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    "url_title": "John E. Dahlquist",
    "title_sort": "dahlquist",
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    "modified": "2023-12-19T17:16:01",
    "title": "John E. Dahlquist",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div id=\"databox-PeopleDisplay\">\n  <table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n   <tbody>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Name\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      John E. Dahlquist\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Born\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      March 12 1896\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Died\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      June 30 1975\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Birth Location\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Minneapolis, MN\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n   </tbody>\n  </table>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-People\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   FirstName:John Ernest;\nLastName:Dahlquist;\nDisplayName:John E. Dahlquist;\nBirthDate:1896-03-12;\nDeathDate:1975-06-30;\nBirthLocation:Minneapolis, MN;\nGender:Male;\nEthnicity:White;\nGenerationIdentifier:;\nNationality:US;\nExternalResourceLink:;\nPrimaryGeography:;\nReligion:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <p>\n  World War II commander of one of the most highly decorated units of the army, the 36th Division, who was also criticized for his leadership decisions and over-utilization of Japanese American soldiers.\n </p>\n <div aria-labelledby=\"mw-toc-heading\" class=\"toc\" id=\"toc\" role=\"navigation\">\n  <input class=\"toctogglecheckbox\" id=\"toctogglecheckbox\" role=\"button\" style=\"display:none\" type=\"checkbox\"/>\n  <div class=\"toctitle\" dir=\"ltr\" lang=\"en\">\n   <h2 id=\"mw-toc-heading\">\n    Contents\n   </h2>\n   <span class=\"toctogglespan\">\n    <label class=\"toctogglelabel\" for=\"toctogglecheckbox\">\n    </label>\n   </span>\n  </div>\n  <ul>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Early_Life\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      1\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Early Life\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-2\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#World_War_II_Commander\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      2\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      World War II Commander\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-3\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Rescue_of_the_Lost_Battalion\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      3\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Rescue of the Lost Battalion\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-4\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Reactions_and_Legacy\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      4\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Reactions and Legacy\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-5\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#For_More_Information\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      5\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      For More Information\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-6\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Footnotes\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      6\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Footnotes\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n  </ul>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Early_Life\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Early_Life\">\n    Early Life\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    John Ernest Dahlquist, the youngest of four children born to Swedish immigrants, was born on March 12, 1896, in Minneapolis, Minnesota. At the age of twelve, after his father was killed by a steel girder, he worked small jobs while attending school. Dahlquist earned good grades and went on to graduate from the University of Minnesota, where he served as editor of\n    <i>\n     The Gopher\n    </i>\n    , the university annual. He joined the military service as second lieutenant on August 15, 1917, and served as a lieutenant with the Allied Occupation Forces in Germany after World War I, where he became familiar with provinces along the Rhine River. Following a three-year tour of duty in the Philippines, Dahlquist rose through a variety of desk positions, including deputy chief of staff to General Dwight D. Eisenhower in England. He was recognized for his logistical skills, especially for writing a manual on operating machine guns and for reorganizing the army post office.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n      [1]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"World_War_II_Commander\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"World_War_II_Commander\">\n    World War II Commander\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Forty-eight year old Major General John Dahlquist assumed his first command of combat troops when he led the 36th \"Texas\" Division in the invasion of southern France. After his division failed to advance aggressively on Montelimar, a hilltop town, Maj. Gen. Lucian K. Truscott Jr., corps commander, almost relieved Gen. Dahlquist. His initial lack of decisiveness and inexperience with infantry tactics would be tested in later military maneuvers, after the\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/100th_Infantry_Battalion/\" title=\"100th Infantry Battalion\">\n     100th Battalion\n    </a>\n    /\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/442nd_Regimental_Combat_Team/\" title=\"442nd Regimental Combat Team\">\n     442nd Regimental Combat Team\n    </a>\n    of Japanese Americans joined Gen. Dahlquist's 36th Division on October 13, 1944.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n      [2]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    The 36th Division had been ordered to break the German stronghold in the Vosges Mountains between France and Germany, a feat no known army had accomplished. On October 15, 1944, their first target was the town of Bruyeres, a rail and road intersection surrounded by four hills held by the enemy (labeled A, B, C, D). Maj. Gen. Dahlquist, assuring troops that there was no sign of the enemy, insisted that the 100th/442nd advance ten kilometers a day in thick fog and drenching rain. The camouflaged Germans, however, had seeded the forest with mines and booby traps and barraged the troops with heavy artillery, mortar fire, and rocket launchers.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n      [3]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Officers criticized the general's orders, which discounted plans they had made based on intelligence reports and personal knowledge. These added risks, they believed, cost many more casualties.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n      [4]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    The 100th's Capt. Young Oak Kim deliberately cut off communication with headquarters to avoid the commander’s \"wrong information and crazy orders.\" After that the 100th, using their own time table, captured 100 Germans with only two wounded when overtaking Hill A.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n      [5]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Once troops finally occupied Hill C and captured fifty Germans, Dahlquist's subsequent order to withdraw from the hill negated their success and required a battalion of the 3rd Division's 7th Infantry to retake it, at a cost of 100 casualties.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\">\n      [6]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    In another account, Capt. Christopher Keegan complained that, although the 3rd Battalion had captured Bruyeres on October 18, Gen. Dahlquist ordered the 2nd Battalion to retake it so that cameras and the press could take movies.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_7-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref7-7\">\n      [7]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    After the 100th Battalion returned from overtaking Hill C, Maj. Gen. Dahlquist sent them to high ground overlooking Bruyeres then ordered them to descend that steep ridge to capture the village of Biffontaine. This isolated the 100th seven miles behind enemy lines and beyond the range of artillery support and radio contact when they were already low on supplies. Many questioned the rationale behind abandoning a strategically sound position to capture the small farming town of 300. Surrounded by Germans and involved in house to house combat, the troops still beat back the enemy, though they suffered 3,000 casualties, nearly half their regiment.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_8-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref8-8\">\n      [8]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Rescue_of_the_Lost_Battalion\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Rescue_of_the_Lost_Battalion\">\n    Rescue of the Lost Battalion\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    After ten days of fierce fighting to liberate Bruyeres and Biffontaine and barely a day of rest, the 100th/442nd received a new order: to rescue 275 Texans trapped on a steep ridge and surrounded on all sides by Germans. The 1st Battalion of the 141st Regiment had advanced several miles into German territory without rear backup, following assurances from Gen. Dahlquist that no Germans were in the area.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref9_9-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref9-9\">\n      [9]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Now Gen. Dahlquist ordered the 100th Infantry and the 2nd and 3rd Battalions to push forward at all costs to\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Rescue_of_the_Lost_Battalion/\" title=\"Rescue of the Lost Battalion\">\n     rescue the \"Lost Battalion\n    </a>\n    .\" Through freezing rain and dense fog, the men trudged up nine miles of heavily wooded ridges on mined, serpentine paths as Germans fired artillery and machine guns from fortified positions above. The 522nd Field Artillery Battalion, the 232nd Engineer Company, and their Cannon Company supported them. After five days and nights of continuous combat, the 100th/442nd rescued the Lost Battalion.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref10_10-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref10-10\">\n      [10]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    At the November 12 dress review to thank the troops, only a few hundred of the more than 4,000 men and officers stood in line. When Gen. Dahlquist maintained that he had ordered all men to assemble, Lt. Col. Virgil Miller responded simply, \"That's all that's left.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref11_11-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref11-11\">\n      [11]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    To rescue the 211 Texans—all that remained of the originally trapped 275—the 100th/442nd had suffered more than 800 casualties. In one month of fighting, the regiment had dwindled to one-third of its strength.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref12_12-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref12-12\">\n      [12]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Still, the day after the honor parade, Dahlquist ordered the ravaged troops back for patrol duty. Not until November 17 did the depleted 100th/442nd finally gain reprieve, after Lt. Gen. Jacob L. Devers, the 6th Army Group commander (four levels of command higher in rank), ordered their return.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref13_13-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref13-13\">\n      [13]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Reactions_and_Legacy\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Reactions_and_Legacy\">\n    Reactions and Legacy\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Major General Dahlquist gained accolades from the Department of Defense for successfully opening passage through the Vosges Mountains into Germany.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref14_14-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref14-14\">\n      [14]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    As a two-star general, he distinguished himself as one who repeatedly showed up on the front lines to issue orders, rather than from headquarters miles away.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref15_15-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref15-15\">\n      [15]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    Many officers, however, questioned his demanding and short-tempered orders, driving forward, never consolidating a position, chastising commanders, and continuously rallying, \"Keep them going and don't let them stop.\" During the Battle of the Lost Battalion, Lt. Col. Alfred Pursall, commander of the Nisei 3rd Battalion, contradicted the general, \"Those are my boys you're trying to kill...I won't let you kill my boys...\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref16_16-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref16-16\">\n      [16]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    One war correspondent observed that General Dahlquist \"used the Nisei more ruthlessly than his own troops, pushing them into death traps, day after day, to reach the Lost Battalion of his 36th Division.\"\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref17_17-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref17-17\">\n      [17]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n    At a 1982 military ceremony, then Col. Gordon Singles, the 100th's commander, refused to publicly shake the hand of Gen. Dahlquist (by then a four-star general) and years after he retired, reportedly could still not mention his name without shaking in anger.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref18_18-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref18-18\">\n      [18]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    When the 100th Battalion/442nd Regimental Combat Team detached from his 36th Division, Gen. Dahlquist noted in his letter that \"the courage, steadfastness, and willingness of your officers and men were equal to any ever displayed by United States troops.\" Though he had no apparent public comment about the views of his ranks, he did write to his wife Ruth: \"It astounds me how the men are able to stand the physical and mental strain under which they are constantly living. It is almost beyond comprehension that the human being can stand so much.\" Still, in another letter to her after the November 12 awards ceremony, General Dahlquist complained that, with the falling snow, his fingers turned numb from pinning so many medals on the men.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref19_19-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref19-19\">\n      [19]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    After the war's end, Gen. Dahlquist served as deputy director of personnel and administration at the War Department for two years. He rose to four-star general in 1955 and commander-in-chief of the Continental Army Command before retiring a year later. Returning to Minnesota, he became department head for the New York investment firm of Harris Upham &amp; Company then retired again. John E. Dalquist died on June 30, 1975 and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref20_20-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref20-20\">\n      [20]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <div id=\"authorByline\">\n    <b>\n     Authored by\n     <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Linda_Tamura/\" title=\"Linda Tamura\">\n      Linda Tamura\n     </a>\n    </b>\n   </div>\n   <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n    Tamura, Linda\n   </div>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Asahina, Robert.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Just Americans: How Japanese Americans Won a War at Home and Abroad\n     </i>\n     .\n    </a>\n    New York: Gotham, 2006.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Chang, Thelma.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      I Can Never Forget: Men of the 100th/442nd\n     </i>\n     .\n    </a>\n    Honolulu:  Sigi, 1991.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Crost, Lyn.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Honor by Fire: Japanese Americans at War in Europe and the Pacific\n     </i>\n     .\n    </a>\n    Novato, Calif.: Presidio, 1994.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Duus, Masayo Umezawa. Translated by Peter Duus.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Unlikely Liberators: The Men of the 100th and 442nd\n     </i>\n    </a>\n    . Honolulu:  University of Hawaii Press, 1983.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Go For Broke National Education Center.\n    </a>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n Histories for 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry Regiment.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Steidl, Franz.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Lost Battalions: Going for Broke in the Vosges, Autumn 1944\n     </i>\n     .\n    </a>\n    Novato, Calif.: Presidio, 1997.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Texas Military Forces Museum: 36th Division in World War II, Division Commanders.\n    <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n    </a>\n    .\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    100th Infantry Battalion Veterans Education Center.\n    <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n    </a>\n    .\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap mw-references-columns\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Texas Military Museum,, accessed on April 15, 2015 at\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        ; Lyn Crost,\n        <i>\n         Honor by Fire:  Japanese Americans at War in Europe and the Pacific\n        </i>\n        (Novato, Calif.: Presidio, 1994), 176; Robert Asahina,\n        <i>\n         Just Americans: How Japanese Americans Won a War at Home and Abroad\n        </i>\n        (New York: Gotham Books, 2006), 105-06; Franz Steidl,\n        <i>\n         Lost Battalions: Going for Broke in the Vosges, Autumn 1944\n        </i>\n        (Novato, Calif.: Presidio, 1997), 143-45.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Asahina, Just Americans, 104-05, 112-17; Masayo Umezawa Duus, translated by Peter Duus,\n        <i>\n         Unlikely Liberators: The Men of the 100th and 442nd\n        </i>\n        (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1983), 168; Thelma Chang,\n        <i>\n         \"I Can Never Forget\": Men of the 100th/442nd\n        </i>\n        (Honolulu:  Sigi, 1991), 25.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Chang,\n        <i>\n         \"I Can Never Forget,\"\n        </i>\n        24-25; Duus,\n        <i>\n         Unlikely Liberators\n        </i>\n        , 164-66.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Crost,\n        <i>\n         Honor by Fire\n        </i>\n        , 176-77.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Chang,\n        <i>\n         \"I Can Never Forget,\"\n        </i>\n        30-31; \"Community Focus: 100th Bn. Losses Attributed to Poor Leadership,\"\n        <i>\n         Hawaii Herald\n        </i>\n        , July 16, 1982, 3, accessed on April 14, 2015.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Duus,\n        <i>\n         Unlikely Liberators\n        </i>\n        , 180-81; Chang,\n        <i>\n         \"I Can Never Forget,\"\n        </i>\n        33.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref7-7\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_7-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Asahina,\n        <i>\n         Just Americans\n        </i>\n        , 143-44.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref8-8\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_8-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Duus,\n        <i>\n         Unlikely Liberators\n        </i>\n        , 182-83; Crost,\n        <i>\n         Honor by Fire\n        </i>\n        , 179-83; Chang,\n        <i>\n         \"I Can Never Forget,\"\n        </i>\n        36-37.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref9-9\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref9_9-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Go For Broke National Education Center, accessed on April 14, 2015 at\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        ; Chang,\n        <i>\n         \"I Can Never Forget,\"\n        </i>\n        38; Crost,\n        <i>\n         Honor by Fire\n        </i>\n        , 184; Asahina,\n        <i>\n         Just Americans\n        </i>\n        , 162.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref10-10\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref10_10-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Chang,\n        <i>\n         \"I Can Never Forget,\"\n        </i>\n        40; Asahina,\n        <i>\n         Just Americans\n        </i>\n        , 178-83; Crost,\n        <i>\n         Honor by Fire\n        </i>\n        , 185-97.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref11-11\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref11_11-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Asahina,\n        <i>\n         Just Americans\n        </i>\n        , 198; Chang,\n        <i>\n         \"I Can Never Forget,\"\n        </i>\n        59; Duus,\n        <i>\n         Unlikely Liberators\n        </i>\n        , 217; Crost,\n        <i>\n         Honor by Fire\n        </i>\n        , 199.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref12-12\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref12_12-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Crost,\n        <i>\n         Honor by Fire\n        </i>\n        , 197; Duus,\n        <i>\n         Unlikely Liberators\n        </i>\n        , 217; Chang,\n        <i>\n         \"I Can Never Forget,\"\n        </i>\n        59.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref13-13\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref13_13-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Asahina,\n        <i>\n         Just Americans\n        </i>\n        , 201; Crost,\n        <i>\n         Honor by Fire\n        </i>\n        , 199.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref14-14\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref14_14-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        This was the first time in military history that the passage from Saint-Die to Selestat and into Germany had been successfully attacked. Crost,\n        <i>\n         Honor by Fire\n        </i>\n        , 200.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref15-15\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref15_15-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Asahina,\n        <i>\n         Just Americans\n        </i>\n        , 167-69, 178.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref16-16\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref16_16-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Crost,\n        <i>\n         Honor by Fire\n        </i>\n        , 189-91; Duus,\n        <i>\n         Unlikely Liberators\n        </i>\n        , 201-02; Steidl,\n        <i>\n         Lost Battalions\n        </i>\n        , 146.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref17-17\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref17_17-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Crost,\n        <i>\n         Honor by Fire\n        </i>\n        , 303.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref18-18\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref18_18-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Chang,\n        <i>\n         \"I Can Never Forget,\"\n        </i>\n        59; Crost,\n        <i>\n         Honor by Fire\n        </i>\n        , 202; Duus,\n        <i>\n         Unlikely Liberators\n        </i>\n        , 219.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref19-19\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref19_19-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Steidl,\n        <i>\n         Lost Battalions\n        </i>\n        , 132, 91, 130.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref20-20\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref20_20-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Asahina,\n        <i>\n         Just Americans\n        </i>\n        , 239; Arlington National Cemetery Website (1994-2011), accessed on April 14, 2015 at\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        ; Steidl,\n        <i>\n         Lost Battalions\n        </i>\n        , 146-47.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20231219171601\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.023 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.027 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 362/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 1786/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 235/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 6/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 8324/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   18.246      1 -total\n 28.29%    5.162      1 Template:Reflist\n 14.19%    2.589      1 Template:Databox-People\n  8.07%    1.473      1 Template:AuthorByline\n  7.66%    1.397      1 Template:Published\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:3349-0!canonical and timestamp 20231219171601 and revision id 35729\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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