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    "url_title": "Hillcrest Sanitarium",
    "title_sort": "hillcrestsanitarium",
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    "modified": "2018-01-12T18:55:51",
    "title": "Hillcrest Sanitarium",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <p>\n  Sanitarium in La Crescenta, California, that housed Japanese American tuberculosis patients during World War II. Hillcrest was one of a number of facilities run by the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/War_Relocation_Authority/\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">\n   War Relocation Authority\n  </a>\n  (WRA) for patients who were either too ill to be removed to concentration camps or who needed to be segregated due to having readily communicable diseases. Of the 500 Japanese American tubercular patients in Los Angeles County before the war, the ones deemed too ill to be moved to concentration camps were moved to two facilities: Hillcrest Sanitarium and Maryknoll Rest Home in Monrovia. Hillcrest held between 100 and 200 patients.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n    [1]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  An armed sentry guarded the inmates despite their illnesses. In mid 1943, Los Angeles County called on the WRA to remove the Japanese American patients, since it claimed it needed the beds for \"our own citizens.\"\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n    [2]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  In the summer of 1944, Japanese American patients at Hillcrest published a sixteen page booklet titled \"The Time,\" which included stories of the patients and staff.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n    [3]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  Rev. Herbert Nicholson and his wife Madeline were frequent visitors to Hillcrest, where he described the patients as having \"become one large, generally happy family,\" while also reporting that he officiated at 35 funerals of Hillcrest patients/inmates during the war.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n    [4]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  Hillcrest continued as an exclusively Japanese American sanitarium even after the war.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n    [5]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <div id=\"authorByline\">\n  <b>\n   Authored by\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Brian_Niiya/\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n    Brian Niiya\n   </a>\n   , Densho\n  </b>\n </div>\n <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  Niiya, Brian\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Nicholson, Herbert.\n    <i>\n     Valient Odyssey: Herbert Nicholson In and Out of America's Concentration Camps\n    </i>\n    . Edited by Michi Weglyn and Betty E. Mitson. Introduction by Michi Weglyn. Upland, Calif.: Brunk's Printing, 1978.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Citing accounts of Rev. Herbert Nicholson, who visited the inmates at Hillcrest, Tetsuden Kashima lists the population there as 123; in another account, Nicholson gives a figure of 156. In his oral history account, Rev. Newton Ishihara, briefly a patient there, lists the population at 168, while a July 1944\n        <i>\n         Pacific Citizen\n        </i>\n        article claims a figure of 126. The population no doubt fluctuated as patients were moved to and from the concentration camps run by the WRA or passed away. Tetsuden Kashima,\n        <i>\n         Judgment Without Trial: Japanese American Imprisonment during World War II\n        </i>\n        (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002), 175; Herbert Nicholson,\n        <i>\n         Valient Odyssey: Herbert Nicholson In and Out of America's Concentration Camps\n        </i>\n        , edited by Michi Weglyn and Betty E. Mitson (Upland, Calif.: Brunk's Printing, 1978), 51;\n        <i>\n         Pacific Citizen\n        </i>\n        , July 15, 1944, p. 8.; Rev. Newton Ishiura oral history, Japanese American Archival Collection, California State University Sacramento,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        \"Not All Japanese Evacuated From Los Angeles Area,\"\n        <i>\n         Pacific Citizen\n        </i>\n        , Jan. 28, 1943, p. 3; \"Act to Move Japanese from Two Hospitals,\"\n        <i>\n         Pacific Citizen\n        </i>\n        , May 20, 1943, p. 6; \"Removal of Patients From Institutions Ordered by Board,\"\n        <i>\n         Pacific Citizen\n        </i>\n        , June 6, 1943, p. 3. In the last article, Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors Chairman Gordon L. McDonald is quoted as saying, \"Our own citizens are being denied hospital care because there Japanese patients now occupy beds now sorely needed.\" Accessed online on Jan. 12, 2018 at\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        ,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        , and\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        <i>\n         Pacific Citizen\n        </i>\n        , July 15, 1944, p. 8.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Nicholson,\n        <i>\n         Valiant Odyssey\n        </i>\n        , 52.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Tom Sasaki, Report #33, \"Social Organization: Hillcrest Sanitorium,\" Aug. 13, 1946, The Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement: A Digital Archive, Bancroft Library, University of California, call number BANC MSS 67/14 c, folder W 2.11:1, accessed on Jan. 22, 2015 at\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20220112182709\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.013 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.019 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 108/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 514/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 58/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 5/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 4063/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   15.590      1 -total\n 20.44%    3.186      1 Template:Reflist\n  9.49%    1.480      1 Template:AuthorByline\n  9.48%    1.478      1 Template:Published\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:2588-0!canonical and timestamp 20220112182709 and revision id 27393\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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