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    "url_title": "Hugh Anderson",
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    "modified": "2024-04-30T03:09:22",
    "title": "Hugh Anderson",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div id=\"databox-PeopleDisplay\">\n  <table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n   <tbody>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Name\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Hugh Anderson\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Born\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      1912\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Died\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      1999\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Birth Location\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Pasadena, California\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n   </tbody>\n  </table>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-People\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   FirstName:Hugh;\nLastName:Anderson;\nDisplayName:Hugh Anderson;\nBirthDate:1912-01-01;\nDeathDate:1999-01-01;\nBirthLocation:Pasadena, California;\nGender:Male;\nEthnicity:White;\nGenerationIdentifier:;\nNationality:;\nExternalResourceLink:;\nPrimaryGeography:Pasadena, California;\nReligion:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <p>\n  Born and raised in Pasadena, Hugh Harris Anderson was in the leadership of the Friends of the American Way organization that supported Japanese Americans during World War II. The group led by\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/William_C._Carr_and_Friends_of_the_American_Way/\" title=\"William C. Carr and Friends of the American Way\">\n   William Carr\n  </a>\n  ,\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Herbert_Nicholson/\" title=\"Herbert Nicholson\">\n   Herbert Nicholson\n  </a>\n  , and others paved the way for\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Esther_Takei_Nishio/\" title=\"Esther Takei Nishio\">\n   Esther Takei\n  </a>\n  to return to Southern California in September of 1944.\n </p>\n <div aria-labelledby=\"mw-toc-heading\" class=\"toc\" id=\"toc\" role=\"navigation\">\n  <input class=\"toctogglecheckbox\" id=\"toctogglecheckbox\" role=\"button\" style=\"display:none\" type=\"checkbox\"/>\n  <div class=\"toctitle\" dir=\"ltr\" lang=\"en\">\n   <h2 id=\"mw-toc-heading\">\n    Contents\n   </h2>\n   <span class=\"toctogglespan\">\n    <label class=\"toctogglelabel\" for=\"toctogglecheckbox\">\n    </label>\n   </span>\n  </div>\n  <ul>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Early_Life_and_Career\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      1\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Early Life and Career\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-2\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Japanese_American_Forced_Removal_and_Incarceration\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      2\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Japanese American Forced Removal and Incarceration\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-3\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Aiding_Japanese_American_Returnees\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      3\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Aiding Japanese American Returnees\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-4\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Later_Life\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      4\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Later Life\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-5\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#For_More_Information\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      5\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      For More Information\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-6\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Footnotes\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      6\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Footnotes\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n  </ul>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Early_Life_and_Career\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Early_Life_and_Career\">\n    Early Life and Career\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Hugh Harris Anderson (1912–99) was born and raised in Pasadena, California. His father, Hugh S. Anderson, migrated after the Galveston flood, and his first job was as a laborer on the Colorado Street bridge.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n      [1]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    He became the manager of Model Grocery, and young Hugh often helped out at the community store first at 60 W. Colorado, later at 250 E. Colorado. The younger Hugh grew up with his two sisters at 406 N. Mentor Ave. Between 1953 and 1958, Hugh would also become the manager of Model Grocery.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Hugh was an affable young man and a leader with Junior Lions, YMCA, X Club, Science Club, and was junior and senior class president. It was during these years that he came to know Dr. John Harbeson, president of Pasadena Junior College, and Dr. Robert Millikan, the controversial president of Cal Tech.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-2\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-2\">\n      [2]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    After Muir High and Pasadena Junior College, Anderson completed an Economics AB at Stanford in 1934. In 1934, he married Emalena May Richards (1913–2000) originally of Santa Ana. They had met at First Baptist Church when she came to Pasadena to visit her uncle. The couple had four children born between 1936 and 1944. Hugh wrote on his draft card that he was a \"conscientious objector.\"\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    After college, Anderson got a job as an administrative assistant with the National Youth Administration and then as a field auditor for the State Controller's Office in the late 1930s. As the pressures of World War II escalated, the state had \"concerns\" and Hugh and others were assigned to audit the Japanese businesses in the state. Anderson's assignment was in Pasadena, and he came to know the grocery stores, auto parts stores, nurseries, etc. in his hometown. He said that the Japanese Americans were \"great people\" but \"frightened after 1941\".\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_3-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-3\">\n      [3]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Japanese_American_Forced_Removal_and_Incarceration\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Japanese_American_Forced_Removal_and_Incarceration\">\n    Japanese American Forced Removal and Incarceration\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Japanese Americans in Pasadena were mostly removed in May to\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Tulare_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Tulare (detention facility)\">\n     Tulare fairgrounds\n    </a>\n    and then to\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Gila_River/\" title=\"Gila River\">\n     Gila River\n    </a>\n    . The Andersons stored neighbors' belongings in their garage and attic. Anderson gave his personal set of Encyclopedia Britannica to the\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Santa_Anita_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Santa Anita (detention facility)\">\n     Santa Anita Assembly Center\n    </a>\n    for the Japanese Americans to use. He also went to see the editors of the\n    <i>\n     Pasadena Star News\n    </i>\n    and\n    <i>\n     Pasadena Independent\n    </i>\n    to protest their printing of derogatory words, to no avail.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_4-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-4\">\n      [4]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    As Anderson was one of the early organizers of food cooperatives in Depression-era Pasadena, the\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/War_Relocation_Authority/\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">\n     War Relocation Authority\n    </a>\n    asked him to serve as the assistant chief of community enterprises at\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Poston_(Colorado_River)/\" title=\"Poston (Colorado River)\">\n     Poston\n    </a>\n    , Arizona, camp. Like in other camps, Anderson would be the white administrator to oversee the inmates' self-sustaining co-ops like hardware stores, hair salons, ice cream stores, clothing stores, and the like. For a community of 18,000 inmates, these were 12-hour days, six-days a week for Anderson. He said, \"One of my functions was to provide cash for the community. I had to go to the bank in Phoenix, about 80 miles away, and pick up thousands of dollars in small change. I would have many bags of nickels and dimes in my car. I did this every week.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_5-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-5\">\n      [5]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    On one of his drives to Los Angeles to gain supplies, he met a man with 35 pounds of fresh barracuda packed in ice. Within two hours of his return to Poston the next morning, the Japanese Americans had finished all the sushi he gifted.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_6-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref5-6\">\n      [6]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Near April of 1943, Anderson contracted a near fatal case of polio. At his departure from Poston, the Japanese Americans collected $500 for his recovery, a substantial sum from inmates who earned $12 to $19/month.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Aiding_Japanese_American_Returnees\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Aiding_Japanese_American_Returnees\">\n    Aiding Japanese American Returnees\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Back in Pasadena, Anderson joined Friends of the American Way \"in an effort to be decent for what we had done to them.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_7-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref6-7\">\n      [7]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    William Carr served as president, and Hugh Anderson was treasurer. Said Anderson, \"It was a propaganda agency to offset the horrible thing that happened. To try and keep a little balance of society. You must remember that, at the time, there were a lot of rednecks that were overjoyed at the Japanese being locked up.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_8-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref7-8\">\n      [8]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    The Friends of the American Way wrote letters to officials, to the press, and to the Japanese Americans. They lobbied when they could. They pooled their gas rations and delivered stored property to the imprisoned. Later, they helped Japanese Americans resettle, find housing and jobs, and begin to rebuild their lives.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    In 1944, Friends of the American Way gained permission from General\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Charles_H._Bonesteel/\" title=\"Charles H. Bonesteel\">\n     Charles Bonesteel\n    </a>\n    to allow a \"test case,\" 19-year old Esther Takei (1925–2019), to return to California. She lived with the Anderson family at 1976 N. Roosevelt, Altadena while enrolled at Pasadena Junior College. Anderson had known the Takeis before the war.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    The initial plan was that Esther's return would be kept quiet. But \"some yahoo let the cat out of the bag when she was arriving, and boy, the press was represented like you never saw.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_9-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref8-9\">\n      [9]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    As the\n    <i>\n     Pasadena Independent\n    </i>\n    printed the Andersons' address, Hugh said he had to \"get rid of the family\" for about ten days for fear of the number of threats. \"We were threatened to have our house bombed. Our address was in the paper every day. We had a line of cars bumper to bumper.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref9_10-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref9-10\">\n      [10]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    The news circulated not only through Pasadena and Los Angeles news agencies, but received national attention. \"Ban the Jap\" Committee, led by local resident George Kelly, fueled loud and boisterous resentment of Esther around Pasadena. According to Anderson, \"there were probably several hundred phone calls and letters written to the Board of Education, the press, and a lesser number to the Chamber of Commerce, the General, and the President. The ministers in town took up the torch at our instigation and yesterday the subject was taken up and positively discussed from the pulpits of at least fifteen of the leading churches that we know of.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref10_11-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref10-11\">\n      [11]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Meanwhile, Esther's parents remained in Amache, Colorado, camp worrying. Esther's mother, Ninoe's letter to the Andersons in December read in part, \"If I have wings, I will fly over there and talked to her [Esther] all about her present situation. After I read his letter [telling of Esther's predicaments], my eyes are wet and hands were shaking with a deep disappointment. I wrote her a letter right away and told her to behave. I can really imagine how much you folks are worring [sic] about her.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref11_12-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref11-12\">\n      [12]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Esther stayed with the Andersons in Altadena for about a year until her parents were released.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    The second Japanese American to return to Pasadena was Ko Yamaguchi, a 10-year old. His father had died of cancer at\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Manzanar/\" title=\"Manzanar\">\n     Manzanar\n    </a>\n    , and Ko was sponsored to return to McKinley Junior High in Pasadena by Robert Emerson, a Quaker.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref12_13-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref12-13\">\n      [13]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Dr. Emerson was a biochemist and botanist at Cal Tech trying to develop a substitute for tree rubber using guayule plants. This was a project supported by Dr. Robert Millikan. It was Anderson's task to deliver the guayule plants from Salinas to the Japanese American scientists at Manzanar camp working on propagation and extraction.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref13_14-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref13-14\">\n      [14]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Anderson was also the messenger to the Cal Tech scientists.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Later_Life\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Later_Life\">\n    Later Life\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    After the war, Friends of the American Way disbanded. In 1946, Anderson was president and general manager of Desert Rubber Inc. After he left Model Grocery in 1958, Anderson traveled to Malaysia and Australia to further explore guayule rubber possibilities. Anderson remained active in the Pasadena community. He joined the Quakers and helped establish Pacific Oaks College. He was also on the ACLU Board, Pasadena Asian Museum committee, Mishima Sister City committee, and the Democratic Club of Pasadena.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref14_15-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref14-15\">\n      [15]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Hugh passed in 1999 and his wife, Emalena, passed in 2000 at Lake Forest, California.\n   </p>\n   <div id=\"authorByline\">\n    <b>\n     Authored by\n     <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Susie_Ling/\" title=\"Susie Ling\">\n      Susie Ling\n     </a>\n    </b>\n   </div>\n   <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n    Ling, Susie\n   </div>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Hugh Harris Anderson interview by Dr. Arthur Hansen, February 8, 1975\n    </a>\n    . Japanese American Oral History Project Collection, Cal State University Fullerton.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Hugh Harris Anderson interview by June L. Benton, July 28, 1982. Pasadena Oral History Project, Pasadena Heritage, Pasadena, California.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap mw-references-columns\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Interview of Hugh Harris Anderson by June L. Benton on July 28, 1982 for the Pasadena Oral History Project, p. 1, transcripts viewed at Pasadena Heritage, Pasadena, California.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-2\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Dr. John Wesley Harbeson (1908-62) was born in Iowa and received his B.A. from the University of Kansas, his M.A. from Columbia University, and his Ph.D. from USC in 1931. By 1920, he was a history teacher at Pasadena High School and then became the first dean at Pasadena Junior College. From 1927 to 1950, he served as principal. After Executive Order 9066, Harbeson held a convocation in hopes of supporting the Nisei students. In 1942, he welcomed Esther Takei to the campus.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-3\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_3-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Interview of Hugh Harris Anderson by Dr. Arthur Hansen for the Japanese American Oral History Project Collection on February 8, 1975, Cal State University Fullerton, accessed on Sept. 3, 2022 at:\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-4\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_4-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Hansen interview.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-5\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_5-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Hansen interview.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref5-6\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_6-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Benton interview, 41.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref6-7\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_7-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Benton interview, 29.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref7-8\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_8-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Benton interview, 29.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref8-9\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_9-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Benton interview, 32.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref9-10\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref9_10-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Benton interview, 33.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref10-11\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref10_11-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Letter to Frank Kuwahara from Hugh Anderson dated September 25, 1944, Box 2 of \"Hugh Anderson Collection, 1921-1959,\" Pasadena Museum of History. Frank Kuwahara was in the wholesale flower industry and project leader of the guayule project at Poston camp.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref11-12\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref11_12-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Letter to Hugh and Emalena Anderson from Ninoe Takei, dated December 1, 1944, Box 1 of \"Hugh Anderson Collection, 1921-1959,\" Pasadena Museum of History.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref12-13\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref12_13-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        \"Two More Japs [sic] Return as Six Visit Los Angeles,\" newspaper clipping from unknown source and unknown date, Box 2, \"Hugh Anderson Collection, 1921-1959,\" Pasadena Museum of History.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref13-14\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref13_14-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        See Jonathan van Harmelen's \"Guayule Project\" in Densho Encyclopedia,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref14-15\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref14_15-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Benton interview.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20240509204646\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.023 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.030 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 321/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 1832/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 246/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 6/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 6002/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   22.474      1 -total\n 20.25%    4.550      1 Template:Reflist\n 10.12%    2.274      1 Template:Databox-People\n  6.56%    1.474      1 Template:AuthorByline\n  6.44%    1.448      1 Template:Published\n  6.43%    1.446      1 Template:GoodNonJA\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:4501-0!canonical and timestamp 20240509204646 and revision id 36210\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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