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{
    "url_title": "Treadmill (book)",
    "title_sort": "treadmillbook",
    "links": {
        "json": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/articles/Treadmill%20(book)/",
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    "modified": "2020-12-03T17:56:36",
    "title": "Treadmill (book)",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div class=\"floatright\">\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-BooksDisplay\">\n  <table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n   <tbody>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Title\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Treadmill\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literary_genre\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n       Genre\n      </a>\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Historical Fiction\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Author\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Hiroshi Nakamura\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Original Publisher\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Mosaic Press\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Original Publication Date\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      1995\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Pages\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      220\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n   </tbody>\n  </table>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-Books\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   Title:Treadmill;\nAuthor:Hiroshi Nakamura;\nIllustrator:;\nOrigTitle:;\nCountry:;\nLanguage:;\nSeries:;\nGenre:Historical Fiction;\nPublisher:Mosaic Press;\nPubDate:1995;\nCurrentPublisher:;\nCurrentPubDate:;\nMediaType:;\nPages:220;\nAwards:;\nISBN:;\nWorldCatLink:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <div class=\"rgonly\">\n  <!--\"rgdatabox-CoreDisplay\" removed-->\n  <div id=\"rgdatabox-Core\" style=\"display:none;\">\n   <p>\n    RGMediaType:;\nTitle:Treadmill;\nCreators:Hiroshi Nakamura;\nInterestLevel:Grades 9-12; Adult;\nReadingLevel:;\nGuidedReadingLevel:;\nLexile:;\nTheme:Facing darkness; Family – blessing or curse; Injustice;\nGenre:Historical Fiction;\nPoV:Protagonist is Nisei woman of around age twenty;\nRelatedEvents:;\nAvailability:Available;\nFreeWebVersion:Yes;\nPrimarySecondary:;\nHasTeachingAids:No;\nWarnings:;\nDenshoTopic:;\nGeography:Salinas, California;\nChronology:1940s;\nFacility:Salinas [18] - Salinas, California; Poston (Colorado River) [2] - Parker, Arizona; Tule Lake [10] - Newell, California;\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <p>\n  Written by Hiroshi Nakamura while he was incarcerated at\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Tule_Lake/\" title=\"Tule Lake\">\n   Tule Lake\n  </a>\n  ,\n  <i>\n   Treadmill\n  </i>\n  is the only published novel written by a Japanese American while incarcerated during World War II.\n </p>\n <p>\n  As the novel begins in the days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, protagonist Teru Noguchi returns to her Salinas home to find the FBI taking her father away, ultimately to the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Fort_Lincoln_(Bismarck)_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Fort Lincoln (Bismarck) (detention facility)\">\n   Bismarck, North Dakota\n  </a>\n  , internment camp. The novel follows Teru (who is around twenty years old), her parents and two younger siblings Sally (age sixteen) and Tad (age 14) through their forced removal and incarceration at the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Salinas_(detention_facility)/\" title=\"Salinas (detention facility)\">\n   Salinas Assembly Center\n  </a>\n  ,\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Poston_(Colorado_River)/\" title=\"Poston (Colorado River)\">\n   Poston\n  </a>\n  , and Tule Lake. She had been dating George Motoyama, a UC Berkeley graduate and neighbor, but they drift apart as his family moves inland to try to avoid incarceration. Though her father eventually rejoins the family, her mother suffers from a mental illness and is largely incapacitated. Teru works as a 4th grade teacher at Poston and befriends many of her fellow inmate teachers. One of them, Jiro Nishikawa, another UC grad, becomes a romantic interest. Given an opportunity to leave camp for a good job in Cleveland, she is forced to make a difficult decision when her father declares his intention to go back to Japan after the war. The narrative follows the family through the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Loyalty_questionnaire/\" title=\"Loyalty questionnaire\">\n   loyalty questionnaire\n  </a>\n  episode,\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Segregation/\" title=\"Segregation\">\n   segregation\n  </a>\n  , and\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Resettlement/\" title=\"Resettlement\">\n   resettlement\n  </a>\n  . Numerous characters come and go as issues such as unwanted pregnancy, class discrimination, and mental illness are addressed.\n </p>\n <p>\n  Nakamura (1915–73) was born and raised in Gilroy and graduated from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1937, as did two of the main male characters in the novel. Like many educated Nisei of that time, he pursued work in Japan and Manchuria before returning to Salinas, where he was forcibly removed to the Salinas Assembly Center, Poston, and Tule Lake like the Noguchis. He wrote\n  <i>\n   Treadmill\n  </i>\n  while at Tule Lake, with his wife Mary Sato Nakamura, whom he married to at Tule Lake, serving as his typist. Teru was based on his sister, and other characters on the various people he knew in camp. After the war, the couple had two children. Nakamura tried various ventures before settling on the coin laundry business.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n    [1]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  After the war, Nakamura tried in vain to find a publisher for his novel. Somehow, a copy of the manuscript founds its way into the National Archives. Peter Suzuki, an anthropologist who taught for years at the University of Nebraska at Omaha, found it there in 1974 while doing research on the wartime incarceration. He was able to find Nakamura's family and worked with them to publish the novel in 1995. In a 1993 journal article on\n  <i>\n   Treadmill\n  </i>\n  , Suzuki writes that Nakamura \"successfully captures the Zeitgeist and the mood of the people behind barbed wire.\" At the same time, he criticizes Nakamura's failure to capture \"the rich vernacular and colloquialisms which emerged from life in the camps.\"\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n    [2]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <div id=\"authorByline\">\n  <b>\n   Authored by\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Brian_Niiya/\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n    Brian Niiya\n   </a>\n   , Densho\n  </b>\n </div>\n <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  Niiya, Brian\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Find_in_the_Digital_Library_of_Japanese_American_Incarceration\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Find_in_the_Digital_Library_of_Japanese_American_Incarceration\">\n    Find in the Digital Library of Japanese American Incarceration\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    <b>\n     <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"https://archive.org/details/treadmill00naka\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n      Treadmill\n     </a>\n    </b>\n   </p>\n   <p style=\"font-size:8pt;line-height:1.5;color: #aaa;\">\n    This item has been made freely available in the\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"https://archive.org/details/digital-library-of-japanese-american-incarceration\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Digital Library of Japanese American Incarceration\n    </a>\n    , a collaborative project with\n    <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"https://archive.org/\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     Internet Archive\n    </a>\n    .\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Nakamura, Hiroshi.\n    <i>\n     Treadmill: A Documentary Novel\n    </i>\n    . Introduction by Peter Suzuki. Oakville, ON &amp; Buffalo, N.Y.: Mosaic Press, 1996.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Suzuki, Peter T. \"\n    <i>\n     Treadmill\n    </i>\n    : The Premier Novel of the Wartime Camps for Japanese Americans.\"\n    <i>\n     Asian Profile\n    </i>\n    20.2 (Apr. 1992): 175–80.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    ———. \"Desertification in Hiroshi Nakamura's\n    <i>\n     Treadmill\n    </i>\n    .\"\n    <i>\n     Asian Profile\n    </i>\n    21.6 (Dec. 1993): 467–74\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Biographical details come from the brief biography of Nakamura by Mary Sato Nakamura and Isami Nakamura, his wife and son, that is a part of the 1995 published version of the novel.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n      <li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Peter T. Suzuki, \"Desertification in Hiroshi Nakamura's Treadmill,\" Asian Profile 21.6 (Dec. 1993), 471, 473.\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20201211231620\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nCPU time usage: 0.076 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.087 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 383/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 2515/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 6494/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 1197/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 875/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   46.261      1 -total\n 19.80%    9.158      1 Template:RGDatabox-Core\n 14.99%    6.934      1 Template:Databox-Books\n 14.63%    6.767      1 Template:Reflist\n  5.52%    2.555      1 Template:AuthorByline\n  5.17%    2.390      1 Template:FindAtIA\n  4.45%    2.059      1 Template:Published\n-->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:4201-0!canonical and timestamp 20201211231620 and revision id 32694\n -->\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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