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    "url_title": "Immigration and Naturalization Service",
    "title_sort": "immigrationandnaturalizationservice",
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    "modified": "2024-05-14T15:42:35",
    "title": "Immigration and Naturalization Service",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div class=\"floatright\">\n </div>\n <p>\n  During World War II, the Justice Department's Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) interned nearly 32,000 Japanese, German, and Italian \"enemy aliens,\" most of whom resided in the continental United States and the territories of Hawai’i and Alaska but thousands of whom were deported from Latin America. In addition to its regular facilities, the INS and the U.S. Army operated dozens of permanent and makeshift internment camps in order to accommodate large number of internees. By using immigration law during and after the war to detain foreign nationals, the Justice Department avoided a host of constitutional concerns, including due process of law.\n </p>\n <p>\n  In 1940, President\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Franklin_D._Roosevelt/\" title=\"Franklin D. Roosevelt\">\n   Franklin Roosevelt\n  </a>\n  transferred the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) from the Labor Department to the Justice Department, marking a shift in thinking that did not originate in—but was deeply entrenched by—World War II. Government officials questioned how a department focused on the nation's employment could also handle problems related to the nation's security. When Roosevelt submitted Reorganization Plan No. V to Congress in May 1940, therefore, he claimed that given \"the startling sequence of international events,\" the INS ought to be \"closely integrated\" with the activities of the Justice Department, where it could provide \"more effective control over aliens.\"\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n    [1]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  Within the Justice Department, the INS joined several agencies involved with plans to monitor individuals and organizations of designated foreign nationals. Roosevelt authorized the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Federal_Bureau_of_Investigation/\" title=\"Federal Bureau of Investigation\">\n   Federal Bureau of Investigation\n  </a>\n  (FBI), for example, to conduct \"foreign intelligence work\" in the Western Hemisphere. Under\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/J._Edgar_Hoover/\" title=\"J. Edgar Hoover\">\n   J. Edgar Hoover\n  </a>\n  , the FBI created a\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Custodial_detention_/_A-B-C_list/\" title=\"Custodial detention / A-B-C list\">\n   Custodial Detention List\n  </a>\n  of suspected individuals for possible arrest in time of war. It also established the Special Intelligence Service (SIS), which stationed agents—known as \"legal attaches\"—at U.S. embassies throughout Latin America. Another agency, the Special Defense Unit (SDU), reviewed FBI intelligence and developed a three-tiered classification system–A, B, and C–to rank organizations and their members in descending order of \"dangerousness.\" As early as July 1941, the Justice Department planned that the FBI would arrest dangerous suspects and that it would turn them over to the INS for internment.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n    [2]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  Despite considerable planning, the unpredictability of war required the INS to assume responsibilities that its administrators had not anticipated. Immediately after the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover authorized the FBI to arrest all Japanese who had been identified under the government's classification system and to deliver them to the INS.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n    [3]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  Several hundred Japanese on the mainland were arrested without a formal warrant. The next day, President Roosevelt signed a proclamation invoking the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Alien_Enemies_Act_of_1798/\" title=\"Alien Enemies Act of 1798\">\n   Alien Enemy Act of 1798\n  </a>\n  , which stated that in times of war, \"all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects\" of an enemy nation \"shall be liable to be apprehended, restrained, secured, and removed as alien enemies.\" By December 10, the INS had detained 1,291 Japanese, 857 Germans, and 147 Italians, henceforth known by their legal categorization, \"enemy aliens.\"\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n    [4]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  Except in military zones, the Justice Department's Immigration and Naturalization Service retained custody over \"enemy aliens\" and held them in \"detention stations,\" \"detention camps,\" \"internment camps,\" and in some cases, city and county jails and hotels.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n    [5]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  Its immigration stations were located in Gloucester City, New Jersey; Detroit, Michigan;\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/East_Boston_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"East Boston (detention facility)\">\n   East Boston\n  </a>\n  , Massachusetts; Ellis Island, New York;\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Seattle_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Seattle (detention facility)\">\n   Seattle\n  </a>\n  , Washington;\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/San_Pedro_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"San Pedro (detention facility)\">\n   San Pedro\n  </a>\n  , California; and\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/San_Francisco_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"San Francisco (detention facility)\">\n   San Francisco\n  </a>\n  , California.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\">\n    [6]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  But the INS appropriated other sites, such as a\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Civilian_Conservation_Corps/\" title=\"Civilian Conservation Corps\">\n   Civilian Conservation Corps\n  </a>\n  (CCC) camp, to accommodate the large influx of detainees. In September 1942, the INS listed five detention and internment camps, including\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Fort_Stanton_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Fort Stanton (detention facility)\">\n   Fort Stanton\n  </a>\n  , New Mexico;\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Kenedy_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Kenedy (detention facility)\">\n   Kenedy\n  </a>\n  , Texas;\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Santa_Fe_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Santa Fe (detention facility)\">\n   Santa Fe\n  </a>\n  , New Mexico;\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Fort_Missoula_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Fort Missoula (detention facility)\">\n   Missoula\n  </a>\n  , Montana; and\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Fort_Lincoln_(Bismarck)_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Fort Lincoln (Bismarck) (detention facility)\">\n   Fort Lincoln\n  </a>\n  , North Dakota.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_7-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref7-7\">\n    [7]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  For the detained enemy alien, the next step in the internment process was to appear before a non-legal “hearing board” composed of civilians with the task of recommending one of three outcomes: release, parole, or internment. The case against the detainee rested on “evidence” from FBI files and the questions U.S. officials posed concerned the detainee’s nationality, residence, organizational membership, international travel, and loyalty. The detainee was permitted neither counsel nor witness for defense.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_8-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref8-8\">\n    [8]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  If the hearing board determined that a male detainee was \"dangerous,\" the Justice Department transferred that individual to the United States Army. Nearly one year after the United States had entered the war, the INS held 5,534 Japanese, 4,769, Germans, and 2,262 Italians.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref9_9-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref9-9\">\n    [9]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  Somewhat paradoxically, the INS continued to take foreign nationals into custody, even as the threat of subversion subsided. By 1943, the army required additional holding space for Axis prisoners of war from Europe and asked the Justice Department to take custody of  9,341 Japanese and Germans back to the Justice Department between June and July of that year.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref10_10-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref10-10\">\n    [10]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  INS responsibilities also increased as a result of the State Department's arrangements to intern Japanese, Germans, and Italians deported from Latin America to the United States. Beginning in April 1942 and continuing until 1947, the INS held substantial numbers of Japanese Peruvians and other\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Japanese_Latin_Americans/\" title=\"Japanese Latin Americans\">\n   Japanese Latin Americans\n  </a>\n  at its internment camps in Santa Fe, New Mexico, and Kenedy,\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Seagoville_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Seagoville (detention facility)\">\n   Seagoville\n  </a>\n  , and\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Crystal_City_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Crystal City (detention facility)\">\n   Crystal City\n  </a>\n  , Texas.\n </p>\n <p>\n  Although difficult to calculate, ethnic studies scholar Tetsuden Kashima estimates that the Justice Department interned or had under its jurisdiction a total of 31,899 persons during World War II, out of which 17,477 were of Japanese ancestry, 11,507 were of German ancestry, 2,730 were of Italian ancestry, and 185 were of other ancestry.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref11_11-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref11-11\">\n    [11]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  In total, the INS operated as many as 65 facilities for the internment of foreign nationals, though many were makeshift sites to accommodate the ebb and flow of the internment process.\n </p>\n <div id=\"authorByline\">\n  <b>\n   Authored by\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Stephen_Mak/\" title=\"Stephen Mak\">\n    Stephen Mak\n   </a>\n   , The Dalton School\n  </b>\n </div>\n <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  Mak, Stephen\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians.\n    <i>\n     Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians\n    </i>\n    . Washington, D.C.: The Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, 1997.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Kashima, Tetsuden.\n    <i>\n     Judgment without Trial: Japanese American Imprisonment during World War II\n    </i>\n    . Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Ngai, Mae M.\n    <i>\n     Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America\n    </i>\n    . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Weglyn, Michi.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Years of Infamy: The Untold Story of America's Concentration Camps\n     </i>\n    </a>\n    . New York: William Morrow &amp; Co., 1976.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Zolberg, Aristide.\n    <i>\n     A Nation by Design: Immigration Policy in the Fashioning of America\n    </i>\n    . Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap mw-references-columns\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        The President Presents Plan No. V to Carry Out the Provisions of the Reorganization Act, 22 May 1940,\n        <i>\n         The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt\n        </i>\n        , 1940 Volume (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1941), 223-229.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Tetsuden Kashima discusses the July 1941 agreement between the Justice and War Departments in greater detail. See Tetsuden Kashima,\n        <i>\n         Judgment without Trial: Japanese American Imprisonment during World War II\n        </i>\n        (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003), 26-27.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Kashima, 47-48.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Ibid., 51.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Ibid., 43.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Ibid., 107.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref7-7\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_7-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Ibid., 108.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref8-8\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_8-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Ibid., 59.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref9-9\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref9_9-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Ibid., 51.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref10-10\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref10_10-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Ibid., 117.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref11-11\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref11_11-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Ibid., 124-125.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20240514154235\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.016 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.020 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 186/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 536/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 80/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 5/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 3559/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   12.421      1 -total\n 31.04%    3.855      1 Template:Reflist\n 11.88%    1.476      1 Template:AuthorByline\n 11.55%    1.435      1 Template:Published\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:325-0!canonical and timestamp 20240514154235 and revision id 36301\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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