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    "url_title": "Sadao Munemori",
    "title_sort": "munemorisadao",
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    "modified": "2024-04-11T17:22:01",
    "title": "Sadao Munemori",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div id=\"databox-PeopleDisplay\">\n  <table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n   <tbody>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Name\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Sadao Munemori\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Born\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      August 17 1922\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Died\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      1945\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Birth Location\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Glendale, CA\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Generational Identifier\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <p>\n       <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Nisei/\" title=\"Nisei\">\n        Nisei\n       </a>\n      </p>\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n   </tbody>\n  </table>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-People\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   FirstName:Sadao;\nLastName:Munemori;\nDisplayName:Sadao Munemori;\nBirthDate:1922-08-17;\nDeathDate:1945-01-01;\nBirthLocation:Glendale, CA;\nGender:Male;\nEthnicity:JA;\nGenerationIdentifier:Nisei;\nNationality:US;\nExternalResourceLink:;\nPrimaryGeography:;\nReligion:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <div class=\"floatright\">\n </div>\n <p>\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Nisei/\" title=\"Nisei\">\n   Nisei\n  </a>\n  war hero,\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Congressional_Medal_of_Honor_recipients/\" title=\"Congressional Medal of Honor recipients\">\n   Congressional Medal of Honor\n  </a>\n  recipient. For over five decades, Sadao Munemori (1922–45), a Nisei from Los Angeles, was the only Japanese American to be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor, the country's highest military award, for his service in World War II.\n </p>\n <div aria-labelledby=\"mw-toc-heading\" class=\"toc\" id=\"toc\" role=\"navigation\">\n  <input class=\"toctogglecheckbox\" id=\"toctogglecheckbox\" role=\"button\" style=\"display:none\" type=\"checkbox\"/>\n  <div class=\"toctitle\" dir=\"ltr\" lang=\"en\">\n   <h2 id=\"mw-toc-heading\">\n    Contents\n   </h2>\n   <span class=\"toctogglespan\">\n    <label class=\"toctogglelabel\" for=\"toctogglecheckbox\">\n    </label>\n   </span>\n  </div>\n  <ul>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Soldier\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      1\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Soldier\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-2\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Honors_and_Legacy\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      2\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Honors and Legacy\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-3\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#For_More_Information\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      3\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      For More Information\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n   <li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-4\">\n    <a class=\"\" href=\"#Footnotes\">\n     <span class=\"tocnumber\">\n      4\n     </span>\n     <span class=\"toctext\">\n      Footnotes\n     </span>\n    </a>\n   </li>\n  </ul>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Soldier\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Soldier\">\n    Soldier\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Sadao Munemori was born on August 17, 1922, to Kametaro and Nawa Munemori, immigrants from Hiroshima prefecture, in Glendale, California, a suburb of Los Angeles, the fourth of five children. He attended Fletcher Drive Elementary School and Lincoln High School, graduating in 1940. After his graduation, he entered Frank Wiggins Trade School, studying to become an auto mechanic. Unable to get a job as a mechanic after graduating, he decided to enlist in the army in February 1942.\n    <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n     <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n      [1]\n     </a>\n    </sup>\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Like many of the Nisei already in the army prior to the formation of the\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/442nd_Regimental_Combat_Team/\" title=\"442nd Regimental Combat Team\">\n     442nd Regimental Combat Team\n    </a>\n    , Munemori entered a sort of limbo, barred from combat training and relegated to menial jobs at Camp Robinson in Arkansas and Camp Grant in Illinois. (See\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Japanese_Americans_in_military_during_World_War_II/\" title=\"Japanese Americans in military during World War II\">\n     Japanese Americans in military during World War II\n    </a>\n    .) William Shinji Tsuchida, a friend who knew Munemori and who was in the same situation later recalled,\n   </p>\n   <blockquote>\n    <p>\n     In 1942, the Army on the mainland was at a loss as to what to do with us 18 and 19 year old Asians with no college degrees. So most of us were shipped to army bases located in the Midwest, away from the west or east coast.... We were assigned all the menial jobs, where we had to endure—permanent KP, peeling mountains of potatoes daily, cleaning bed pans at the base hospital. Not my idea of patriotic duty.\n     <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n      <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n       [2]\n      </a>\n     </sup>\n    </p>\n   </blockquote>\n   <p>\n    He also did a stint at Camp Savage, preparing that camp for the\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Military_Intelligence_Service_Language_School/\" title=\"Military Intelligence Service Language School\">\n     Military Intelligence Service Language School\n    </a>\n    . Along the way, he picked up the nickname \"Spud,\" reportedly because he was the rare Nisei who preferred potatoes to rice. In the meantime, his family was forcibly removed along with all other West Coast Japanese Americans, ending up confined at the Manzanar camp in central California.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    After the formation of the 442nd early in 1943, earlier inductees such as Munemori were once again allowed bear arms and most were assigned spots in the 442nd. Munemori went to Camp Shelby in January 1944 and became a\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/100th_Infantry_Battalion/\" title=\"100th Infantry Battalion\">\n     100th Infantry Battalion\n    </a>\n    replacement. He went overseas in April of 1944, seeing action in Italy, then in France, where he took part in the rescue of the\n    <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Rescue_of_the_Lost_Battalion/\" title=\"Rescue of the Lost Battalion\">\n     Lost Battalion\n    </a>\n    .\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    In 1945, he returned with the 442nd to Italy. In the assault on the Gothic Line on the morning of April 5, he found himself in charge of his squad when his squad leader fell wounded. Trapped with two others in a shell crater by machine gun fire with grenades being hurled at them, Munemori crawled out of the crater and knocked out the enemy machine gun nests with grenades. Scrambling back to the crater, a grenade bounced off his helmet and into the crater. He smothered it with his body and was killed instantly. The other two men suffered concussions and partial deafness but survived.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Honors_and_Legacy\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Honors_and_Legacy\">\n    Honors and Legacy\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    For his heroic actions, Munemori was posthumously awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor, the only one awarded to a Nisei in the immediate aftermath of the war. (A review in the 1990s led to the awarding of twenty additional medals to Japanese American soldiers for their actions in World War II.) The medal was presented to his mother on March 13, 1946.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    In 1948, the 10,000 ton troop ship \"Wilson Victory\" was renamed the \"Pvt. Sadao S. Munemori.\" In addition, the interchange of the 105 and 405 freeways in Los Angeles is named the \"Sadao S. Munemori Memorial Interchange, Medal of Honor—World War II\" and in 1993, the \"Sadao S. Munemori Hall\" at the U.S. Army Reserve Complex in West Los Angeles was dedicated. Most recently the town of Pietrasanta, Italy dedicated a statue of Munemori by sculptor Marcello Tommasi on April 25, 2000.\n   </p>\n   <div id=\"authorByline\">\n    <b>\n     Authored by\n     <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Brian_Niiya/\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n      Brian Niiya\n     </a>\n     , Densho\n    </b>\n   </div>\n   <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n    Niiya, Brian\n   </div>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    \"An American Hero: The Story of Sadao Munemori.\"\n    <i>\n     Nisei Vue\n    </i>\n    , Summer 1949, 12–14.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Aoyagi-Storm, Caroline. \"A Hometown Honor for Sadao Munemori?\"\n    <i>\n     Pacific Citizen\n    </i>\n    , April 18, 2008.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Crost, Lyn.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Honor by Fire: Japanese Americans at War in Europe and the Pacific\n     </i>\n     .\n    </a>\n    Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1994.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Mori, Henry. \"Sadao Munemori: Nisei of '46.\"\n    <i>\n     Rafu Shimpo\n    </i>\n    , Holiday Issue, Dec. 1946, 7–8.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Tamashiro, Ben. \"The Congressional Medal of Honor: Sadao Munemori.\"\n    <i>\n     Hawaii Herald\n    </i>\n    6.6 (March 15, 1985): 10–11.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Tsuchida, William. \"\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Peek Into the Past: My Friend, Spud.\n    </a>\n    \"\n    <i>\n     Puka Puka Parade\n    </i>\n    , Oct. 2007.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        There is conflicting information with various sources on when he enlisted, with some suggesting he enlisted just prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor, some saying he enlisted after the attack, and others saying that he volunteered/was recruited from Manzanar to attend the Military Intelligence Service Language School. His enlistment record in the National Archives (\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\";mtch=1&amp;tf=F&amp;q=sadao+munemori&amp;bc=&amp;rpp=10&amp;pg=1&amp;rid=7559539\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n;mtch=1&amp;tf=F&amp;q=sadao+munemori&amp;bc=&amp;rpp=10&amp;pg=1&amp;rid=7559539\n        </a>\n        ) indicates that he was inducted on February 11, 1942. This date is confirmed by a 1946 interview with his brother Isao and mother Nawa by journalist Henry Mori (\"Sadao Munemori: Nisei of '46,\"\n        <i>\n         Rafu Shimpo\n        </i>\n        , Holiday Issue, Dec. 1946, 7–8). Accounts by Sue Kunitomi [Embrey] in the\n        <i>\n         Pacific Citizen\n        </i>\n        (April 6, 1946,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        ) and Ben Tamashiro's account in the\n        <i>\n         Hawaii Herald\n        </i>\n        (Marcy 15, 1985,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        ) both cite a November 1941 enlistment date. A check of the family records in the \"Japanese-American Internee Data File\" National Archives database (\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\";mtch=1&amp;tf=F&amp;q=sadao+munemori&amp;bc=&amp;rpp=10&amp;pg=1&amp;rid=7559539\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n;mtch=1&amp;tf=F&amp;q=sadao+munemori&amp;bc=&amp;rpp=10&amp;pg=1&amp;rid=7559539\n        </a>\n        ) shows his mother and three siblings at Manzanar (the fourth was in Japan) but not Sadao.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        William Shinji Tsuchida, \"Peek Into the Past: My Friend, Spud,\"\n        <i>\n         Puka Puka Parade\n        </i>\n        , Oct. 2007, accessed on May 4, 2012,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20240418160753\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.018 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.024 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 188/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 2015/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 238/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 6/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 2980/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   15.886      1 -total\n 44.73%    7.105      1 Template:Databox-People\n 17.07%    2.711      1 Template:Reflist\n  8.81%    1.399      1 Template:Published\n  8.72%    1.385      1 Template:AuthorByline\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:304-0!canonical and timestamp 20240418160753 and revision id 36155\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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