GET /api/0.1/articles/Issei%20and%20Nisei:%20The%20Internment%20Years%20(book)/
Content-Type: application/json
Vary: Accept

    "url_title": "Issei and Nisei: The Internment Years (book)",
    "title_sort": "isseiandniseitheinternmentyearsbook",
    "links": {
        "json": "",
        "html": ""
    "modified": "2022-09-02T14:35:54",
    "title": "Issei and Nisei: The Internment Years (book)",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div id=\"databox-BooksDisplay\">\n  <table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n   <tbody>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Title\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Issei and Nisei: The Internment Years\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Author\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Daisuke Kitagawa\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Original Publisher\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Seabury Press\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Original Publication Date\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      1967\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Pages\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      174\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      WorldCat Link\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n      </a>\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n   </tbody>\n  </table>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-Books\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   Title:Issei and Nisei: The Internment Years;\nAuthor:Daisuke Kitagawa;\nIllustrator:;\nOrigTitle:;\nCountry:;\nLanguage:;\nSeries:;\nGenre:;\nPublisher:Seabury Press;\nPubDate:1967;\nCurrentPublisher:;\nCurrentPubDate:;\nMediaType:;\nPages:174;\nAwards:;\nISBN:;\nWorldCatLink:\n   <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n   </a>\n   ;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <div class=\"rgonly\">\n  <!--\"rgdatabox-CoreDisplay\" removed-->\n  <div id=\"rgdatabox-Core\" style=\"display:none;\">\n   <p>\n    RGMediaType:books;\nTitle:Issei and Nisei: The Internment Years;\nCreators:Daisuke Kitagawa;\nInterestLevel:Grades 9-12; Adult;\nReadingLevel:Grades 9-12; Adult;\nGuidedReadingLevel:;\nLexile:;\nTheme:Displacement; Importance of community; Role of religion - value or hypocrisy;\nGenre:Memoir;\nPoV:First person; Issei adult man;\nRelatedEvents:;\nAvailability:Available;\nFreeWebVersion:No;\nPrimarySecondary:;\nHasTeachingAids:No;\nWarnings:;\nDenshoTopic:;\nGeography:Washington; California;\nChronology:1940s;\nFacility:Pinedale [20]; Tule Lake [10];\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <p>\n  Memoir of a young\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Issei/\" title=\"Issei\">\n   Issei\n  </a>\n  Episcopal clergyman based in Washington state during the trying years of World War II. Published in the fall of 1967,\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Daisuke_Kitagawa/\" title=\"Daisuke Kitagawa\">\n   Daisuke Kitagawa\n  </a>\n  's account was among the first book-length first-person accounts of the Japanese American incarceration.\n </p>\n <p>\n  Kitagawa's account begins by describing the state of the Japanese American community in Washington prior to the war before following his community into the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Pinedale_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Pinedale (detention facility)\">\n   Pinedale Assembly Center\n  </a>\n  in Fresno, California, then to\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Tule_Lake/\" title=\"Tule Lake\">\n   Tule Lake\n  </a>\n  . At Tule Lake, he ministers to the population while also assisting camp administrators. After segregation, he turns his attention to assisting with resettlement before going on to work at the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Military_Intelligence_Service_Language_School/\" title=\"Military Intelligence Service Language School\">\n   Military Intelligence Service Language School\n  </a>\n  in Minnesota. The memoir ends with the end of the war and does not discuss his postwar life. Though written in the first person and focused on Kitagawa's experiences, it is meant to tell a larger story; as Kitagawa writes: \"The book is autobiographical, but it is not my autobiography. If anything, it is a collective autobiography of the Japanese-American community as a whole, in which I am simultaneously an observer, an actor, and the narrator.\"\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n    [1]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  In it, Kitagawa provided a study of the challenges that faced both the Issei and Nisei during the incarceration, based on his own observations. As with later memoirs that documented life in camp, such as Monica Sone’s\n  <i>\n   Nisei Daughter,\n  </i>\n  <i>\n   Issei and Nisei\n  </i>\n  followed the existing pattern of praising the strength of the community and the downplaying the negative aspects of camp. Nonetheless, Kitagawa presented one of the first glimpses into the harsh conditions at the Tule Lake Segregation Center, and exposed the tensions facing those confined there over questions of loyalty. Kitagawa dramatized the disillusionment felt by the \"no-no's\" and their internal conflict over their American identity.\n  <i>\n   Issei and Nisei\n  </i>\n  was also one of the first memoirs of a religious leader in camp, and highlighted the importance of faith for Japanese Americans during the incarceration. Following his death in 1970, a new edition of\n  <i>\n   Issei and Nisei\n  </i>\n  was published, with a brief foreword by Senator Daniel Inouye.\n </p>\n <p>\n  The book—and to some extent the community it represents—was praised by mainstream critics for its lack of anger and uniformly positive response to the indignities suffered. In\n  <i>\n   The Christian Century\n  </i>\n  , Milton E. Marty noted that the \"author is without rancor or bitterness,\" while\n  <i>\n   Publisher's Weekly\n  </i>\n  noted that Kitagawa \"relates his experiences without bitterness and with a full measure of Christian charity.\" In a review for the\n  <i>\n   Courier-Post\n  </i>\n  of Camden, New Jersey, Dennis M. Culnan described\n  <i>\n   Issei and Nisei\n  </i>\n  as \"well-written, and it should be well-read.\"\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n    [2]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  Similarly, in\n  <i>\n   Saturday Review\n  </i>\n  , Roger W. Shugg wrote, \"It is a measure of the true quality of those who were interned that they and their children retain no residue of hate; that, once freed, they sought again to achieve full American citizenship.\"\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n    [3]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  Its assessment by Asian American reviewers or those coming from an Asian American Studies perspective was more mixed. Historian John Modell, who later edited and published social worker Charles Kikuchi's diary in 1973, wrote a critical review of\n  <i>\n   Issei and Nisei\n  </i>\n  for the\n  <i>\n   Pacific Historical Review.\n  </i>\n  While Modell thought that Kitagawa's insights into camp life were interesting, he argued Kitagawa failed to deliver a \"collective autobiography of the Japanese American community as a whole.\"\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n    [4]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  In the influential early Asian American Studies anthology\n  <i>\n   Roots: An Asian American Reader\n  </i>\n  , Bruce Iwasaki summed up Kitagawa's account as \"overly biased toward Christianity, somewhat irritatingly accomodationist, and rather simplistically glib.\" On the other hand, in his obituary of Kitagawa for the\n  <i>\n   Pacific Citizen,\n  </i>\n  Reverend Michael Yasutake praised Kitagawa's honesty and insights into the suffering wrought by the incarceration. In his concluding remarks, Yasutake described the importance of\n  <i>\n   Issei and Nisei\n  </i>\n  as \"a lasting memorial to his life dedicated to improving understanding between nationally and culturally diverse people around the world.\"\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n    [5]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <div id=\"authorByline\">\n  <b>\n   Authored by\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Brian_Niiya/\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n    Brian Niiya\n   </a>\n   , Densho and\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Jonathan_van_Harmelen/\" title=\"Jonathan van Harmelen\">\n    Jonathan van Harmelen\n   </a>\n   , UC Santa Cruz\n  </b>\n </div>\n <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  Niiya, Brian; van Harmelen, Jonathan\n </div>\n <div aria-labelledby=\"mw-toc-heading\" class=\"toc\" id=\"toc\" role=\"navigation\">\n  <input class=\"toctogglecheckbox\" id=\"toctogglecheckbox\" role=\"button\" style=\"display:none\" type=\"checkbox\"/>\n  <div class=\"toctitle\" dir=\"ltr\" lang=\"en\">\n   <h2 id=\"mw-toc-heading\">\n    Contents\n   </h2>\n   <span class=\"toctogglespan\">\n    <label class=\"toctogglelabel\" for=\"toctogglecheckbox\">\n    </label>\n   </span>\n  </div>\n  <ul>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Find_in_the_Digital_Library_of_Japanese_American_Incarceration\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      1\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Find in the Digital Library of Japanese American Incarceration\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#For_More_Information\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      2\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      For More Information\n     </span>\n    </a>\n    <ul>\n     <li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-2\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#Reviews\">\n       <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n        2.1\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"toctext\">\n        Reviews\n       </span>\n      </a>\n     </li>\n    </ul>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-3\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Footnotes\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      3\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Footnotes\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n  </ul>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Find_in_the_Digital_Library_of_Japanese_American_Incarceration\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Find_in_the_Digital_Library_of_Japanese_American_Incarceration\">\n    Find in the Digital Library of Japanese American Incarceration\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    <b>\n     <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n      Issei and Nisei: The Internment Years\n     </a>\n    </b>\n   </p>\n   <p style=\"font-size:8pt;line-height:1.5;color: #aaa;\">\n    This item has been made freely available in the\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Digital Library of Japanese American Incarceration\n    </a>\n    , a collaborative project with\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Internet Archive\n    </a>\n    .\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Might also like\n    <i>\n     <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/Manzanar_and_Beyond_(book)/\" title=\"Manzanar and Beyond (book)\">\n      Manzanar and Beyond: Memoirs of Frank F. Chuman\n     </a>\n    </i>\n    by Frank F. Chuman;\n    <i>\n     <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/In_Search_of_Hiroshi_(book)/\" title=\"In Search of Hiroshi (book)\">\n      In Search of Hiroshi\n     </a>\n    </i>\n    by Gene Oishi;\n    <i>\n     <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/Out_of_the_Frying_Pan:_Reflections_of_a_Japanese_American_(book)/\" title=\"Out of the Frying Pan: Reflections of a Japanese American (book)\">\n      Out of the Frying Pan: Reflections of a Japanese American\n     </a>\n    </i>\n    by Bill Hosokawa\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Kitagawa, Daisuke.\n    <i>\n     Issei and Nisei: The Internment Years\n    </i>\n    . New York: Seabury Press, 1967.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    van Harmelen, Jonathan. \"\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Daisuke Kitagawa: Civil Rights and Anti-Racism Activist: Part 2\n    </a>\n    .\"\n    <i>\n     Discover Nikkei,\n    </i>\n    May 9, 2022.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Reviews\">\n  <h3>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Reviews\">\n    Reviews\n   </span>\n  </h3>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Marty, Martin E. \"Compelling Document.\"\n    <i>\n     The Christian Century\n    </i>\n    , Jan. 3, 1968, 26.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Modell, John, \"Japanese Americans: The Evolution of a Subculture, by Harry H. L. Kitano and Issei and Nisei: The Internment Years, by Daisuke Kitagawa.\"\n    <i>\n     Pacific Historical Review,\n    </i>\n    1 May 1970; 39 (2): 247–249.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <i>\n     Publishers' Weekly\n    </i>\n    , Sept. 11, 1967, 64.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Shugg, Roger W. \"Virus of Hate.\"\n    <i>\n     Saturday Review\n    </i>\n    , Jan. 13, 1968, 89.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Culnan, Dennis M. \"Shameful Episode in American History.\"\n    <i>\n     The Courier-Post.\n    </i>\n    November 24, 1967.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Daisuke Kitagawa,\n        <i>\n         Issei and Nisei: The Internment Years\n        </i>\n        (New York: Seabury Press, 1967), p. vii.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Dennis M. Culnan. \"Shameful Episode in American History.\"\n        <i>\n         The Courier-Post.\n        </i>\n        November 24, 1967.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Martin E. Marty, \"Compelling Document,\"\n        <i>\n         The Christian Century\n        </i>\n        , Jan. 3, 1968, p. 26; Review of Issei and Nisei,\n        <i>\n         Publishers' Weekly\n        </i>\n        , Sept. 11, 1967, p. 64; Roger W. Shugg, \"Virus of Hate,\"\n        <i>\n         Saturday Review\n        </i>\n        , Jan. 13, 1968, p. 89.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        John Modell, \"Japanese Americans: The Evolution of a Subculture, by Harry H. L. Kitano and Issei and Nisei: The Internment Years, by Daisuke Kitagawa.\"\n        <i>\n         Pacific Historical Review,\n        </i>\n        1 May 1970; 39 (2): 247–249.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Bruce Iwasaki, \"Response and Change for the Asian in America: A Survey of Asian American Literature,\" in\n        <i>\n         Roots: An Asian American Reader\n        </i>\n        , edited by Amy Tachiki, et al. (Los Angeles: Asian American Studies Center, University of California, 1971), p. 93; see also Brian T. Niiya, \"Open-Minded Conservatives: A Survey of Autobiographies by Asian Americans,\" M.A. thesis, UCLA, 1990.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20220902143554\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.020 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.025 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 411/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 7117/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 1450/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 5/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 2417/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   15.629      1 -total\n 18.65%    2.915      1 Template:Reflist\n 15.05%    2.353      1 Template:RGDatabox-Core\n 14.72%    2.301      1 Template:Databox-Books\n  8.84%    1.381      1 Template:AuthorByline\n  8.61%    1.346      1 Template:Published\n  8.39%    1.311      1 Template:FindAtIA\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:1460-0!canonical and timestamp 20220902143554 and revision id 34913\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
    "categories": [
    "sources": [],
    "coordinates": {},
    "authors": [
    "ddr_topic_terms": [
    "prev_page": "",
    "next_page": ""