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    "body": "<html><body><br/>\n<p>Museum exhibitions have been an important if understudied medium for telling the story of the wartime removal and incarceration of Japanese Americans. The stories they tell and their reasons for telling them have changed over time, from early exhibitions of inmate art designed to ease their \"<a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Resettlement\" title=\"Resettlement\">resettlement</a>\" back into the mainstream American community during and immediately after the war, to exhibitions inspired by 1960s social movements or the later movement for <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Redress_movement\" title=\"Redress movement\">redress and reparations</a>. The last decade-and-a-half has seen a flood of exhibitions funded by federal and state civil liberties and confinement sites grant programs.\n</p>\n<div class=\"toc\" id=\"toc\"><div id=\"toctitle\"><h2>Contents</h2></div>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-1\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Wartime_and_Early_Postwar_Exhibitions\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">1</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Wartime and Early Postwar Exhibitions</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-2\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Redress_Era_Exhibitions\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">2</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Redress Era Exhibitions</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-3\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#New_Japanese_American_Institutions\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">3</span> <span class=\"toctext\">New Japanese American Institutions</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-4\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Mainstream_Institutions\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">4</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Mainstream Institutions</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-5\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Civil_Liberties_Fund.2FConfinement_Sites_Grant_Era_Projects\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">5</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Civil Liberties Fund/Confinement Sites Grant Era Projects</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-6\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#For_More_Information\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">6</span> <span class=\"toctext\">For More Information</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-7\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#List_of_Exhibitions\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7</span> <span class=\"toctext\">List of Exhibitions</span></a>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-8\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Early_Exhibitions\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.1</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Early Exhibitions</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-9\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Overviews_of_Removal.2FIncarceration\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.2</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Overviews of Removal/Incarceration</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-10\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Arts\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.3</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Arts</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-11\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Specific_Camp_or_Community\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.4</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Specific Camp or Community</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-12\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Broader_Exhibitions_with_Camp_Element\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.5</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Broader Exhibitions with Camp Element</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-13\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Leaving_Camp\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.6</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Leaving Camp</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-14\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Site_Commemoration\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.7</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Site Commemoration</span></a></li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-2 tocsection-15\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Military_Service\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">7.8</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Military Service</span></a></li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li class=\"toclevel-1 tocsection-16\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#Footnotes\"><span class=\"tocnumber\">8</span> <span class=\"toctext\">Footnotes</span></a></li>\n</ul>\n</div>\n<div class=\"section\" id=\"Wartime_and_Early_Postwar_Exhibitions\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Wartime_and_Early_Postwar_Exhibitions\">Wartime and Early Postwar Exhibitions</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p>The first exhibitions that told some part of the incarceration story to the general public were art exhibitions that began to appear even before the war had ended.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\">[1]</a></sup> While the best known of these was a 1944 exhibition of photographs of <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Manzanar\" title=\"Manzanar\">Manzanar</a> by renowned photographer <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Ansel_Adams\" title=\"Ansel Adams\">Ansel Adams</a> at New York's <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Manzanar:_Photographs_by_Ansel_Adams_of_Loyal_Japanese-American_Relocation_Center_(exhibition)\" title=\"Manzanar: Photographs by Ansel Adams of Loyal Japanese-American Relocation Center (exhibition)\">Museum of Modern Art</a>, there were also many exhibitions of artistic representations of the concentration camps by inmates that were mostly sponsored by social service type organizations as part of the effort to ease the \"resettlement\" of Japanese Americans from the camps to communities in the East and Midwest. These exhibitions were no doubt part of the campaign to humanize Japanese Americans in communities they would be moving into, many of which had seen few if any Japanese Americans before. This campaign also included brochures and pamphlets, press releases, <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Government_photography_of_the_WRA_Camps_and_Resettlement\" title=\"Government photography of the WRA Camps and Resettlement\">photographs</a>, and <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/OWI/WRA_documentaries\" title=\"OWI/WRA documentaries\">short films</a> produced by the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/War_Relocation_Authority\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">War Relocation Authority</a> as well as private groups and even speaking tours (that often featured white veterans who had fought alongside Nisei soldiers) that depicted Japanese Americans in the best possible light.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\">[2]</a></sup>\n</p><p>As early as July of 1942, there was an exhibition of works from <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Tanforan_(detention_facility)\" title=\"Tanforan (detention facility)\">Tanforan's</a> Art School at Mills College in Oakland in conjunction with a conference of the Institute of International Relations that featured works by <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Mine_Okubo\" title=\"Mine Okubo\">Miné Okubo</a> and Tom Yamamoto among others.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\">[3]</a></sup> In October of 1943, there was an exhibition of camp art at the Friends Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts that included works from <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Chiura_Obata\" title=\"Chiura Obata\">Chiura Obata</a> (his painting \"New Moon\" was awarded first prize), Paul Zaima, <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Hisako_Hibi\" title=\"Hisako Hibi\">Hisako Hibi</a>, and many others.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\">[4]</a></sup>\n</p><p>The most widely seen early group exhibition toured the East and Midwest in 1945–46. It debuted at the New Jersey College for Women in May of 1945 with sponsorship by several mostly church-based organizations. Among the twenty-six artists featured were ten who had been in camp and sixteen who had resided on the East Coast throughout the war years. After its run in New Jersey, Resettlement Council of Japanese American Organizations in New York City and New York chapter of the Japanese American Citizens League arranged subsequent travels to Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Ann Arbor, and Rochester.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\">[5]</a></sup>\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Henry_Sugimoto\" title=\"Henry Sugimoto\">Henry Sugimoto</a> and Mine Okubo had the most prominent solo shows of camp related art during and immediately after the war. Sugimoto's one-man exhibition at Hendrix College in Conway, Arkansas, in February 1944 featured fifty paintings and drawings of life at <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Jerome\" title=\"Jerome\">Jerome</a>. He had another solo show in New York sponsored by the Common Council for American Unity in November and December of 1945 that featured 26 paintings, nine of which depicted life in camp.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\">[6]</a></sup> A traveling exhibition of Okubo's paintings and drawings—many of which would be featured in her landmark book <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Citizen_13660_(book)\" title=\"Citizen 13660 (book)\">Citizen 13360</a></i> published in 1946—was also sponsored by the Common Council for American Unity and opened at American Common in New York in April 1945. It later went to St. Paul, Detroit, Oakland, San Francisco, Southern California, and Denver.<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_7-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref7-7\">[7]</a></sup> Other artists with solo shows in this early period include Masao Yabuki (Philadelphia, April 1945), Sumi Horibe (Des Moines, August 1945), and Miki Hayakawa (Denver, October 1946).<sup class=\"reference\" id=\"cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_8-0\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_note-ftnt_ref8-8\">[8]</a></sup>\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"Redress_Era_Exhibitions\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Redress_Era_Exhibitions\">Redress Era Exhibitions</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p>The next two decades plus saw a general silence about the wartime incarceration and general discussions or depictions of it due both to Japanese Americans' desire to move on with their lives—to the point of being regarded as a \"<a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Model_minority\" title=\"Model minority\">model minority</a>\"—and the suppression of the traumatic experiences of the wartime. (See <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Psychological_effects_of_camp\" title=\"Psychological effects of camp\">Psychological effects of camp</a>.) But with increased interest by <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Sansei\" title=\"Sansei\">Sansei</a> influenced by 1960s social movements, the first <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Camp_pilgrimages\" title=\"Camp pilgrimages\">camp pilgrimages</a>, camp-related political campaigns such as the effort to <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Repeal_of_Title_II_of_the_Internal_Security_Act_of_1950_(%22Emergency_Detention_Act%22)\" title='Repeal of Title II of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (\"Emergency Detention Act\")'>repeal Title II of the Emergency Detention Act</a>, and the first mainstream discussions of seeking reparations for the wartime incarceration, led to calls for better and more honest depictions of the incarceration experience. This general trend led to several pioneering exhibitions—as well as documentary films, plays, books, and other media depictions. The most widely viewed of these was undoubtedly <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Executive_Order_9066_(exhibition)\" title=\"Executive Order 9066 (exhibition)\">Executive Order 9066</a></i>, a photographic exhibition that highlighted previously suppressed photographs by <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Dorothea_Lange\" title=\"Dorothea Lange\">Dorothea Lange</a>, that was organized by the California Historical Society in 1972 and subsequently traveled widely. The CHS made two copies of the exhibition, with one traveling in the eastern half of the country and one in the west. Appearing in such venues as the Corcoran Gallery in Washington, D.C. and the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, it likely introduced many Americans to the topic. It later traveled to Hawai'i and even to Japan. The California Historical Society also organized a companion art exhibition titled <i><a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Months_of_Waiting,_1942%E2%80%931945_(exhibition)\" title=\"Months of Waiting, 1942–1945 (exhibition)\">Months of Waiting, 1942–1945</a></i> that traveled less extensively. Both exhibitions were featured in the nationally broadcast 1972 NBC documentary <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Guilty_by_Reason_of_Race_(film)\" title=\"Guilty by Reason of Race (film)\">Guilty by Reason of Race</a></i>.\n</p><p>Another important early exhibition was <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Pride_and_Shame_(exhibition)\" title=\"Pride and Shame (exhibition)\">Pride and Shame</a></i>, organized by the Seattle JACL and the Museum of History and Industry in 1970. A overview of the Japanese American community in Seattle, <i>Pride and Shame</i> included a section on the wartime incarceration that included a full size replica of a barracks interior. A traveling version of the exhibition later went to various venues in the Pacific Northwest over the next several years. In Los Angeles, newly formed visual arts organization Visual Communications produced a traveling exhibitions titled <i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/America%27s_Concentration_Camps/Camp_Cubes_(exhibition)\" title=\"America's Concentration Camps/Camp Cubes (exhibition)\">America's Concentration Camps</a></i> that became informally known as the \"Camp Cubes\", since it consisted of cubes depicting images of camp; the cubes could be arranged in a wide variety of manners to fit different spaces or to accompany different objects. In 1972, the Oakland Museum opened a retrospective exhibition titled <i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Min%C3%A9_Okubo:_An_American_Experience_(exhibition)\" title=\"Miné Okubo: An American Experience (exhibition)\">Miné Okubo: An American Experience</a></i> that included many of the artist's camp related work.\n</p><p>Other important exhibitions appeared in the 1980s as interest in redress continued to build. A 1981 exhibition at the Army Presidio Museum in San Francisco titled <i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Go_For_Broke_(exhibition)\" title=\"Go For Broke (exhibition)\">Go for Broke</a></i> highlighted the story of <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Nisei\" title=\"Nisei\">Nisei</a> soldiers in World War II, juxtaposed against the story of Japanese American incarceration. This widely viewed exhibition influenced the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History to center an exhibition commemorating the 200th anniversary of the U.S. Constitution on the incarceration of Japanese Americans. <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/A_More_Perfect_Union:_Japanese_Americans_and_the_U.S._Constitution_(exhibition)\" title=\"A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the U.S. Constitution (exhibition)\">A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans &amp; the U.S. Constitution</a></i>, which opened in 1987, provided an overview of the exclusion and incarceration and included a reproduction of a concentration camp barracks, while also telling the story of Nisei soldiers, camp dissidents, and the then ongoing redress movement. Though controversial, the exhibition was critically acclaimed for the most part and was extended long beyond its planned three year run, staying up until 2004.\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"New_Japanese_American_Institutions\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"New_Japanese_American_Institutions\">New Japanese American Institutions</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p>The 1980s also saw the formation of several new Japanese American historical organizations, inspired by the renewed interest in Japanese American history and by the aging of the Nisei generation. The largest and most influential was the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Japanese_American_National_Museum\" title=\"Japanese American National Museum\">Japanese American National Museum</a> (JANM), incorporated in 1985, and opened to the public in 1992 in Los Angeles' historic Little Tokyo neighborhood. Though its opening exhibition was on the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Issei\" title=\"Issei\">Issei</a> experience, JANM would devote much of its resources to producing a series of major exhibitions that had the World War II experience at its center. The first was <i><a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/The_View_from_Within:_Japanese_American_Art_from_the_Internment_Camps,_1942%E2%80%931945_(exhibition)\" title=\"The View from Within: Japanese American Art from the Internment Camps, 1942–1945 (exhibition)\">The View from Within</a></i>, a retrospective exhibition on art produced in the concentration camps mounted in 1992 as part of 50th anniversary commemorates of <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Executive_Order_9066\" title=\"Executive Order 9066\">Executive Order 9066</a> at the Wight Art Gallery on the UCLA campus in collaboration with the Wight and with the UCLA's Asian American Studies Center. Next came, <i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/America%27s_Concentration_Camps_(exhibition)\" title=\"America's Concentration Camps (exhibition)\">America's Concentration Camps</a></i> in 1994, notable for the acquisition and display of an actual barracks building from <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Heart_Mountain\" title=\"Heart Mountain\">Heart Mountain</a> in a parking lot across from JANM and for renewed controversy over the term \"concentration camp,\" particularly in the subsequent travels of the exhibition. This was followed in 1995 by <i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Fighting_for_Tomorrow:_Japanese_Americans_in_America%27s_Wars_(exhibition)\" title=\"Fighting for Tomorrow: Japanese Americans in America's Wars (exhibition)\">Fighting for Tomorrow</a></i>, an exhibition focusing on Japanese American soldiers, particularly those from World War II. JANM has featured many subsequent exhibitions on aspects of the World War II experience many of which have an arts focus, including major retrospective exhibitions on <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/A_Process_of_Reflection:_Paintings_by_Hisako_Hibi_(exhibition)\" title=\"A Process of Reflection: Paintings by Hisako Hibi (exhibition)\">Hisako Hibi</a> (1999) and <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Henry_Sugimoto:_Painting_an_American_Experience_(exhibition)\" title=\"Henry Sugimoto: Painting an American Experience (exhibition)\">Henry Sugimoto</a> (2001), as well as perhaps the first exhibition on the resettlement period (<i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Coming_Home:_Memories_of_Japanese_American_Resettlement_(exhibition)\" title=\"Coming Home: Memories of Japanese American Resettlement (exhibition)\">Coming Home: Memories of Japanese American Resettlement</a></i>, 1998). The opening of JANM's new pavilion in 2000 saw the debut of its new core exhibition, <i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Common_Ground:_The_Heart_of_Community_(exhibition)\" title=\"Common Ground: The Heart of Community (exhibition)\">Common Ground: The Heart of Community</a></i>, which included parts of the Heart Mountain barracks as well as an extensive section on the World War II experience. In 2004, JANM collaborated with various institutions in Arkansas on the <i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Life_Interrupted\" title=\"Life Interrupted\">Life Interrupted</a></i> project, which included eight different exhibitions in Arkansas. \n</p><p>The <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/National_Japanese_American_Historical_Society\" title=\"National Japanese American Historical Society\">National Japanese American Historical Society</a> (NJAHS) formed in 1986 in the San Francisco Bay area and has produced many traveling exhibitions on the incarceration experience. Their 1990 photographic exhibition <i><a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/U.S._Detention_Camps,_1942%E2%80%931946_(exhibition)\" title=\"U.S. Detention Camps, 1942–1946 (exhibition)\">U.S. Detention Camps, 1942–1946</a></i> was likely the first to incorporate into the broader mass incarceration story the enemy alien detention/internment camps as well as camp dissidents and suicides, while <i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Strength_and_Diversity:_Japanese_American_Women,_1885%E2%80%931990_(exhibition)\" title=\"Strength and Diversity: Japanese American Women, 1885–1990 (exhibition)\">Strength and Diversity: Japanese American Women, 1885–1990</a></i> (1990) and <i>Diamonds in the Rough: Japanese Americans In Baseball</i> are among their broader exhibitions that include a significant concentration camp component. Incorporated in 1987 and opening its doors to the public in 1994, the Japanese Cultural Center of Hawai'i (JCCH) includes the story of Japanese Americans from Hawai'i who were interned as part of its core exhibition, \"Okage sama de.\" The last decade has seen JCCH focus increasingly on the Hawai'i internee story, with the institution producing two traveling exhibitions on the topic, <i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Dark_Clouds_Over_Paradise:_The_Hawai%27i_Internees_Story_(exhibition)\" title=\"Dark Clouds Over Paradise: The Hawai'i Internees Story (exhibition)\">Dark Clouds Over Paradise: The Hawai'i Internees Story</a></i> and <i><a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Right_from_Wrong:_Honoring_the_Lessons_of_Honouliuli_(exhibition)\" title=\"Right from Wrong: Honoring the Lessons of Honouliuli (exhibition)\">Right from Wrong: Honoring the Lessons of Honouliuli</a></i> (2011), among many other related projects.\n</p><p>Though the Wing Luke Museum of the Asian Pacific American Experience has roots going back to the 1960s, its focus switched from Asian folk art to the history of the local Asian Pacific American community in the 1980s, and it moved into a new space in Seattle's <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/International_District\" title=\"International District\">International District</a> in 1987. To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the mass incarceration, the Wing Luke opened <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Executive_Order_9066:_50_Years_Before_and_50_Years_After_(exhibition)\" title=\"Executive Order 9066: 50 Years Before and 50 Years After (exhibition)\">Executive Order 9066: 50 Years Before and 50 Years After</a></i> in 1992, an acclaimed exhibition that also pioneered a community-based approach in which there was no staff curator.\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"Mainstream_Institutions\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Mainstream_Institutions\">Mainstream Institutions</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p>Starting in the years after the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Civil_Liberties_Act_of_1988\" title=\"Civil Liberties Act of 1988\">Civil Liberties Act of 1988</a>, a number of mainstream institutions began to incorporate the story of Japanese American incarceration into their programs and exhibitions, whether by adding that story to core local history exhibitions or by instituting new projects focused on Japanese Americans. Among the institutions to incorporate the wartime incarceration story in a substantial way into overview exhibitions are the Chicago Historical Society, which included the story of Japanese American resettlement in Chicago in the 1992 exhibition <i><a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Chicago_Goes_to_War,_1941%E2%80%931945_(exhibition)\" title=\"Chicago Goes to War, 1941–1945 (exhibition)\">Chicago Goes to War, 1941–1945</a></i>; the Utah State Historical Society's <i>Utah at the Crossroads</i> (1992), which includes the story of the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Topaz\" title=\"Topaz\">Topaz</a> camp; and the New Mexico History Museum, whose <i>Telling New Mexico: Stories from Then and Now</i> (2009) includes a section on the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Santa_Fe_(detention_facility)\" title=\"Santa Fe (detention facility)\">Santa Fe</a> and <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Lordsburg_(detention_facility)\" title=\"Lordsburg (detention facility)\">Lordsburg</a> detention camps. Most recently, the newly renovated <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/History_Colorado_Center_(exhibition)\" title=\"History Colorado Center (exhibition)\">History Colorado Center</a> (2012) includes as one of its core stories a sub-exhibition titled <i><a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Confined_Citizens:_The_Amache-Granada_Relocation_Center,_1942%E2%80%931945_(exhibition)\" title=\"Confined Citizens: The Amache-Granada Relocation Center, 1942–1945 (exhibition)\">Confined Citizens: The Amache-Granada Relocation Center, 1942–1945</a>.</i> The California Museum includes as one of its core exhibitions <i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Uprooted!_Japanese_Americans_during_WWII_(exhibition)\" title=\"Uprooted! Japanese Americans during WWII (exhibition)\">Uprooted! Japanese Americans during WWII</a></i>. The National World War II Museum in New Orleans, Louisiana opened an exhibition titled <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/From_Barbed_Wire_to_Battlefields:_Japanese_American_Experiences_in_WWII_(exhibition)\" title=\"From Barbed Wire to Battlefields: Japanese American Experiences in WWII (exhibition)\">From Barbed Wire to Battlefields: Japanese American Experiences in WWII</a></i> in 2014.\n</p><p>At the national level, the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES), no doubt influenced by the popularity of <i>A More Perfect Union</i>, launched a exhibition titled <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Whispered_Silences:_Japanese_American_Detention_Camps,_Fifty_Years_Later_(exhibition)\" title=\"Whispered Silences: Japanese American Detention Camps, Fifty Years Later (exhibition)\">Whispered Silences: Japanese American Detention Camps, Fifty Years Later</a></i> in 1995. Across the ocean, the Japanese analogue of the Smithsonian, the National Museum of Japanese History in Sakura, Japan, presented a Japanese take on Japanese American incarceration titled <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Japanese_Immigrants_in_the_United_States_and_the_War_Era_(exhibition)\" title=\"Japanese Immigrants in the United States and the War Era (exhibition)\">Japanese Immigrants in the United States and the War Era</a></i> which opened in 2010 and was up for a year.\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"Civil_Liberties_Fund.2FConfinement_Sites_Grant_Era_Projects\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Civil_Liberties_Fund.2FConfinement_Sites_Grant_Era_Projects\">Civil Liberties Fund/Confinement Sites Grant Era Projects</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p>The years since 1997 have seen a steady stream of governmental funding sources for projects tied to the wartime incarceration story including the federal <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Civil_Liberties_Public_Education_Fund\" title=\"Civil Liberties Public Education Fund\">Civil Liberties Public Education Fund</a> (1996–98), state <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/California_Civil_Liberties_Public_Education_Program\" title=\"California Civil Liberties Public Education Program\">Civil Liberties Public Education Programs in California</a> (1999–2011) and <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Washington_Civil_Liberties_Public_Education_Program\" title=\"Washington Civil Liberties Public Education Program\">Washington</a> (2000–08), and the federal <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Japanese_American_Confinement_Sites_Grants\" title=\"Japanese American Confinement Sites Grants\">Japanese American Confinement Sites</a> (JACS) Grant Program (2007–present). As a result, there has been a flood of exhibitions as well as other types of projects in those years.\n</p><p>Among the biggest beneficiaries of this funding have been new or existing organizations planning interpretive exhibitions or displays at or near the sites of the concentration camps. To be sure, there were many such exhibitions/institutions before, including the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Gila_River_Arts_and_Crafts_Center\" title=\"Gila River Arts and Crafts Center\">Gila River Arts and Crafts Center</a>, the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Granada_Museum\" title=\"Granada Museum\">Granada Museum</a> in Granada, Colorado, the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Great_Basin_Museum\" title=\"Great Basin Museum\">Great Basin Museum</a> in Millard County Utah, the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Homesteader_Museum\" title=\"Homesteader Museum\">Homesteader Museum</a> in Powell, Wyoming, and the <a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Tule_Lake%E2%80%93Butte_Valley_Fairground_and_Museum\" title=\"Tule Lake–Butte Valley Fairground and Museum\">Tule Lake–Butte Valley Fairground and Museum</a>. For many years, the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Eastern_California_Museum\" title=\"Eastern California Museum\">Eastern California Museum</a> in Independence, California featured exhibitions that told the story of the nearly Manzanar camp. Today, the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Manzanar_National_Historic_Site\" title=\"Manzanar National Historic Site\">Manzanar National Historic Site</a> is operated by the National Park Service and includes a museum and site interpretation and recreations of a guard tower and barracks.\n</p><p>Among the largest beneficiaries of funds from the Japanese American Confinement Sites Grant Program are three ambitious new site based museums. The <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Heart_Mountain_Interpretive_Center\" title=\"Heart Mountain Interpretive Center\">Heart Mountain Interpretive Center</a> located near the Heart Mountain site in Wyoming received over $1 million in JACS funding and opened to the public in 2011. It's core exhibition is titled <i>Across the Wire: Voices from Heart Mountain</i>. The <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/World_War_II_Japanese_American_Internment_Museum\" title=\"World War II Japanese American Internment Museum\">World War II Japanese American Internment Museum</a>, located in McGehee, Arkansas, about midway between the Jerome and <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Rohwer\" title=\"Rohwer\">Rohwer</a> sites received $435,000 in JACS funds and opened to the public in 2013. Its core exhibition, <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Against_Their_Will:_The_Japanese_American_Experience_in_World_War_II_Arkansas_(exhibition)\" title=\"Against Their Will: The Japanese American Experience in World War II Arkansas (exhibition)\">Against Their Will: The Japanese American Experience in World War II Arkansas</a></i>, was originally developed for the <i>Life Interrupted</i> project in 2004. The <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Topaz_Museum\" title=\"Topaz Museum\">Topaz Museum</a> is currently being constructed near Delta, Utah, received a $714,000 JACS grants and is scheduled to open to the public in 2015. Several smaller scale interpretive displays have also been funded by JACS or the civil liberties programs.\n</p><p>We have perhaps come full circle, since a high percentage of recent exhibitions have focused on the arts, as was the case in 1945–46. Artist <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Roger_Shimomura\" title=\"Roger Shimomura\">Roger Shimomura</a> has created several different exhibitions based on the incarceration period including <i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/An_American_Diary:_Paintings_by_Roger_Shimomura_(exhibition)\" title=\"An American Diary: Paintings by Roger Shimomura (exhibition)\">An American Diary</a></i>, paintings based on his grandmother's wartime diary. As in 1944, Ansel Adams remains a popular figure, with new exhibitions of his Manzanar photographs being mounted by the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Ansel_Adams_at_Manzanar_(exhibition)\" title=\"Ansel Adams at Manzanar (exhibition)\">Honolulu Academy of Arts</a> in 2006, Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri in 2009, and the Bainbridge Island Historical Museum in 2011. The most widely viewed of these exhibitions has undoubtedly been <i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/The_Art_of_Gaman:_Arts_and_Crafts_from_the_Japanese_American_Internment_Camps,_1942-1946_(exhibition)\" title=\"The Art of Gaman: Arts and Crafts from the Japanese American Internment Camps, 1942-1946 (exhibition)\">The Art of Gaman</a></i>, an exhibition of craft objects created in the camp based on the book by Delphine Hirasuna. Debuting in 2006, it will have traveled to fifteen different venues in the United States and Japan by the end of its travels in 2015.\n</p><p>The period of government funding of wartime incarceration-based projects will end eventually, and as that story becomes more integrated into mainstream historical museums—and as the generation of Japanese Americans that has first had memories of the concentration fades away—it will be interesting to see how many more exhibitions centered on that story we will see in the years to come and who will put them on.\n</p><p><br/>\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\"><b>Authored by <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">Brian Niiya</a>, Densho</b></div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">Niiya, Brian</div>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">For More Information</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p>Murray, Alice Yang. <i>Historical Memories of the Japanese American Internment and the Struggle for Redress</i>. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008.\n</p><p>Overmyer, Deborah A., and Geoffrey J. Giglierano. \"American Museums and Executive Order 9066: Who Has Told the Story, The Story That Was Told.\" In <i>Alien Justice: Wartime Internment in Australia and North America</i>. Edited by Kay Saunders and Roger Daniels. Queensland, Australia: University of Queensland Press, 2000. 234–54.\n</p><p>Salyers, Abbie Lynn. \"The Internment of Memory: Forgetting and Remembering the Japanese American World War II Experience.\" Ph.D. dissertation, Rice University, 2009.\n</p><p>Yoo, David. \"Captivating Memories: Museology, Concentration Camps, and Japanese American History.\" <i>American Quarterly</i> 48.4 (Dec 1996): 680-99. \n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"List_of_Exhibitions\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"List_of_Exhibitions\">List of Exhibitions</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"Early_Exhibitions\"><h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Early_Exhibitions\">Early Exhibitions</span></h3><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p><i>America's Concentration Camps/Camp Cubes</i>, Visual Communications, Los Angeles/traveling, 1970\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Executive_Order_9066_(exhibition)\" title=\"Executive Order 9066 (exhibition)\"><i>Executive Order 9066</i></a>, California Historical Society, traveling, 1972–87\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Manzanar:_Photographs_by_Ansel_Adams_of_Loyal_Japanese-American_Relocation_Center_(exhibition)\" title=\"Manzanar: Photographs by Ansel Adams of Loyal Japanese-American Relocation Center (exhibition)\"><i>Manzanar: Photographs by Ansel Adams of Loyal Japanese-American Relocation Center</i></a>, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1944\n</p><p><i>Miné Okubo: An American Experience</i>, Oakland Museum, July 18 to August 20, 1972\n</p><p><a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Months_of_Waiting,_1942%E2%80%931945_(exhibition)\" title=\"Months of Waiting, 1942–1945 (exhibition)\"><i>Months of Waiting, 1942–1945</i></a>, California Historical Society, traveling 1972–74\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Pride_and_Shame_(exhibition)\" title=\"Pride and Shame (exhibition)\"><i>Pride and Shame</i></a>, Museum of History and Industry, Seattle, Washington, 1970\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"Overviews_of_Removal.2FIncarceration\"><h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Overviews_of_Removal.2FIncarceration\">Overviews of Removal/Incarceration</span></h3><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p><i>American Concentration Camps</i>, Powell Library, UCLA, January 18, 2017 to March 24, 2017\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/America%27s_Concentration_Camps_(exhibition)\" title=\"America's Concentration Camps (exhibition)\"><i>America's Concentration Camps</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum and traveling, 1994–2004\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Children_Of_Detention_Camps,_1942-1946_(exhibition)\" title=\"Children Of Detention Camps, 1942-1946 (exhibition)\"><i>Children Of Detention Camps, 1942-1946</i></a>, National Japanese American Historical Society\n</p><p><i>Courage and Compassion: Our Shared Story of the Japanese American WWII Experience</i>, Go For Broke National Education Center, traveling 2017\n</p><p><i><a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Evacuation_1942%E2%80%931945:_A_Japanese_American_Perspective_(exhibition)\" title=\"Evacuation 1942–1945: A Japanese American Perspective (exhibition)\">Evacuation 1942–1945: A Japanese American Perspective</a></i>, University of Washington, 1979\n</p><p><i>Exclusion: The Presidio's Role in World War II Japanese American Incarceration</i>, Presidio Trust, April 1, 2017 to March 2018\n</p><p><i>Executive Order 9066: The 75th Anniversary</i>, Oviatt Library, California State University, Northridge, January 31 to May 31, 2017\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/From_Barbed_Wire_to_Battlefields:_Japanese_American_Experiences_in_WWII_(exhibition)\" title=\"From Barbed Wire to Battlefields: Japanese American Experiences in WWII (exhibition)\"><i>From Barbed Wire to Battlefields: Japanese American Experiences in WWII</i></a>, National World War II Museum, 2014\n</p><p><i>Instructions to All Persons: Reflections on Executive Order 9066</i>, Japanese American National Museum, February 18 to August 13, 2017\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Japanese_Immigrants_in_the_United_States_and_the_War_Era_(exhibition)\" title=\"Japanese Immigrants in the United States and the War Era (exhibition)\"><i>Japanese Immigrants in the United States and the War Era</i></a>, National Museum of Japanese History, 2010\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/A_More_Perfect_Union:_Japanese_Americans_and_the_U.S._Constitution_(exhibition)\" title=\"A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the U.S. Constitution (exhibition)\">A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans &amp; the U.S. Constitution</a></i>, Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History, Washington, DC, 1987\n</p><p><i>9066: Japanese American Voices from the Inside</i>, Henry Madden Library, Fresno State University, February 19 to April 30, 2017\n</p><p><i>Out of the Desert: Resilience and Memory in Japanese American Internment</i>, Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University, November 5, 2015 to February 26, 2016\n</p><p><i>Righting a Wrong: Japanese Americans and World War II</i>, The National Museum of American History, February 17, 2017 to February 19, 2018\n</p><p><i>Then They Came for Me: Incarceration of Japanese Americans during WWII and the Demise of Civil Liberties</i>, Alphawood Gallery and Japanese American Service Committee [Chicago], June 29 to November 19, 2017\n</p><p><i>Uncommon Ground: Behind the Barbed Wire</i>, MiraCosta College Library (Oceanside Campus), March 27 to April 28, 2017\n</p><p><i>Uprooted! Japanese Americans during WWII</i>, California Museum, 2007–present\n</p><p><i><a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/U.S._Detention_Camps,_1942%E2%80%931946_(exhibition)\" title=\"U.S. Detention Camps, 1942–1946 (exhibition)\">U.S. Detention Camps, 1942–1946</a></i>, National Japanese American Historical Society, traveling, 1990\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"Arts\"><h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Arts\">Arts</span></h3><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p><i>An American Diary: Paintings by Roger Shimomura</i>\n</p><p><i>Ansel Adams: A Portrait of Manzanar</i>, Bainbridge Island Historical Museum, Bainbridge Island, Washington, 2011\n</p><p><i>Ansel Adams at Manzanar</i>, Honolulu Academy of Arts, 2006\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Art_Behind_Barbed_Wire_(exhibition)\" title=\"Art Behind Barbed Wire (exhibition)\"><i>Art Behind Barbed Wire</i></a>, Northwest Nikkei Museum, 2012\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/The_Art_of_Gaman:_Arts_and_Crafts_from_the_Japanese_American_Internment_Camps,_1942-1946_(exhibition)\" title=\"The Art of Gaman: Arts and Crafts from the Japanese American Internment Camps, 1942-1946 (exhibition)\">The Art of Gaman</a></i>, traveling, 2006–15\n</p><p><i>The Art of HIsako Hibi</i>, de Saiseet Museum at Santa Clara University, 2004\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/The_Art_of_Living:_Japanese_American_Creative_Experience_at_Rohwer_(exhibition)\" title=\"The Art of Living: Japanese American Creative Experience at Rohwer (exhibition)\"><i>The Art of Living: Japanese American Creative Experience at Rohwer</i></a>, Butler Center for Arkansas Studies, 2011\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Arts_and_Crafts_from_the_Camps:_The_Arkansas_Camp_Experience_(exhibition)\" title=\"Arts and Crafts from the Camps: The Arkansas Camp Experience (exhibition)\"><i>Arts and Crafts from the Camps: The Arkansas Camp Experience</i></a>, University of Arkansas, Little Rock, 2004\n</p><p><i>Beauty Behind Barbed Wire: Arts and Crafts from the Heart Mountain Internment Camp</i>, Buffalo Bill Center of the West, 2011\n</p><p><i>Beauty in Captivity: Objects Made in the Japanese American Internment Camps</i>, Japanese American Historical Society of San Diego, traveling, 2008\n</p><p><i>Capturing a Generation through the Eye of a Lens: The Photographs of Frank C. Hirahara, 1948–54</i>, Oregon Nikkei Legacy Center, 2014\n</p><p><i>A Challenge to Democracy: Ethnic Profiling of Japanese Americans During World War II</i>, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, 2009 [features the work of Ansel Adams and Chiura Obata]\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Crafting_History:_Arts_and_Crafts_from_America%27s_Concentration_Camps_(exhibition)\" title=\"Crafting History: Arts and Crafts from America's Concentration Camps (exhibition)\"><i>Crafting History: Arts and Crafts from America's Concentration Camps</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum, 2002\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Crossings:_10_Views_of_America%27s_Concentration_Camps_(exhibition)\" title=\"Crossings: 10 Views of America's Concentration Camps (exhibition)\"><i>Crossings: 10 Views of America's Concentration Camps</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum, 2009\n</p><p><i>A Culture Within: The Japanese American Experience through Art</i>, Petaluma Arts Center, 2012\n</p><p><i>Executive Order 9066: The Internment Camp Art of Kasumi \"Gus\" Nakagawa</i>, San Geronimo Valley Community Center, San Geronimo, California, 2012\n</p><p><i>Freedom from Fear/Yellow Bowl Project</i>, FDR Presidential Library &amp; Museum, 2017\n</p><p>\"From Bleakness...\", The Gallery at Hastings-on-Hudson [New York], September 11 to November 5, 1989\n</p><p><i>Gambatte! Legacy of an Enduring Spirit</i>, The California Museum, 2017\n</p><p><i>A Half-Century of Hope and Suffering: Japanese and Japanese American Painters in the United States, 1896–1945</i>, Tokyo Metropolitan Teien Museum, 1995 \n</p><p><i>Handmade in Camp: What We Couldn't Carry</i>, White River Valley Museum, Auburn, Washington, 2016.\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Henry_Sugimoto:_Painting_an_American_Experience_(exhibition)\" title=\"Henry Sugimoto: Painting an American Experience (exhibition)\">Henry Sugimoto: Painting an American Experience</a></i>, Japanese American National Museum, 2001\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Hiroshi_Honda:_Detained_(exhibition)\" title=\"Hiroshi Honda: Detained (exhibition)\">Hiroshi Honda: Detained'</a>', Honolulu Academy of Arts, 2012</i>\n</p><p><i>If They Came For Me Today: The Japanese-American Internment Project</i>, Community Works, San Francisco, California and New York, 2003\n</p><p><i>Images of Internment: The Incarceration of Japanese Americans During World War II</i>, Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, February 19 to December 31, 2017\n</p><p><i>The Japanese American Experience, The Years of Internment 1941-1945</i>, Wittenburg University, Springfield, Ohio, 2006 [wood block prints by Henry Sugimoto, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://www4.wittenberg.edu/news/2006/01_13.html\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www4.wittenberg.edu/news/2006/01_13.html</a>]\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Lasting_Beauty:_Miss_Jamison_and_the_Student_Muralists_(exhibition)\" title=\"Lasting Beauty: Miss Jamison and the Student Muralists (exhibition)\"><i>Lasting Beauty: Miss Jamison and the Student Muralists</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum, 2004\n</p><p><i>Life Interrupted: Personal Sketches Behind Barbed Wire: Santa Anita, Summer 1942, Riyo Sato (1913–2009)</i>, Glib Museum of Arcadia Heritage, 2013\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Living_in_Color:_The_Art_of_Hideo_Date_(exhibition)\" title=\"Living in Color: The Art of Hideo Date (exhibition)\"><i>Living in Color: The Art of Hideo Date</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum, 2001\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Kenjiro_Nomura:_An_Artist%27s_View_of_the_Japanese_American_Internment_(exhibition)\" title=\"Kenjiro Nomura: An Artist's View of the Japanese American Internment (exhibition)\"><i>Kenjiro Nomura: An Artist's View of the Japanese American Internment</i></a>, Wing Luke Museum, Seattle Washington, 1991\n</p><p><i>Manzanar: The Wartime Photographs of Ansel Adams</i>, Photographic Traveling Exhibitions, 2014\n</p><p><i>Obata: The Artwork of Chiura Obata</i>, Merced County Arts Council, June 16 to September 7, 2002\n</p><p><i>Personal Responsibility: The Camp Photographs of Toyo Miyatake</i>, Eastern California Museum, 2001\n</p><p><i>A Process of Reflection: Paintings by Hisako Hibi</i>, Japanese American National Museum, 1999\n</p><p><i>Quilting Memories: The Japanese American Experience of Internment</i>, National Japanese American Historical Society, 2010\n</p><p><i>Reflections of Internment: The Art of Hawaii's Hiroshi Honda</i>, Honolulu Academy of Arts, 1994\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Relics_from_Camp_(exhibition)\" title=\"Relics from Camp (exhibition)\">Relics from Camp</a></i>, Japanese American National Museum, 1996\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Relocations_and_Revisions:_The_Japanese-American_Internment_Reconsidered_(exhibition)\" title=\"Relocations and Revisions: The Japanese-American Internment Reconsidered (exhibition)\"><i>Relocations and Revisions: The Japanese-American Internment Reconsidered</i></a>, Long Beach Museum of Art, 1992\n</p><p><i>Sa Sa E: Objects of Memory</i>, National Japanese American Historical Society, 2009\n</p><p><i>Shadows of Minidoka</i>, Lawrence Arts Centers, Lawrence, Kansas, 2011 [art by Roger Shimomura]\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Sights_Unseen:_The_Photographic_Constructions_of_Masumi_Hayashi_(exhibition)\" title=\"Sights Unseen: The Photographic Constructions of Masumi Hayashi (exhibition)\"><i>Sights Unseen: The Photographic Constructions of Masumi Hayashi</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum, 2003\n</p><p><i>Something from Nothing: Art and Handcrafted Objects from America’s Concentration Camps</i>, Thatcher Gallery, University of San Francisco, August 21 to November 15, 2017\n</p><p><i>Toyo: Behind the Glass Eye</i>, Japanese American Cultural and Community Center [Los Angeles], October 5 to December 10, 2017\n</p><p><i>Two Views of Manzanar</i>, Frederick S. Wight Gallery, UCLA, 1977.\n</p><p><i>A View from the Inside</i>, Oakland Museum, 1976.\n</p><p><a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/The_View_from_Within:_Japanese_American_Art_from_the_Internment_Camps,_1942%E2%80%931945_(exhibition)\" title=\"The View from Within: Japanese American Art from the Internment Camps, 1942–1945 (exhibition)\"><i>The View from Within: Japanese American Art from the Internment Camps, 1942–1945</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum and UCLA, 1992\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Whispered_Silences:_Japanese_American_Detention_Camps,_Fifty_Years_Later_(exhibition)\" title=\"Whispered Silences: Japanese American Detention Camps, Fifty Years Later (exhibition)\"><i>Whispered Silences: Japanese American Detention Camps, Fifty Years Later</i></a>, Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, 1995\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"Specific_Camp_or_Community\"><h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Specific_Camp_or_Community\">Specific Camp or Community</span></h3><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p><i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Against_Their_Will:_The_Japanese_American_Experience_in_World_War_II_Arkansas_(exhibition)\" title=\"Against Their Will: The Japanese American Experience in World War II Arkansas (exhibition)\">Against Their Will: The Japanese American Experience in World War II Arkansas</a></i>, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2004\n</p><p><i>The Art of Survival: Enduring the Turmoil of Tule Lake</i>, National Japanese American Historical Society, traveling, 2014\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Blossoms_And_Thorns:_A_Community_Uprooted_(exhibition)\" title=\"Blossoms And Thorns: A Community Uprooted (exhibition)\"><i>Blossoms And Thorns: A Community Uprooted</i></a>, National Japanese American Historical Society, 2014\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Canefields_and_Deserts:_Japanese_American_Internment_(exhibition)\" title=\"Canefields and Deserts: Japanese American Internment (exhibition)\">Canefields and Deserts: Japanese American Internment</a></i>, Japanese American National Museum, 1992\n</p><p><i><a class=\"new encyc notrg\" href=\"/index.php?title=A_Circle_of_Freedom:_Lost_%26_Restored_(exhibition)&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1\" title=\"A Circle of Freedom: Lost &amp; Restored (exhibition) (page does not exist)\">A Circle of Freedom: Lost &amp; Restored</a></i>, History Museum of Hood River County, 2006\n</p><p><a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Confined_Citizens:_The_Amache-Granada_Relocation_Center,_1942%E2%80%931945_(exhibition)\" title=\"Confined Citizens: The Amache-Granada Relocation Center, 1942–1945 (exhibition)\"><i>Confined Citizens: The Amache-Granada Relocation Center, 1942–1945</i></a>, History Colorado Center, 2012\n</p><p><i>Connecting the Pieces: Dialogues from the Amache Archeology Collection</i>, Denver University, traveling, 2012\n</p><p><i>Continuing Traditions: Japanese Americans, Story of a People, 1869-1992</i>, Sacramento History Museum, 1992\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Dark_Clouds_Over_Paradise:_The_Hawai%27i_Internees_Story_(exhibition)\" title=\"Dark Clouds Over Paradise: The Hawai'i Internees Story (exhibition)\"><i>Dark Clouds Over Paradise: The Hawai'i Internees Story</i></a>, Japanese Cultural Center of Hawai'i, 2004\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Dear_Miss_Breed:_Letters_from_Camp_(exhibition)\" title=\"Dear Miss Breed: Letters from Camp (exhibition)\">Dear Miss Breed: Letters from Camp</a></i>, Japanese American National Museum, 1997\n</p><p>Eastern California Museum, Independence, California [Manzanar]\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Executive_Order_9066:_50_Years_Before_and_50_Years_After_(exhibition)\" title=\"Executive Order 9066: 50 Years Before and 50 Years After (exhibition)\">Executive Order 9066: 50 Years Before and 50 Years After</a></i>, Wing Luke Museum, Seattle, Washington, 1992\n</p><p>Gila River Arts and Crafts Center\n</p><p>Great Basin Museum, Millard County, Utah [Topaz]\n</p><p>Granada Museum, Granada, Colorado\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Heart_Mountain_Interpretive_Center\" title=\"Heart Mountain Interpretive Center\">Heart Mountain Interpretive Center</a>\n</p><p><i>The Heart Mountain Story</i>, Mamoru Inouye, traveling, 1998\n</p><p>Homesteader Museum, Powell, Wyoming [Heart Mountain]\n</p><p><i>Hyakunen no Michi: The Hundred Year Road</i>, Museum of San Diego History, 1997\n</p><p>Jerome County Historical Society [Minidoka]\n</p><p><i>Kokoro: The Story of Sacramento’s Lost Japantown</i>, The California Museum, 2017\n</p><p><i>Land of Joy and Sorrow: Japanese Pioneers of the Yakima Valley</i>, Yakima Valley Museum, 2010 to present\n</p><p>Manzanar National Historic Site\n</p><p><i>Only the Oaks Remain</i>, Tuna Canyon Detention Station Coalition/San Fernando Valley Japanese American Community Center, traveling, 2016.\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Only_What_We_Could_Carry:_The_Santa_Anita_Assembly_Center_(exhibition)\" title=\"Only What We Could Carry: The Santa Anita Assembly Center (exhibition)\"><i>Only What We Could Carry: The Santa Anita Assembly Center</i></a>, Arcadia Historical Museum, 2009, 2017\n</p><p><i>Re-Visioning Manzanar: Selections from the Permanent Collection</i>, Japanese American National Museum, 1999\n</p><p><a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Right_from_Wrong:_Honoring_the_Lessons_of_Honouliuli_(exhibition)\" title=\"Right from Wrong: Honoring the Lessons of Honouliuli (exhibition)\"><i>Right from Wrong: Honoring the Lessons of Honouliuli</i></a>, Japanese Cultural Center of Hawai'i, 2011\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Topaz_Museum\" title=\"Topaz Museum\">Topaz Museum</a>\n</p><p>Tule Lake–Butte Valley Fairground and Museum, Tule Lake, California\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/World_War_II_Japanese_American_Internment_Museum\" title=\"World War II Japanese American Internment Museum\">World War II Japanese American Internment Museum</a>, Arkansas, 2013\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"Broader_Exhibitions_with_Camp_Element\"><h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Broader_Exhibitions_with_Camp_Element\">Broader Exhibitions with Camp Element</span></h3><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p><i>Chicago Goes to War, 1941–1945</i>, Chicago Historical Society, 1992\n</p><p><i>Common Ground: The Heart of Community</i>,  Japanese American National Museum,\n</p><p><i>Dorothea Lange: Politics of Seeing</i>, Oakland Museum of California, May 13 to August 27, 2017\n</p><p><i>Fighting for Democracy</i>, Japanese American National Museum, traveling\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/From_Bento_to_Mixed_Plate:_Americans_of_Japanese_Ancestry_in_Multicultural_Hawai%27i_(exhibition)\" title=\"From Bento to Mixed Plate: Americans of Japanese Ancestry in Multicultural Hawai'i (exhibition)\"><i>From Bento to Mixed Plate: Americans of Japanese Ancestry in Multicultural Hawai'i</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum, traveling, 1998\n</p><p><i>Home Front: WWII Years in the Ojai Valley</i>, Ojai Valley Museum, 2002\n</p><p><i>Strength and Diversity: Japanese American Women, 1885–1990</i>, National Japanese American Historical Society, traveling, 1990\n</p><p><i>Telling New Mexico: Stories from Then and Now. New Mexico History Museum</i>, 2009. \n</p><p><i>Utah at the Crossroads</i>, Utah State Historical Society, 1992\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"Leaving_Camp\"><h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Leaving_Camp\">Leaving Camp</span></h3><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p><i>Coming Home: Memories of Japanese American Resettlement</i>, Japanese American National Museum, 1998\n</p><p><i>Executive Order 9066: Impact at Oxy Spring 1942</i>, Occidental College Library, 2017\n</p><p><i>Interrupted Lives: The UW and Nikkei Students during World War II</i>, University of Washington, 2008\n</p><p><i>Origins of Now: Rebuilding Community</i>, Japanese American Service Committee of Chicago, 2007\n</p><p><i>Park University as a Beacon of Hope: Nisei Students Escape Internment Camps to Attend College</i>, Park University, Parkville, Missouri 2013\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Uprooted:_Japanese_American_Farm_Labor_Camps_during_World_War_II_(exhibition)\" title=\"Uprooted: Japanese American Farm Labor Camps during World War II (exhibition)\"><i>Uprooted: Japanese American Farm Labor Camps during World War II</i>,</a> Oregon Cultural Heritage Commission and Four Rivers Cultural Center, 2014\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"Site_Commemoration\"><h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Site_Commemoration\">Site Commemoration</span></h3><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Bainbridge_Island_Japanese_American_Exclusion_Memorial\" title=\"Bainbridge Island Japanese American Exclusion Memorial\">Bainbridge Island Japanese American Exclusion Memorial</a>, 2011\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Eugene_Japanese_American_Art_Memorial\" title=\"Eugene Japanese American Art Memorial\">Eugene Japanese American Art Memorial</a>, 2007\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Japanese_American_Historical_Plaza\" title=\"Japanese American Historical Plaza\">Japanese American Historical Plaza</a>, Portland, Oregon, 1990\n</p><p><a class=\"mw-redirect encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/National_Japanese_American_Memorial\" title=\"National Japanese American Memorial\">National Japanese American Memorial</a>, Washington, DC, 2000\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"Military_Service\"><h3><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Military_Service\">Military Service</span></h3><div class=\"section_content\">\n<p><i><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/American_Heroes:_Japanese_American_World_War_II_Nisei_Soldiers_and_the_Congressional_Gold_Medal_(exhibition)\" title=\"American Heroes: Japanese American World War II Nisei Soldiers and the Congressional Gold Medal (exhibition)\">American Heroes: Japanese American World War II Nisei Soldiers and the Congressional Gold Medal</a></i>, Smithsonian Institution, traveling, 2013\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Beyond_the_Call_of_Duty:_Honoring_the_24_Japanese_American_Medal_of_Honor_Recipients_(exhibition)\" title=\"Beyond the Call of Duty: Honoring the 24 Japanese American Medal of Honor Recipients (exhibition)\"><i>Beyond the Call of Duty: Honoring the 24 Japanese American Medal of Honor Recipients</i></a>, MacArthur Museum of Arkansas Millitary History, 2004\n</p><p><i>Bound By Honor: Japanese American Soldiers in World War II Comics</i>, National Japanese America Historical Society, 2015\n</p><p><i>Courage Untold: The Story of the Japanese American Military Intelligence Service, 1941 to 1952</i>, White River Valley Museum, Auburn, Washington, October 10, 2007 to January 21, 2008\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Fighting_for_Tomorrow:_Japanese_Americans_in_America%27s_Wars_(exhibition)\" title=\"Fighting for Tomorrow: Japanese Americans in America's Wars (exhibition)\"><i>Fighting for Tomorrow: Japanese Americans in America's Wars</i></a>, Japanese American National Museum, 1995\n</p><p><i>Go For Broke</i>, Army Presidio Museum, San Francisco, 1981\n</p><p><i>Go For Broke: Japanese American Soldiers Fighting on Two Fronts</i>, Ellis Island Immigration Museum, 2010\n</p><p><i>Hawaii's Japanese Americans</i>, US Army Museum of Hawaii, Honolulu\n</p><p><i>Nisei Veterans' Exhibit</i>, USS Hornet Museum, Alameda, California, 2008–present\n</p><p><i>Our Humble Heroes: Stories of Service and Sacrifice during WWII</i>, Oregon Nikkei Legacy Center, 2013\n</p><p><i>Prejudice and Patriotism: The Story of Japanese Americans in the Military Intelligence Service 1941–1952</i>, National Japanese American Historical Society, 2009\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Undaunted_Courage,_Proven_Loyalty:_Japanese_American_Soldiers_in_World_War_II_(exhibition)\" title=\"Undaunted Courage, Proven Loyalty: Japanese American Soldiers in World War II (exhibition)\"><i>Undaunted Courage, Proven Loyalty: Japanese American Soldiers in World War II</i></a>, MacArthur Museum of Arkansas Millitary History, 2004\n</p><p><i>Unlikely Liberators</i>, Holocaust Museum Houston, April 15 to July 5, 2005\n</p><p><i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/What_If_Heroes_Were_Not_Welcome_Home%3F_(exhibition)\" title=\"What If Heroes Were Not Welcome Home? (exhibition)\">What If Heroes Were Not Welcome Home?</a></i>, Oregon Historical Society, traveling, 2013\n</p><p><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Witness:_Our_Brothers%27_Keepers_(exhibition)\" title=\"Witness: Our Brothers' Keepers (exhibition)\"><i>Witness: Our Brothers' Keepers</i></a>,  Japanese American National Museum and National Museum of American Jewish Military History, traveling, 1995\n</p>\n</div></div><div class=\"section\" id=\"Footnotes\"><h2><span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Footnotes\">Footnotes</span></h2><div class=\"section_content\">\n<div class=\"reflist\" style=\"list-style-type: decimal;\">\n<ol class=\"references\">\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref1-1\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref1_1-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">There were numerous exhibitions of arts and crafts in the concentration camps themselves, with some even taking place during the \"<a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Assembly_centers\" title=\"Assembly centers\">assembly center</a>\" period. Alan Eaton's 1952 book <i><a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Beauty_Behind_Barbed_Wire_(book)\" title=\"Beauty Behind Barbed Wire (book)\">Beauty Behind Barbed Wire: The Arts of the Japanese in Our War Relocation Camps</a></i> (New York: Harper &amp; Brothers Publishers) includes several photographs of such displays. Eaton writes of these exhibitions that they \"contributed so much to the life, the culture, and the morale of he Relocation Centers.\" (Eaton, <i>Beauty Behind Barbed Wire</i>, p. 96) For obvious reasons, these exhibitions were largely not seen by the general public.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref2-2\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref2_2-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">See Greg Robinson, <i>After Camp: Portraits in Midcentury Japanese American Life and Politics</i> (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012); Lane Hirabayashi with Kenichiro Shimada, <i>Japanese American Resettlement Through the Lens: Hikaru Carl Iwasaki and the WRA's Photographic Section, 1943–1945</i> (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2009); Ellen Wu, <i>The Color of Success: Asian Americans and the Origins of the Model Minority</i> (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014); Allan W. Austin, \"Projecting Japanese American Exile and Incarceration: Ethnicity, the Enemy, and Mass Incarceration in Film during World War II,\" <i>2004-2005 Film and History CD-ROM Annual</i> (Cleveland, Oklahoma: Film and History Center, 2006).</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref3-3\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref3_3-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><i>Pacific Citizen</i>, July 9, 1949, 2, accessed on Jan. 12, 2018 at <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-21-27/.jpg\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-21-27/.jpg</a>.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref4-4\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref4_4-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><i>Pacific Citizen</i>, Oct. 16, 1943, 3, accessed on Jan. 12, 2018 at <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-15-40/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-15-40/</a>. An unidentified WRA photographer documented this exhibition, taking pictures of the prize-winning works. See, for instance, Paul Zaima's \"Horizons Can Be Clear,\" Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft367nb1r8/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft367nb1r8/</a>, accessed on Oct. 7, 2014.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref5-5\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref5_5-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\">The sponsoring groups included the New York Church Committee for Japanese Americans, American Baptist Home Missions Society, New York Chapter of the <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"/wiki/Japanese_American_Citizens_League\" title=\"Japanese American Citizens League\">Japanese American Citizens League</a>, Committee for Resettlement of Japanese Americans of the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America, and Resettlement Council of Japanese American Organizations in New York City. <i>Pacific Citizen</i>, May 26, 1945, 6, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-17-21/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-17-21/</a>; June 30, 1945, 3, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-17-26/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-17-26/</a>; Nov. 3, 1945, 8, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-17-44/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-17-44/</a>; Nov. 24, 1945, 6, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-17-47/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-17-47/</a>; and Jan. 12, 1946, 3, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-18-2/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-18-2/</a>, all accessed on Jan. 12, 2018.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref6-6\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref6_6-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><i>Pacific Citizen</i>, Feb. 19, 1944, 6, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-16-8/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-16-8/</a>; Nov. 10, 1945, 6, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-17-45/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-17-45/</a>, both accessed on Jan. 12, 2018.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref7-7\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref7_7-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><i>Pacific Citizen</i>, Apr. 14, 1945, 5, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-17-15/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-17-15/</a>; Apr. 13, 1946, 5, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-18-15/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-18-15/</a>; July 13, 1946, 5, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-18-28/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-18-28/</a>; Sept. 14, 1946, 2, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-18-37/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-18-37/</a>; and Jan. 18, 1947, 6, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-19-3/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-19-3/</a>, all accessed on Jan. 12, 2018.</span>\n</li>\n<li id=\"cite_note-ftnt_ref8-8\"><span class=\"mw-cite-backlink\"><a class=\"\" href=\"#cite_ref-ftnt_ref8_8-0\">↑</a></span> <span class=\"reference-text\"><i>Pacific Citizen</i>, Apr. 7, 1945, 6, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-17-14/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-17-14/</a>; Oct. 27, 1945, 8, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-17-43/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-17-43/</a>; and Oct. 19, 1946, 2, <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-18-42/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-pc-18-42/</a>, all accessed on Jan. 12, 2018; <i>Rohwer Relocator</i>, Sept. 28, 1945, 4.</span>\n</li>\n</ol></div>\n<!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.212 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.228 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 274/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 1027/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 532/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 58/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:3109-0!*!0!!en!*!* and timestamp 20180309151118 and revision id 27404\n -->\n</div></div><div class=\"toplink\"><a href=\"#top\"><i class=\"icon-chevron-up\"></i> Top</a></div></body></html>",
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    "authors": [
        "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/authors/Brian%20Niiya/?format=api"
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    "url_title": "Museum exhibitions on incarceration",
    "categories": [
        "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/categories/Arts/?format=api",
        "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/categories/Chroniclers/?format=api"
    ],
    "title": "Museum exhibitions on incarceration",
    "url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/api/0.1/articles/Museum%20exhibitions%20on%20incarceration/?format=api",
    "absolute_url": "http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Museum%20exhibitions%20on%20incarceration/?format=api",
    "title_sort": "museumexhibitionsonincarceration",
    "modified": "2018-01-12T19:35:27",
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