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    "url_title": "Walter Short",
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    "modified": "2024-01-16T00:54:31",
    "title": "Walter Short",
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div id=\"databox-PeopleDisplay\">\n  <table class=\"infobox\" width=\"200px;\">\n   <tbody>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Name\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Walter Short\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Born\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      March 30 1880\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Died\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      September 3 1949\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n    <tr>\n     <th scope=\"row\" style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Birth Location\n     </th>\n     <td style=\"text-align:left;\">\n      Fillmore, Illinois\n     </td>\n    </tr>\n   </tbody>\n  </table>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-People\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   FirstName:Walter Campbell;\nLastName:Short;\nDisplayName:Walter Short;\nBirthDate:1880-03-30;\nDeathDate:1949-09-03;\nBirthLocation:Fillmore, Illinois;\nGender:Male;\nEthnicity:White;\nGenerationIdentifier:;\nNationality:;\nExternalResourceLink:;\nPrimaryGeography:;\nReligion:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <div class=\"floatright\">\n </div>\n <p>\n  As commander of the United States Army's Hawaiian Department, Walter Short was held responsible for the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor; he and\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Husband_E._Kimmel/\" title=\"Husband E. Kimmel\">\n   Husband Kimmel\n  </a>\n  , commander-in-chief of the U.S. fleet were soon removed from command and blamed for America's unpreparedness.\n  <sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-1\">\n   <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-1\">\n    [1]\n   </a>\n  </sup>\n </p>\n <p>\n  Short was born in Fillmore, Illinois, on March 30, 1880, and in 1901 graduated from the University of Illinois. He taught mathematics at Western Military Academy before joining the army in March 1902. Short was first stationed at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, and later the Presidio in San Francisco before serving in other areas such as Oklahoma, Texas, the Philippines, and Mexico. During World War I, Short served in France on the general staff of the 1st Division and was an assistant chief of staff for the 3rd Army. Short continued to rise in the army hierarchy gaining experience as a troop commander and as a training and staff officer, and in February 1941, Short was appointed to command the army's Hawaiian Department. In this capacity, Short was promoted to the temporary rank of lieutenant general and was responsible for Hawai'i's aerial and ground defense.\n </p>\n <p>\n  Immediately after the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/December_7,_1941/\" title=\"December 7, 1941\">\n   Pearl Harbor attack\n  </a>\n  , President\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Franklin_D._Roosevelt/\" title=\"Franklin D. Roosevelt\">\n   Franklin D. Roosevelt\n  </a>\n  initiated an investigation and subsequently both Short and Kimmel were relieved of their commands. The commission's report, issued in January 1942, cited both Short and Kimmel for mistakes. Short was reduced to the rank of major general and retired in early 1942.  In later testimonies, Short argued he had made the right decisions considering the information and level of support he had received from Washington. Most recently in 1995, Senator Strom Thurmond with the support of Kimmel's and Short's families, formally requested a defense department inquiry that resulted in the Dorn report which found that \"while Kimmel and Short were guilty of errors of judgment, they were not solely responsible for the catastrophe at Pearl Harbor, and others in Washington and on their staffs in Hawai'i should share some of the blame.\" Yet, both Short and Kimmel have yet to be fully exonerated.\n </p>\n <p>\n  After his retirement, Short worked at the Ford Motor Company in Dallas, Texas and passed away in 1949 survived by his wife, Isabel Dean Short and their son Walter Dean Short.\n </p>\n <div id=\"authorByline\">\n  <b>\n   Authored by\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/Kelli_Y._Nakamura/\" title=\"Kelli Y. Nakamura\">\n    Kelli Y. Nakamura\n   </a>\n   , University of Hawai'i\n  </b>\n </div>\n <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  Nakamura, Kelli\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n    For More Information\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <p>\n    Anderson, Charles Robert.\n    <i>\n     Day of Lightning, Years of Scorn: Walter C. Short and the Attack on Pearl Harbor\n    </i>\n    . Annapolis, Mayland: Naval Institute Press, 2005.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Beach, Edward L.\n    <i>\n     Scapegoats: A Defense of Kimmel and Short at Pearl Harbor\n    </i>\n    . Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1995.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Biography, United States Army website,\n    <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n\n    </a>\n    Borch, Fred and Daniel Martinez.\n    <i>\n     Kimmel, Short, and Pearl Harbor: The Final Report Revealed\n    </i>\n    . Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2005.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Lambert, John W. and Norman Polmar.\n    <i>\n     Defenseless: Command Failure at Pearl Harbor\n    </i>\n    . St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI, 2003.\n   </p>\n   <p>\n    Worth, Roland H.\n    <i>\n     Pearl Harbor: Selected Testimonies, Fully Indexed, from the Congressional Hearings (1945-1946) and Prior Investigations of the Events Leading up to the Attack\n    </i>\n    . Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland &amp; Co., 1993.\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n  <h2>\n   <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">\n    Footnotes\n   </span>\n  </h2>\n  <div class=\"section_content\">\n   <div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n    <div class=\"mw-references-wrap\">\n     <ol class=\"references\">\n      <li id=\"cite_note-1\">\n       <span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\">\n        <a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-1\">\n         ↑\n        </a>\n       </span>\n       <span class=\"reference-text\">\n        Research for this article was supported by a grant from the\n        <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n         Hawai‘i Council for the Humanities\n        </a>\n        .\n       </span>\n      </li>\n     </ol>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n   <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20240418160811\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nComplications: []\nCPU time usage: 0.015 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.022 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 161/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 1856/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 290/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 6/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 454/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0\n-->\n   <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   14.976      1 -total\n 47.86%    7.167      1 Template:Databox-People\n 15.47%    2.317      1 Template:Reflist\n  9.30%    1.392      1 Template:AuthorByline\n  9.26%    1.387      1 Template:Published\n-->\n   <!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:2371-0!canonical and timestamp 20240418160811 and revision id 35935\n -->\n  </div>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div class=\"toplink\">\n <a href=\"#top\">\n  <i class=\"icon-chevron-up\">\n  </i>\n  Top\n </a>\n</div>",
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