of Five War Relocation Authority Camps: America's Incarceration of Persons of Japanese Descent during World War II\" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1980), 557, 564; Eileen H. Tamura,\n        <i>\n         In Defense of Justice: Joseph Kurihara and the Japanese American Struggle for Equality\n        </i>\n        (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2013), 97.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        <i>\n         Pacific Citizen\n        </i>\n        , Sept. 7, 1943, 7; Chang,\n        <i>\n         Morning Glory\n        </i>\n        , 500n51.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20240418160800\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.016 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.022 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 197/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 1794/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 232/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 6/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 4952/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   16.586      1 -total\n 42.64%    7.073      1 Template:Databox-People\n 18.35%    3.043      1 Template:Reflist\n  8.25%    1.368      1 Template:AuthorByline\n  8.21%    1.362      1 Template:Published\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:2452-0!canonical and timestamp 20240418160800 and revision id 35704\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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