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    "url_title": "Solon T. Kimball",
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    "modified": "2024-05-21T02:26:41",
    "title": "Solon T. Kimball",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div id=\"databox-PeopleDisplay\">\n  <table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n   <tbody>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Name\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Solon T. Kimball\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Born\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      August 12 1909\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Died\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      October 12 1982\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Birth Location\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Manhattan, Kansas\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n   </tbody>\n  </table>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-People\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   FirstName:Solon Toothaker;\nLastName:Kimball;\nDisplayName:Solon T. Kimball;\nBirthDate:1909-08-12;\nDeathDate:1982-10-12;\nBirthLocation:Manhattan, Kansas;\nGender:Male;\nEthnicity:White;\nGenerationIdentifier:;\nNationality:;\nExternalResourceLink:;\nPrimaryGeography:;\nReligion:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <p>\n  Anthropologist, head of the the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/War_Relocation_Authority/\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">\n   War Relocation Authority\n  </a>\n  's (WRA) community government section, and, briefly, acting director of the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Manzanar/\" title=\"Manzanar\">\n   Manzanar\n  </a>\n  camp. A Harvard educated anthropologist who came to the WRA through the Office of Indian Affairs (OIA), Solon T. Kimball oversaw efforts to design and implement inmate community government in the ten concentration camps. He went on to a lengthy and decorated academic career after the war.\n </p>\n <p>\n  Solon Toothaker Kimball was born and raised in Kansas, the son of lawyer. Graduating from Kansas State University in 1930, he went on to Harvard, finishing a Ph.D. in 1936. Along the way, he studied under W. Lloyd Warner and was an assistant on Warner's \"Yankee City\" study, a pioneering study of a New England town. He also did fieldwork in Ireland for a year, co-authoring with Conrad Arensberg\n  <i>\n   Family and Community in Ireland\n  </i>\n  , published in 1940 by Harvard University Press. From 1936 to 1942, he worked as a section head for the OIA on the Navajo Reservation at Window Rock, Arizona. In 1935, he married Hannah Price, and the couple had children born in 1938 and 1941.\n </p>\n <p>\n  With outbreak of the war and the forced removal and incarceration of Japanese Americans, Kimball joined the staff of the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Poston_(Colorado_River)/\" title=\"Poston (Colorado River)\">\n   Poston\n  </a>\n  camp, which was jointly administered by the OIA. From there, he went to the WRA's San Francisco office in July 1942 to head the \"Community Organization\" section of the Community Management Division. He also served a short stint as Manzanar's acting director, arriving on November 5 to replace\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Harvey_M._Coverley/\" title=\"Harvey M. Coverley\">\n   Harvey M. Coverley\n  </a>\n  .\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Ralph_Merritt/\" title=\"Ralph Merritt\">\n   Ralph Merritt\n  </a>\n  , who would serve as Manzanar's director for the rest of its existence, arrived to relieve Kimball on November 24. Kimball briefly returned to San Francisco, before being transferred to the Washington office in December to become head of the reorganized Community Government and Activities unit, later renamed \"Community Organization and Activities,\" where he worked under his former OIA colleague\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/John_H._Provinse/\" title=\"John H. Provinse\">\n   John H. Provinse\n  </a>\n  . He remained in that position until August 1945. In addition to formulating policy on \"community government,\" he also oversaw the production of manuals and reports and made frequent visits to the various concentration camps.\n </p>\n <p>\n  After leaving the WRA, he became an associate professor of anthropology at Michigan State University. Joined there in 1947 by former WRA community analyst\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Asael_T._Hansen/\" title=\"Asael T. Hansen\">\n   Asael T. Hansen\n  </a>\n  , the pair left together for the newly formed Department of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Alabama in 1948, with Kimball becoming the head of the department. Stints at Teachers College, Columbia University (1953–66) and the University of Florida (1966–80) followed. He retired in 1980 and passed away two years later. An influential figure in applied anthropology, he received lengthy obituaries in\n  <i>\n   Anthropology &amp; Education Quarterly\n  </i>\n  and\n  <i>\n   American Anthropologist\n  </i>\n  . (In both, it is noted that he almost never talked about his WRA work.)\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n    [1]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n  The Solon T. Kimball Award for Public and Applied Anthropology award has been awarded annually since 1984 at American Anthropological Association annual meeting.\n </p>\n <div id=\"authorByline\">\n  <b>\n   Authored by\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Brian_Niiya/\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n    Brian Niiya\n   </a>\n   , Densho\n  </b>\n </div>\n <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  Niiya, Brian\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Burns, Allan F. \"Obituary: Solon T. Kimball, 1908–1982.\"\n    <i>\n     Anthropology &amp; Education Quarterly\n    </i>\n    14.2 (Summer 1983): 148–57.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <i>\n     Community Government in War Relocation Centers\n    </i>\n    . Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, 1946.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Hayashi, Brian Masaru.\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     <i>\n      Democratizing the Enemy: The Japanese American Internment\n     </i>\n    </a>\n    . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <br/>\n    Moore, Alexander. \"Solon Toothaker Kimball (1909–1982).\"\n    <i>\n     American Anthropologist\n    </i>\n    New Series 86.2 (June 1984): 386–93.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Provinse, John H., and Solon T. Kimball. \"Building New Communities during War Time.\"\n    <i>\n     American Sociological Review\n    </i>\n    11.4 (Aug. 1946): 396–409.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Solon T. Kimball\n    </a>\n    .\n    <i>\n     Kansaspedia\n    </i>\n    , Kansas Historical Society.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Solon T. Kimball Award for Public and Applied Anthropology\n    </a>\n    . American Anthropological Association website.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    \"Solon T(oothaker) Kimball.\"\n    <i>\n     Contemporary Authors Online\n    </i>\n    , Gale, 2002.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Starn, Orin.  “Engineering Internment: Anthropologists and the War Relocation Authority.”\n    <i>\n     American Ethnologist\n    </i>\n    13.4 (1986): 700-20.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Allan F. Burns, \"Obituary: Solon T. Kimball, 1908–1982,\"\n        <i>\n         Anthropology &amp; Education Quarterly\n        </i>\n        14.2 (Summer1983), 150; Alexander Moore, \"Solon Toothaker Kimball (1909–1982),\"\n        <i>\n         American Anthropologist\n        </i>\n        New Series 86.2 (June 1984), 387.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20240521022641\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.011 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.016 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 164/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 1820/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 252/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 6/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 573/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   11.125      1 -total\n 23.76%    2.643      1 Template:Databox-People\n 21.74%    2.419      1 Template:Reflist\n 13.22%    1.471      1 Template:AuthorByline\n 13.17%    1.465      1 Template:Published\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:2246-0!canonical and timestamp 20240521022641 and revision id 36324\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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