GET /api/0.1/articles/Santa%20Anita%20Pacemaker%20(newspaper)/
Content-Type: application/json
Vary: Accept

    "url_title": "Santa Anita Pacemaker (newspaper)",
    "title_sort": "santaanitapacemakernewspaper",
    "links": {
        "json": "",
        "html": ""
    "modified": "2020-06-09T18:01:21",
    "title": "Santa Anita Pacemaker (newspaper)",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div id=\"databox-NewspapersDisplay\">\n  <table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n   <tbody>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Publication Name\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Santa Anita Pacemaker\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Camp\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Santa_Anita_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Santa Anita (detention facility)\">\n       Santa Anita (detention facility)\n      </a>\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Start of Publication\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      April 18, 1942\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      End of Publication\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      October 7, 1942\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n   </tbody>\n  </table>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-Newspapers\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   PublicationName:Santa Anita Pacemaker;\nCampArticle:Santa Anita (detention facility);\nPublicationStartDate:April 18, 1942;\nPublicationEndDate:October 7, 1942;\nPredecessorPub:;\nSuccessorPub:;\nModeOfProduction:;\nStaff:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <div class=\"floatright\">\n </div>\n <div class=\"floatright\">\n </div>\n <p>\n  The\n  <i>\n   Santa Anita Pacemaker\n  </i>\n  was one of fifteen newspapers published in temporary detention camps euphemistically called assembly centers and administered by the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Wartime_Civil_Control_Administration/\" title=\"Wartime Civil Control Administration\">\n   Wartime Civil Control Administration\n  </a>\n  . Debuting on April 18, 1942, the\n  <i>\n   Pacemaker\n  </i>\n  was the longest running of the purely \"assembly center\" papers and served the temporary camp with the largest population. Its core editorial staff remained the same throughout its run, led by editor\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Eddie_Shimano/\" title=\"Eddie Shimano\">\n   Eddie Shimano\n  </a>\n  .\n </p>\n <p>\n  The\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Santa_Anita_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Santa Anita (detention facility)\">\n   Santa Anita\n  </a>\n  paper debuted on April 18, 1942, soon after the camp opened on March 27. The first issue was unnamed, the masthead consisting of question marks, with readers asked to suggest names for the paper.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n    [1]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  By issue two, dated April 24, the \"Pacemaker\" name—a nod to the camp's horse racing track origins—had been selected. The paper published a four page edition twice a week, on Tuesdays and Fridays. As the center's population grew and as the paper became more established, it moved to six pages per issue on June 19, also changing its publication schedule to Wednesdays and Saturdays. Eight page issues would commence on August 15. The circulation of the first issue was 1,800; it would rise to 5,000 by June.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n    [2]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  The editorial staff, led by editor Shimano, was very stable, with the core group that included managing editor Kaz Oshiki, news editor Paul Yokota, art editor Roy Kawamoto, and circulation manager James T. Eno serving in those capacities for all or almost all of the run of the paper. City editor Joe Oyama and recreation editor Bob Hirano came on board on May 12 and women's editor Asami Kawachi on May 26. Each issue included Shimano's column titled \"Win, Place and Show\" that consisted of short bits of center news. Later, Kawachi's \"Feminine Forum\" column became a regular feature, as did sports editor Hiroshi Ito's \"Santa Anita Post Time.\"\n </p>\n <p>\n  As with other newspapers published in the temporary detention camps, the\n  <i>\n   Pacemaker\n  </i>\n  operated under strict guidelines. The Japanese language was prohibited and copy in the paper had to be approved multiple times by camp administrators. (See\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Newspapers_in_camp/\" title=\"Newspapers in camp\">\n   Newspapers in camp\n  </a>\n  .) As such, the paper takes on what seems to be an artificially cheery demeanor for a publication that is serving what is effectively a concentration camp. Much of the paper's copy includes information provided by camp administrators including rules, important information, notices, and warnings. The May 1 issue, for instance, includes rules regarding fire prevention as well as a report on the spate of power outages ostensibly caused by inmates' using lightbulbs with larger wattages than the approved forty or plugging in other appliances, concluding that these practices should be stopped, quoting from an administration bulletin.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n    [3]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  Later, the paper strongly promotes elections for \"self-government,\" a June 2 editorial praising the election, emphatically stating \"This is Democracy in action!\"\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n    [4]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  There were also several articles devoted to presenting the administration's views on the controversial camouflage net project housed at the center. The project—which involved inmates working to produce camouflage nets for use by the army—resulted in a sit-down strike involving some 800 workers, an incident that is not directly noted in the paper.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n    [5]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  The early August unrest at the camp (often referred to as a \"riot\") resulted in the August 5 issue not appearing and ultimately being combined with the August 8 issue. A brief article on the \"inspection disturbance\" noting the withdrawal of the military police appears in what is otherwise a normal issue.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-6\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-6\">\n    [6]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  The bulk of the paper covered the everyday happenings at a camp with nearly 20,000 people. There were birth, death and wedding announcements; notices for various types of social gatherings including dances, craft shows, church services, movies, and the gala \"Anita Funita\" carnival on July 3–4; and much space devoted to the variety of\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sports_and_recreation_in_camp/\" title=\"Sports and recreation in camp\">\n   sports and recreation\n  </a>\n  activities from softball to boxing to\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Sumo/\" title=\"Sumo\">\n   sumō\n  </a>\n  . Later issues featured a literary section (dubbed the \"Magazine Section\") that included prose and poetry by center inmates. Human interest stories dotted the paper, from \"Woman, 83, Performs Many Athletic Feats\" to a story on the residents of stall where the famed racehorse Seabiscuit had lived.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_7-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref6-7\">\n    [7]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  An undated twenty-eight page farewell issue included a message from\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Carey_McWilliams/\" title=\"Carey McWilliams\">\n   Carey McWilliams\n  </a>\n  , along with final columns by Shimano, Kawachi, and Ito. A story on the paper itself proudly cites favorable notices it received from mainstream papers such as the\n  <i>\n   Los Angeles Times\n  </i>\n  and\n  <i>\n   San Francisco News\n  </i>\n  as well as requests for issues from the Library of Congress, New York Public Library and many other mainstream institutions.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_8-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref7-8\">\n    [8]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  The 50th and last issue of the\n  <i>\n   Pacemaker\n  </i>\n  was dated October 7, 1942. The Santa Anita Assembly Center closed on October 27. Shimano, Yokota, and the Oyamas (Joe Oyama and Asami Kawachi were married at Santa Anita) all went on to play roles in the\n  <i>\n   Denson Communique\n  </i>\n  and\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Denson_Tribune_(newspaper)/\" title=\"Denson Tribune (newspaper)\">\n   <i>\n    Tribune\n   </i>\n  </a>\n  newspapers after they moved to the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Jerome/\" title=\"Jerome\">\n   Jerome\n  </a>\n  , Arkansas,\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/War_Relocation_Authority/\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">\n   War Relocation Authority\n  </a>\n  camp.\n </p>\n <div id=\"authorByline\">\n  <b>\n   Authored by\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Brian_Niiya/\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n    Brian Niiya\n   </a>\n   , Densho\n  </b>\n </div>\n <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  Niiya, Brian\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Digitized issues of the\n    <i>\n     Pacemaker\n    </i>\n    are available in the Densho Digital Repository (\n    <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n    </a>\n    ) and at the City of Arcadia website (\n    <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n    </a>\n    ).\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Girdner, Audrie, and Anne Loftis.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      The Great Betrayal: the Evacuation of the Japanese-Americans during World War II\n     </i>\n    </a>\n    . London: Macmillan Co., 1969.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        PY [Paul Yokota], \"Records of a Curious Interval,\"\n        <i>\n         Santa Anita Pacemaker\n        </i>\n        1942, 20–21, accessed online on June 13, 2012,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        \"Pacemaker, Leader in Democracy,\"\n        <i>\n         Santa Anita Pacemaker\n        </i>\n        , June 2, 1942, 2. Accessed online on June 13, 2012,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        <i>\n         Santa Anita Pacemaker\n        </i>\n        , May 1, 1942, 1, 2, accessed online on June 13, 2012,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        \"Pacemaker, Leader in Democracy.\"\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        See for instance \"Amory Explains Camouflage Problems to Net Workers,\" Santa Anita Pacemaker, June, 19, 1942, 1, accessed online on January 16, 2017,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-6\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-6\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        <i>\n         Santa Anita Pacemaker,\" August 5 and 8, 1942,  accessed online on January 16, 2018 at\n         <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n         </a>\n         .\n        </i>\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref6-7\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_7-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        \"Woman, 83, Performs Many Athletic Feats,\"\n        <i>\n         Santa Anita Pacemaker\n        </i>\n        , May 22, 1942, 2, accessed online on July 16, 2017,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        ; \"They Didn't Know Seabiscuit Once Lived There,\"\n        <i>\n         Santa Anita Pacemaker\n        </i>\n        , June 3, 1942, 1, accessed online on July 16, 2017,\n        <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref7-8\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_8-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Yokota, \"Records of a Curious Interval.\"\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20230521153637\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.020 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.026 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 210/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 1666/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 251/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 5/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 4044/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   17.331      1 -total\n 20.56%    3.563      1 Template:Reflist\n  9.57%    1.658      1 Template:Databox-Newspapers\n  9.07%    1.571      1 Template:AuthorByline\n  7.80%    1.352      1 Template:Published\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:313-0!canonical and timestamp 20230521153637 and revision id 29864\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
    "categories": [
    "sources": [
    "coordinates": {},
    "authors": [
    "ddr_topic_terms": [
    "prev_page": "",
    "next_page": ""