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    "url_title": "Mayer (detention facility)",
    "title_sort": "mayerdetentionfacility",
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    "modified": "2015-07-14T21:34:07",
    "title": "Mayer (detention facility)",
    "body": "<br/>\n<div id=\"databox-CampsDisplay\">\n <table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n  <tr>\n   <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    US Gov Name\n   </th>\n   <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    Mayer Assembly Center, Arizona\n   </td>\n  </tr>\n  <tr>\n   <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sites_of_incarceration/\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">\n     Facility Type\n    </a>\n   </th>\n   <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sites_of_incarceration#Temporary_Assembly_Center/\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">\n     Temporary Assembly Center\n    </a>\n   </td>\n  </tr>\n  <tr>\n   <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    Administrative Agency\n   </th>\n   <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    Wartime Civil Control Administration\n   </td>\n  </tr>\n  <tr>\n   <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    Location\n   </th>\n   <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    Mayer, Arizona (34.3833 lat, -112.2333 lng)\n   </td>\n  </tr>\n  <tr>\n   <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    Date Opened\n   </th>\n   <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    May 7, 1942\n   </td>\n  </tr>\n  <tr>\n   <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    Date Closed\n   </th>\n   <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    June 2, 1942\n   </td>\n  </tr>\n  <tr>\n   <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    Population Description\n   </th>\n   <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    Held people from southern Arizona.\n   </td>\n  </tr>\n  <tr>\n   <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    General Description\n   </th>\n   <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    Located 75 miles northwest of Phoenix, Arizona, Mayer was set on land that was originally farmland.\n   </td>\n  </tr>\n  <tr>\n   <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    Peak Population\n   </th>\n   <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    245 (1942-05-25)\n   </td>\n  </tr>\n  <tr>\n   <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    Exit Destination\n   </th>\n   <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    Poston\n   </td>\n  </tr>\n  <tr>\n   <td colspan=\"2\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     National Park Service Info\n    </a>\n   </td>\n  </tr>\n </table>\n</div>\n<div id=\"databox-Camps\" style=\"display:none;\">\n <p>\n  SoSUID:a-maye;\nDenshoName:Mayer;\nUSGName:Mayer Assembly Center, Arizona;\nType:\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sites_of_incarceration#Temporary_Assembly_Center/\" title=\"Sites of incarceration\">\n   Temporary Assembly Center\n  </a>\n  ;\nAdminAgency:Wartime Civil Control Administration;\nDateOpened:May 7, 1942;\nDateClosed:June 2, 1942;\nLocationName:Mayer, Arizona;\nCityName:Mayer;\nStateName:AZ;\nDescription:Located 75 miles northwest of Phoenix, Arizona, Mayer was set on land that was originally farmland.;\nGISLat:34.3833;\nGISLng:-112.2333;\nGISTGNId:2007019;\nCurrentDisposition:;\nPopulationDescription:Held people from southern Arizona.;\nExitDestination:Poston;\nPeakPopulation:245;\nPeakDate:1942-05-25;\nNPSMoreInfoResourceLink:\n  <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n  </a>\n  ;\nOfficialResourceLink:;\n </p>\n</div>\n<p>\n The Mayer Assembly Center, with a peak population of just 245 inmates, was the least populated of all the \"\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Assembly_centers/\" title=\"Assembly centers\">\n  assembly centers\n </a>\n \" and also the one in operation for the shortest time. Located in Arizona, most of the inmates came from the Salt River Valley in Arizona's Maricopa County. When the camp closed after less than a month, its inmates were transferred to\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Poston_(Colorado_River)/\" title=\"Poston (Colorado River)\">\n  Poston\n </a>\n , Arizona.\n</p>\n<div class=\"toc\" id=\"toc\">\n <div id=\"toctitle\">\n  <h2>\n   Contents\n  </h2>\n </div>\n <ul>\n  <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#History_and_Geography_of_Site\">\n    <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n     1\n    </span>\n    <span class=\"toctext\">\n     History and Geography of Site\n    </span>\n   </a>\n  </li>\n  <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-2\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#As_.22Assembly_Center.22\">\n    <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n     2\n    </span>\n    <span class=\"toctext\">\n     As \"Assembly Center\"\n    </span>\n   </a>\n  </li>\n  <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-3\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#The_Site_Today\">\n    <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n     3\n    </span>\n    <span class=\"toctext\">\n     The Site Today\n    </span>\n   </a>\n  </li>\n  <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-4\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#For_More_Information\">\n    <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n     4\n    </span>\n    <span class=\"toctext\">\n     For More Information\n    </span>\n   </a>\n  </li>\n  <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-5\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#Footnotes\">\n    <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n     5\n    </span>\n    <span class=\"toctext\">\n     Footnotes\n    </span>\n   </a>\n  </li>\n </ul>\n</div>\n<div class=\"section\" id=\"History_and_Geography_of_Site\">\n <h2>\n  <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"History_and_Geography_of_Site\">\n   History and Geography of Site\n  </span>\n </h2>\n <div class=\"section_content\">\n  <p>\n   The small town of Mayer in Arizona is located near Prescott, 75 miles northwest of Phoenix in Yavapai County. Joseph Mayer of New York founded the town and opened a hotel and a stage stop in 1881. Before the Euro-Americans the earliest culture was the ancient people the Hohokams, their descendants became the Yavapai, and are now the present day Yavapai-Prescott tribe.\n   <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n     [1]\n    </a>\n   </sup>\n  </p>\n  <p>\n   The camp site was a former\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Civilian_Conservation_Corps/\" title=\"Civilian Conservation Corps\">\n    Civilian Conservation Corps\n   </a>\n   (CCC) Camp Mayer that was abandoned during the 1930s. The CCC camps were created through the Works Project Administration by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to create employment throughout the U.S. during the depression. The camp contained much of the necessary infrastructure such as barracks, a recreational hall, bathhouses, latrines, a school building, infirmary, utilities, and roads.\n   <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n     [2]\n    </a>\n   </sup>\n   The Wartime Civil Control Administration (WCCA) brought it back into operation to house \"evacuated\" persons of Japanese ancestry from the southern part of Arizona at the cost of $12,303.13 to restore.\n   <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n     [3]\n    </a>\n   </sup>\n  </p>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"section\" id=\"As_.22Assembly_Center.22\">\n <h2>\n  <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"As_.22Assembly_Center.22\">\n   As \"Assembly Center\"\n  </span>\n </h2>\n <div class=\"section_content\">\n  <p>\n   The Mayer Assembly Center was the smallest of all the assembly centers comprising 69 families or 245 inmates mainly from the Salt River Valley, a farming community in the Maricopa County.\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Military_Areas_1_and_2/\" title=\"Military Areas 1 and 2\">\n    Military Area 1\n   </a>\n   had established an arbitrary and senseless boundary that ran along Highway 95 and 60, dividing the state of Arizona in half. The boundary continued along Grand and Van Buren Streets, bisecting Phoenix. Those living south of that boundary had to either move across the boundary to the \"Free Zone\" on short notice (which a number of families did) or remain to face the uncertainties of eviction and incarceration to Mayer.\n   <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n     [4]\n    </a>\n   </sup>\n   Encompassed by the boundaries set by\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Civilian_exclusion_orders/\" title=\"Civilian exclusion orders\">\n    Civilian Exclusion Order\n   </a>\n   #38, on May 3, 1942, they arrived at Mayer on May 7, 1942.\n   <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n     [5]\n    </a>\n   </sup>\n   The manager in charge at Mayer was Thomas B. Rice, and the camp was administered by the Wartime Civil Control Administration (WCCA).\n   <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\">\n     [6]\n    </a>\n   </sup>\n  </p>\n  <p>\n   There was to be another \"assembly center\" in Arizona located at another abandoned and refurbished CCC camp site called Cave Creek, Arizona, located 34 miles north of Phoenix. However, due to the small target population of Japanese Americans who moved out the area during the \"\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Voluntary_evacuation/\" title=\"Voluntary evacuation\">\n    voluntary evacuation\n   </a>\n   \" period there was no need for Cave Creek Assembly Center and the 245 evictees were all sent to Mayer Assembly Center where there was a sufficient amount of housing to accommodate all the evictees.\n   <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_7-0\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref7-7\">\n     [7]\n    </a>\n   </sup>\n  </p>\n  <p>\n   There were religious services conducted in Mayer Assembly Center according to Reverend Lester Suzuki where members of the Phoenix Free Methodist Church and the Mesa Japanese Methodist Church conducted weekly services and prayer meetings during their brief time until they were transferred to Poston.\n   <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_8-0\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref8-8\">\n     [8]\n    </a>\n   </sup>\n   The local newspapers printed that there were gardens planted and organized recreational activities.\n  </p>\n  <p>\n   Among those incarcerated at Mayer Assembly Center was the famed jockey\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Joe_Kobuki/\" title=\"Joe Kobuki\">\n    Joe Yoshio Kobuki\n   </a>\n   (Kokomo Joe) who had worked at the Santa Anita and Tanforan racetracks before WWII and which ironically became \"assembly centers\" that would incarcerate his fellow Japanese Americans.\n   <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref9_9-0\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref9-9\">\n     [9]\n    </a>\n   </sup>\n  </p>\n  <p>\n   In Edwin McDowell's article in the\n   <i>\n    Pacific Citizen\n   </i>\n   Henry Takemori, a former journalist, and his wife Kay owned a grocery store in Phoenix, Arizona. Despite being outside of Military Zone 1, they were ordered to move by the military because they were too close to the airport. The Takemoris had to make the decision to move their business to where it would be hard to keep the business going due to greater prejudice in the town or to sell their store and the contents and go to the assembly center. The decided to sell but took a tremendous loss, since greedy buyers knew that if they held out the Takemoris would be desperate to sell at a low price before they would be forced to leave. They finally had to sell their $15,000 property for a mere $800, and on May 8, 1942 they joined the 242 former residents along with their family and friends on a Greyhound bus for Mayer Assembly Center.\n   <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref10_10-0\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref10-10\">\n     [10]\n    </a>\n   </sup>\n  </p>\n  <p>\n   At around the same time there was a scam that victimized the 65 desperate Japanese American families who were farmers in the Salt River Valley. The two swindlers behind the scheme was a private investigator included a former peace officer posing as FBI agents. Their scheme was to collect $50 each from the Japanese Americans to avoid \"evacuation\" and to be allowed to continue to farm with the pretense that their produce would go to the U.S. Army, Red Cross, and hospitals. The two swindlers were caught in a trap planned by federal agents on the Sanichi Ishikawa farm as they attempted to collect $250.00 from the family. After the incident the Ishikawa family was sent to Mayer Assembly Center.\n   <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref11_11-0\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref11-11\">\n     [11]\n    </a>\n   </sup>\n  </p>\n  <p>\n   According to Lieutenant General DeWitt's revised\n   <a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/Final_Report,_Japanese_Evacuation_From_the_West_Coast,_1942_(book)/\" title=\"Final Report, Japanese Evacuation From the West Coast, 1942 (book)\">\n    Final Report, Japanese Evacuation From the West Coast, 1942\n   </a>\n   , there were no births or deaths, and no crimes committed at Mayer Assembly Center during its short term. Mayer Assembly Center was in operation for the shortest time of all the assembly centers from May 7, 1942 to June 2, 1942 a total of about 27 days. They were all transferred on June 2, 1942, to the permanent concentration camp Colorado River or Poston at Parker, Arizona.\n   <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref12_12-0\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref12-12\">\n     [12]\n    </a>\n   </sup>\n  </p>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"section\" id=\"The_Site_Today\">\n <h2>\n  <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"The_Site_Today\">\n   The Site Today\n  </span>\n </h2>\n <div class=\"section_content\">\n  <p>\n   There are no remains of Mayer Assembly Center today due to the construction of Highway 69 going right through it and subsequent development.\n   <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref13_13-0\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref13-13\">\n     [13]\n    </a>\n   </sup>\n   According to the National Park Service in the National Historic Landmark Survey: Japanese Americans in World War II, no federal historic recognition is recommended for this property.\n   <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref14_14-0\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref14-14\">\n     [14]\n    </a>\n   </sup>\n  </p>\n  <p>\n   The Japanese American families returned to the central valley, and, alongside those who were able to remain, re-established their farms and businesses, some of which have became very successful.\n  </p>\n  <div id=\"authorByline\">\n   <b>\n    Authored by\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Marie_Masumoto/\" title=\"Marie Masumoto\">\n     Marie Masumoto\n    </a>\n   </b>\n  </div>\n  <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n   Masumoto, Marie\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n <h2>\n  <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n   For More Information\n  </span>\n </h2>\n <div class=\"section_content\">\n  <p>\n   Burton, Jeffery F., Mary M. Farrell, Florence B. Lord, and Richard W. Lord.\n   <i>\n    Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II Japanese American Relocation Sites\n   </i>\n   . Western Archeological and Conservation Center, National Park Service, 1999, 2000. Foreword by Tetsuden Kashima. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002. The Mayer section of 2000 version accessible online at\n   <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n   </a>\n   .\n  </p>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n <h2>\n  <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n   Footnotes\n  </span>\n </h2>\n <div class=\"section_content\">\n  <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n   <ol class=\"references\">\n    <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n     <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n       ↑\n      </a>\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"reference-text\">\n      Yavapai Prescott Indian Tribe website,\n      <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n      </a>\n      ;  Prescott Link, Mayer, Arizona,\n      <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n      </a>\n      &gt;; Hohokams, PBS Eight, KAET, The Arizona Collection, Arizona State University,\n      <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n      </a>\n      .\n     </span>\n    </li>\n    <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n     <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n       ↑\n      </a>\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"reference-text\">\n      Jeffery F. Burton, Mary M. Farrell, Florence B. Lord, and Richard W. Lord,\n      <i>\n       Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II Japanese American Relocation Sites\n      </i>\n      (Western Archeological and Conservation Center, National Park Service, 1999, 2000; foreword by Tetsuden Kashima. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002). The Mayer section of 2000 version accessible online at\n      <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n      </a>\n      .\n     </span>\n    </li>\n    <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n     <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n       ↑\n      </a>\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"reference-text\">\n      Lt. General John DeWitt,\n      <i>\n       Final Report: Japanese Evacuation from the West Coast, 1942\n      </i>\n      , revised edition (Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1943), 249; Internet Archives online version,\n      <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n      </a>\n      .\n     </span>\n    </li>\n    <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n     <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n       ↑\n      </a>\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"reference-text\">\n      Valerie Jean Matsumoto, \"Shikata Ga Nai: Japanese American Women in Central Arizona, 1910-1978,\" (honors thesis, Arizona State University, May 1978), 24.\n     </span>\n    </li>\n    <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n     <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n       ↑\n      </a>\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"reference-text\">\n      Civilian Exclusion Order 38, National Archives and Records Administration; digitized online version, Japanese American Veterans Association, Research Archives, Search Digitized Documents,\n      <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n      </a>\n      .\n     </span>\n    </li>\n    <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\">\n     <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\">\n       ↑\n      </a>\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"reference-text\">\n      \"Mayer Center Looks Like Any U.S. Town,\"\n      <i>\n       Pacific Citizen\n      </i>\n      , June 4, 1942,\n      <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n      </a>\n      .\n     </span>\n    </li>\n    <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref7-7\">\n     <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_7-0\">\n       ↑\n      </a>\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"reference-text\">\n      \"Abandon Cave Creek,\"\n      <i>\n       Pacific Citizen\n      </i>\n      ,  June, 4, 1942, 2,\n      <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n      </a>\n      .\n     </span>\n    </li>\n    <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref8-8\">\n     <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_8-0\">\n       ↑\n      </a>\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"reference-text\">\n      Lester E. Suzuki,\n      <i>\n       Ministry in the Assembly and Relocation Centers of World War II\n      </i>\n      (Berkeley, CA: Yardbird Publishing, 1979), 49.\n     </span>\n    </li>\n    <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref9-9\">\n     <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref9_9-0\">\n       ↑\n      </a>\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"reference-text\">\n      John Christgau,\n      <i>\n       KOKOMO JOE: The Story of the First Japanese American Jockey in the United States\n      </i>\n      (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, Bison Books, 2009), 80.\n     </span>\n    </li>\n    <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref10-10\">\n     <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref10_10-0\">\n       ↑\n      </a>\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"reference-text\">\n      Edwin McDowell, \"Too Grateful to be Bitter,\"\n      <i>\n       Pacific Citizen\n      </i>\n      , May 26, 1967, 1 and 6; Andrew B. Russell, \"Arizona Divided,\" in Brad Melton and Dean Smith, eds.,\n      <i>\n       Arizona Goes to War: The Home Front and the Front Lines during World War II\n      </i>\n      (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2003), 47.\n     </span>\n    </li>\n    <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref11-11\">\n     <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref11_11-0\">\n       ↑\n      </a>\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"reference-text\">\n      \"Private Investigator Convicted Of Swindling Arizona Japanese,\"\n      <i>\n       Pacific Citizen\n      </i>\n      , June 4, 1942.\n     </span>\n    </li>\n    <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref12-12\">\n     <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref12_12-0\">\n       ↑\n      </a>\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"reference-text\">\n      DeWitt,\n      <i>\n       Final Report\n      </i>\n      , 229.\n     </span>\n    </li>\n    <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref13-13\">\n     <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref13_13-0\">\n       ↑\n      </a>\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"reference-text\">\n      Jeff Burton, et al.,\n      <i>\n       Confinement and Ethnicity\n      </i>\n      , 356\n     </span>\n    </li>\n    <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref14-14\">\n     <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref14_14-0\">\n       ↑\n      </a>\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"reference-text\">\n      Russell,\n      <i>\n       Arizona Divided,\" 38.\n      </i>\n     </span>\n    </li>\n   </ol>\n  </div>\n  <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.156 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.157 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 470/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 2180/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 3486/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 1030/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n  <!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:210-0!*!0!!en!*!* and timestamp 20200821005545 and revision id 20448\n -->\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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