GET /api/0.1/articles/Honouliuli%20(detention%20facility)/
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    "url_title": "Honouliuli (detention facility)",
    "title_sort": "honouliulidetentionfacility",
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    "modified": "2020-07-22T15:52:31",
    "title": "Honouliuli (detention facility)",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div id=\"databox-CampsDisplay\">\n  <table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n   <tbody>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      US Gov Name\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Honouliuli Internment Camp\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sites_of_incarceration/\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">\n       Facility Type\n      </a>\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sites_of_incarceration#U.S._Army_Internment_Camp/\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">\n       U.S. Army Internment Camp\n      </a>\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Administrative Agency\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      U.S. Army\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Location\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Honouliuli, Oahu, Hawaii (21.4167 lat, -158.0667 lng)\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Date Opened\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      February 1943\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Date Closed\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      1945\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Population Description\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Held people of Japanese and European ancestry, citizens and non-citizens, male and female; also held prisoners of war (POWs) from the Pacific theater.\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      General Description\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Located on 160 acres of sugarcane fields northwest of Honolulu. One of two camps used to imprison people of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii.\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Peak Population\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      300\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <td colspan=\"2\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n       National Park Service Info\n      </a>\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n   </tbody>\n  </table>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-Camps\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   SoSUID:u-hono;\nDenshoName:Honouliuli;\nUSGName:Honouliuli Internment Camp;\nType:\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sites_of_incarceration#U.S._Army_Internment_Camp/\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">\n    U.S. Army Internment Camp\n   </a>\n   ;\nAdminAgency:U.S. Army;\nDateOpened:February 1943;\nDateClosed:1945;\nLocationName:Honouliuli, Oahu, Hawaii;\nCityName:Honouliuli, Oahu;\nStateName:HI;\nDescription:Located on 160 acres of sugarcane fields northwest of Honolulu. One of two camps used to imprison people of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii.;\nGISLat:21.4167;\nGISLng:-158.0667;\nGISTGNId:2024962;\nCurrentDisposition:;\nPopulationDescription:Held people of Japanese and European ancestry, citizens and non-citizens, male and female; also held prisoners of war (POWs) from the Pacific theater.;\nExitDestination:;\nPeakPopulation:300;\nPeakDate:;\nNPSMoreInfoResourceLink:\n   <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n   </a>\n   ;\nOfficialResourceLink:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <div class=\"floatright\">\n </div>\n <div class=\"floatright\">\n </div>\n <p>\n  Honouliuli was a\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sites_of_incarceration/\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">\n   U.S. Army Internment Camp\n  </a>\n  on the island of O'ahu. It was the largest and last-occupied World War II-era civilian confinement site in the Hawaiian Islands.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n    [1]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  The camp opened in March 1943, replacing a smaller facility on\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sand_Island_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Sand Island (detention facility)\">\n   Sand Island\n  </a>\n  . Honouliuli quickly reached a peak civilian population of approximately three hundred detainees, the vast majority of whom were American citizens. The site also served as the largest prisoner-of-war (POW) camp in wartime Hawai'i, holding more than four thousand soldiers and labor conscripts from Italy, Japan, Korea, Okinawa, and Taiwan.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n    [2]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  Honouliuli continued to hold POWs and a small number of civilian detainees past the end of the war.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n    [3]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <div aria-labelledby=\"mw-toc-heading\" class=\"toc\" id=\"toc\" role=\"navigation\">\n  <input class=\"toctogglecheckbox\" id=\"toctogglecheckbox\" role=\"button\" style=\"display:none\" type=\"checkbox\"/>\n  <div class=\"toctitle\" dir=\"ltr\" lang=\"en\">\n   <h2 id=\"mw-toc-heading\">\n    Contents\n   </h2>\n   <span class=\"toctogglespan\">\n    <label class=\"toctogglelabel\" for=\"toctogglecheckbox\">\n    </label>\n   </span>\n  </div>\n  <ul>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Facilities_and_Conditions\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      1\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Facilities and Conditions\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-2\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Camp_Life\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      2\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Camp Life\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-3\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Transition_into_POW_Camp\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      3\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Transition into POW Camp\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-4\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#For_More_Information\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      4\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      For More Information\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-5\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Footnotes\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      5\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Footnotes\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n  </ul>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Facilities_and_Conditions\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Facilities_and_Conditions\">\n    Facilities and Conditions\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Honouliuli was established as a replacement for the Sand Island detention center, which was located in an exposed combat zone in Honolulu Harbor. The camp was constructed on 160 acres of agricultural land located in a gulch at the base of O'ahu's Wai'anae Mountains, slightly northwest of the town of Waipahu.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n      [4]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Camp operations fell under the jurisdiction of the provost marshal general of the U.S. Army, who appointed the camp commander.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n      [5]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    A military police (MP) company—numbering no more than three hundred guards and officers—watched over the POWs and civilian inmates.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\">\n      [6]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Eight watchtowers and a dual eight-foot-high barbed-wire enclosure helped maintain security.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_7-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref7-7\">\n      [7]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Although Honouliuli was not a self-sufficient community like the\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/War_Relocation_Authority/\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">\n     War Relocation Authority\n    </a>\n    camps, it was designed to accommodate three thousand inmates.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_8-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref8-8\">\n      [8]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    There were at least 150 buildings in total, in addition to 170 tents. More than two dozen of these buildings probably served as barracks or living quarters for camp guards.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref9_9-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref9-9\">\n      [9]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Authorities kept the civilian and POW sections of the camp securely separated. Most civilian detainees slept on double-decker beds in one of fifteen wooden barracks, while others lived in tarpaulin tents. Amenities in the civilian compounds included mattresses, latrines, hot showers, kitchens, mess halls, and eventually a recreation field. The majority of the detainees were Japanese American men, and there were separate compounds created for the Japanese women and the Caucasian detainees. The ranks of civilian inmates included many prewar community leaders, such as territorial legislators\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sanji_Abe/\" title=\"Sanji Abe\">\n     Sanji Abe\n    </a>\n    and\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Thomas_Sakakihara/\" title=\"Thomas Sakakihara\">\n     Thomas Sakakihara\n    </a>\n    . The Japanese male section of the camp was equipped with a medical dispensary, dental clinic, and tailor shop; a post exchange that sold tobacco, soft drinks, and snacks; and a mess hall capable of seating one thousand people.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref10_10-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref10-10\">\n      [10]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Camp_Life\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Camp_Life\">\n    Camp Life\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Honouliuli detainees struggled daily to overcome hot weather, hungry mosquitoes, and constant boredom inside the camp. In fact, Japanese inmates referred to the camp as\n    <i>\n     jigoku dani\n    </i>\n    (hell valley) due to the oppressive heat of the gulch. Popular camp pastimes included woodcarving, letter writing, and vegetable gardening. Many detainees signed up for camp chores—which paid ten cents an hour—and the American Red Cross provided each prisoner with an additional three dollars a month. The most exciting departure from the daily routine, however, was undoubtedly family visits, which occurred two Sundays a month inside camp mess halls.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref11_11-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref11-11\">\n      [11]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Despite initial concerns on the part of camp supervisors, a group of ten Japanese American children were admitted into the camp in 1944.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref12_12-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref12-12\">\n      [12]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    At least two sets of international inspectors toured the camp, and the reports they produced were decidedly favorable. Swedish Vice Consul Gustaf Olson, who inspected Honouliuli on at least three occasions, noted that kitchens were equipped with modern ranges and that food supplies were of the \"best quality.\" He praised improvements carried out by the Japanese American detainees themselves, who cleared grounds and walking pathways, planted shrubs and trees, and arranged flowers around their residences in order to beautify their surroundings as much as possible. Electricity was installed in the barracks–enabling the use of radios and electric razors, but lights were generally kept off in accordance with blackout restrictions. Olson was able to meet with a group of elected detainee representatives, but instead of registering complaints they applauded the \"humane treatment received from camp guards.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref13_13-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref13-13\">\n      [13]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Representatives from the International Red Cross, who visited Honouliuli in 1945, described camp accommodations as \"excellent,\" adding that all of the detainees' needs were being met. On the other hand, their report expressed concern that the proximity of the POW camp was harming the resident children.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref14_14-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref14-14\">\n      [14]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Transition_into_POW_Camp\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Transition_into_POW_Camp\">\n    Transition into POW Camp\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Hawai'i served as the United States' primary mid-Pacific transfer and confinement site for prisoners of war, with more than sixteen thousand POWs imprisoned in the islands over the course of the Second World War. More than four thousand of these men—mostly Okinawans conscripted into the Japanese Army—were held at Honouliuli.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref15_15-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref15-15\">\n      [15]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Accommodations for POWs were rudimentary in comparison to the civilian side of the camp. POWs lived in pyramidal tents, each holding between six and eight men. Prisoners were issued mattresses, pillows, blankets, and mosquito bars, but had to tolerate cold showers and pit latrines.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref16_16-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref16-16\">\n      [16]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Nevertheless, inspectors from the International Red Cross described the camp's material conditions as \"better than those on the mainland.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref17_17-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref17-17\">\n      [17]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    These facilities included two large kitchens and mess halls, each capable of seating one thousand men.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref18_18-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref18-18\">\n      [18]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Although civilian detainees initially outnumbered POWs, Honouliuli increasingly took on the air of a POW camp as U.S. forces in the Pacific advanced towards Japan. A large number of civilians were released on parole in 1943, provided that they signed waivers absolving the U.S. government and individuals from any liability for their confinement.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref19_19-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref19-19\">\n      [19]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Many more were either transferred to mainland camps or shipped to the continent as \"evacuees\" for the purposes of continued confinement, twice in 1943 and again in November 1944.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref20_20-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref20-20\">\n      [20]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Nevertheless, twenty-one civilians remained confined in Honouliuli as late as September 1945–all Japanese male\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Issei/\" title=\"Issei\">\n     Issei\n    </a>\n    or\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Kibei/\" title=\"Kibei\">\n     Kibei\n    </a>\n    .\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref21_21-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref21-21\">\n      [21]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    The reduction in civilian prisoners freed up camp space and resources for Honouliuli's expanding POW population. Early POW arrivals consisted of Koreans conscripted into the Japanese Army, who were taken prisoner following the Americans' November 1943 capture of the Gilbert Islands.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref22_22-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref22-22\">\n      [22]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Tensions between Korean and Japanese POWs prompted camp authorities to construct a partition separating the two national groups.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref23_23-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref23-23\">\n      [23]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    A much larger influx of POWs—from both the European and Pacific fronts—occurred during the summer of 1944.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref24_24-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref24-24\">\n      [24]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    By war's end, the camp held 3,980 POWs.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref25_25-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref25-25\">\n      [25]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Repatriation of these prisoners began in December 1945 and continued through the following year.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref26_26-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref26-26\">\n      [26]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    At present, the site is owned by Monsanto, an agricultural company that purchased a larger parcel that includes the site in 2007. Since then, the site has been the subject of research and of archeological field schools held by the nearby University of Hawai'i, West Oahu and two pilgrimages organized by the Japanese Cultural Center of Hawai'i and Japanese American Citizens League. A Special Resource Study gauging the suitability of the Honouliuli site becoming a National Park Service unit is currently ongoing.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    On February 19, 2015, President Barack Obama issued a presidential proclamation creating\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Honouliuli National Monument\n    </a>\n    , which will be managed by the National Park Service.\n   </p>\n   <div id=\"authorByline\">\n    <b>\n     Authored by\n     <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Alan_Rosenfeld/\" title=\"Alan Rosenfeld\">\n      Alan Rosenfeld\n     </a>\n     , University of Hawai'i - West O'ahu\n    </b>\n   </div>\n   <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n    Rosenfeld, Alan\n   </div>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Commission of Wartime Internment and Relocation of Civilians.\n    <i>\n     Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians\n    </i>\n    . Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Falgout, Suzanne, and Linda Nishigaya, guest editors.\n    <i>\n     Breaking the Silence: Lessons of Democracy and Social Justice from the World War II Honouliuli Internment and POW Camp in Hawai'i\n    </i>\n    .\n    <i>\n     Social Process in Hawai'i\n    </i>\n    , Volume 45. 2014.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Kashima, Tetsuden.\n    <i>\n     Judgment Without Trial: Japanese American Internment during World War II\n    </i>\n    . Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Soga, Yasutaro (Keiho).\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Life Behind Barbed Wire: The World War II Internment Memoirs of a Hawai'i Issei\n     </i>\n     .\n    </a>\n    Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2008.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap mw-references-columns\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Jeffrey F. Burton and Mary M. Farrell, \"Jigoku-Dani: An Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Honouliuli Internment Camp, O'ahu, Hawai'i” (Tucson: Trans-Sierran Archaeological Research, 2008), 7.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Although Koreans, Okinawans, and Formosans (Taiwanese) were all subjects of Japan during World War II, military authorities in Hawai'i listed them separately. More than 16,000 POWs had been interned in Hawai'i by the war's end. The majority of POWs held in Honouliuli were Okinawans. For a detailed breakdown, see Provost Marshal Section, \"Vital Statistics: POW Compounds, Prisoners of War, and Internees in Hawaiian Islands,\" Japanese Cultural Center of Hawai'i Resource Center, Archival Collection 19 (hereafter cited as JCCH 19), Box 9, Folder 30. See Gwenfread Allen,\n        <i>\n         Hawaii's War Years\n        </i>\n        (Kailua: Pacific Monograph, 1999), 221.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        See Provost Marshal, \"Vital Statistics\"; and Burton and Farrell, \"Jigoku-Dani,\" 14, 38.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Burton and Farrell, \"Jigoku-Dani,\" 7, 14.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Provost Marshal Section, \"Control of Civilian Internees and Prisoners of War in the Central Pacific Area,\" 22 January 1944, JCCH 19, Box 9, Folder 21.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        See Provost Marshal, \"Control of Civilian Internees.\" The estimate of the number of guards comes from Burton and Farrell, \"Jigoku-Dani,\" 37.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref7-7\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_7-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        For more on camp security, see especially Burton and Farrell, \"Jigoku-Dani.\" For discussions of the barbed-wire enclosures, see Tetsuden Kashima,\n        <i>\n         Judgment Without Trial: Japanese American Internment during World War II\n        </i>\n        (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004), 84; Hank Sato \"Honouliuli Internment Camp: Oahu's Footnote to a Dark Chapter,\"\n        <i>\n         Honolulu Star Bulletin\n        </i>\n        , 18 March 1976; and Provost Marshal, \"Control of Civilian Internees.\"\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref8-8\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_8-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        See Burton and Farrell, \"Jigoku-Dani,\" 11; and Provost Marshal, \"Control of Civilian Internees.\"\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref9-9\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref9_9-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Burton and Farrell, \"Jigoku-Dani,\" 36.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref10-10\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref10_10-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        For discussions of camp amenities, see Swedish Vice Consul Gustaf W. Olson, \"Reports on Hawai'i Internment Camps,\" 19 June 1943 and 23 September 1943, JCCH 19, Boxes 7 and 8; Alfred L. Cardinaux, International Committee of the Red Cross, \"Report on the Prisoner of War Camps on the Territory of Hawai'i, Visited in December 1944\" 1 February 1945, JCCH 19, Box 9, Folder 27; Provost Marshal, \"Control of Civilian Internees\"; Burton and Farrell, \"Jigoku-Dani,\" 25; Kashima,\n        <i>\n         Judgment Without Trial\n        </i>\n        , 84-85; and Sato, \"Honouliuli.\"\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref11-11\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref11_11-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        For further details of camp life, see Olson, \"Reports,\" 19 June 1943 and 23 September 1943; Sato, \"Honouliuli\"; and Burton and Farrell, \"Jigoku-Dani,\" 25-27.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref12-12\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref12_12-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        For more on children in Honouliuli, see Eugene Slattery and Louis Springer, \"Requests for Family Internment on the Mainland of the U.S.,\" 1 December 1943, JCCH 19, Box 9, Folder 18; Cardinaux, \"Report\"; and the daily camp commander's reports in National Archives and Records Administration (hereafter cited as NARA) Record Group (hereafter cited as RG) 494, Entry 25, Boxes 334 and 335.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref13-13\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref13_13-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        See Olson, \"Reports,\" 19 June 1943, and 23 September 1943.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref14-14\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref14_14-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        See Cardinaux, \"\"Report,\" 1 February 1945.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref15-15\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref15_15-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        See Provost Marshal, \"Vital Statistics.\"\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref16-16\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref16_16-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        For more on conditions in Honouliuli's POW compound see Provost Marshal, \"Control of Civilian Internees and Prisoners\"; and Burton and Farrell, 25.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref17-17\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref17_17-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Cardinaux, \"Report,\" 1 February 1945.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref18-18\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref18_18-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Provost Marshal, \"Control of Civilian Internees and Prisoners.\"\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref19-19\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref19_19-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Examples of these forms can be found in individual case files in NARA, RG 389, Entry 461. See also Allen,\n        <i>\n         War Years\n        </i>\n        , 137; Kashima,\n        <i>\n         Judgment Without Trial\n        </i>\n        , 84-85.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref20-20\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref20_20-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        See NARA, RG 494, Entry 25, Boxes 334 and 335 for lists of individuals who took part in these transports. See also Soga,\n        <i>\n         Barbed Wire\n        </i>\n        , 226. Soga records two transports from Honouliuli in 1943.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref21-21\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref21_21-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        William R.C. Morrison, \"Summaries of the Facts in the Cases of Enemy Aliens in Honouliuli Internment Camp,\" 11 September 1945, JCCH 19, Box 10, Folder 7.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref22-22\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref22_22-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        \"U.S. Army Forces Middle Pacific and Predecessor Commands During World War II: Chapter IX: Prisoners of War,\" JCCH 19, Box 9, Folder 39.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref23-23\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref23_23-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Provost Marshal, \"Control of Civilian Internees and Prisoners\"; Burton and Farrell, 25.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref24-24\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref24_24-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        \"U.S. Army Forces.\"\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref25-25\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref25_25-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Provost Marshal, \"Vital Statistics.\"\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref26-26\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref26_26-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Allen,\n        <i>\n         War Years\n        </i>\n        , 221; and Burton and Farrell, \"Jigoku-Dani,\" 14, 38.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20230521153500\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.031 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.039 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 451/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 3509/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 1295/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 5/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 11211/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   25.894      1 -total\n 24.62%    6.374      1 Template:Reflist\n  7.94%    2.055      1 Template:Databox-Camps\n  5.71%    1.479      1 Template:Published\n  5.50%    1.424      1 Template:AuthorByline\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:141-0!canonical and timestamp 20230521153459 and revision id 30731\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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