Children's and young adults' books on incarceration


Authors continue to write about the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II for children and young adults and many express their desire for readers to learn from the mistakes of the past: that the incarceration of American citizens was a great injustice and should never be repeated. One way to ensure that the next generation will always remember this shameful history is by reading and connecting with characters that young readers meet in books.

An abundance of fiction titles on the Japanese American incarceration have been written over the years and the list continues to grow. The following works on the imprisonment of Japanese Americans are written for children and young adults from the viewpoint of young people who were participants in and/or witnesses to this time in American history, and organized by grouping of early works, groundbreaking classic titles, picture books (grades 1-4), juvenile books (grades 4-6), and middle and high school books (grades 7-12). While this article discusses selected examples of fiction for children and young adults on this topic, a comprehensive list of titles is included in the bibliography, as well as related titles (which only touch on the topic of incarceration/part of a book series). Nonfiction titles for young readers also continue to be updated and published, a majority of which discuss historical overviews of the incarceration experience geared toward the age of the reading audience.

Regarding the literature of children and teens imprisoned during World War II, author Barry Denenberg summarizes: "Two thirds of internees were in their early twenties or younger and nearly six thousand babies were born in the camps. The internment experience was a family experience. More than in any other event in American History, kids were the central focus of the story."[1] Thus it is understandable why so many of these books continue to resonate with young readers today.

Contents

Early Works

The earliest work for young people to directly examine the topic of Japanese American incarceration was The Moved-Outers (1945), by Frances Crannell Means. The Moved-Outers featured a Japanese American protagonist, eighteen-year-old Sue Ohara, and was the first book to honestly portray exclusion as a complicated and unjust situation. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Sue's father is taken by the FBI and Sue and her seventeen-year-old brother Kim experience firsthand the shock of being openly despised by strangers on the street.

Sue, her mother, and Kim are taken to the stables at the Santa Anita Racetrack and then to Amache in Colorado. Romance slowly blossoms between Sue and her childhood friend Jiro Ito, much to the disapproval of her parents who have a longstanding dispute with the Ito family. At the ending of the book, the teens decide to take the opportunity to leave Amache for brighter futures: Kim and Jiro volunteer for service and Sue enrolls at the University of Denver.

The Moved-Outers was distinguished as a Newbery Honor book in 1945, republished just after Yoshiko Uchida's Journey to Topaz was published in 1972, and again in 1992. A well-respected children's author of her time, Crannell Means wrote multiple works featuring people of color, one of few authors to do so.

A second early work Tradition (1946) by Anne Emery followed soon after the publication of The Moved-Outers. In contrast to The Moved Outers, Tradition has a white female protagonist, high school senior Stacy Kennedy. Set in a suburban Chicago neighborhood called Northridge, most families of the community can trace their histories to its founding and are fiercely proud of that "tradition." The Okamoto family had lived in Oregon but were excluded and moved to an unspecified prison camp. They decide to leave the camp as a family and settle next door to the Kennedys. Charlie and Dorothy Okamoto become Stacy's classmates, however both of the Okamotos are wary of making friends, knowing that many people want them to leave.

Two other early works for younger readers do not directly address Japanese American imprisonment, but are notable for different reasons.

The Pigtail Twins (1943) by Anne M. Halliday, written for second and third-grade level readers, is possibly the earliest book to mention Japanese American imprisonment. Published in 1943 when families on the West Coast of the United States were in the midst of incarceration, The Pigtail Twins is set in an idyllic multicultural farming community of "Mountain Valley" Colorado. The children in the story are of "White," German, Mexican, Italian, and Japanese descent. Teacher Miss Emeline tells the class that the school would soon be welcoming Tooru and Satoko Oyama, cousins of their classmate, Kasumi Ozamoto. They would be coming to Colorado from California, Miss Emeline says, so that "now they will not have to go to one of the wartime camps."[2]

Roy Sato, New Neighbor (1954), by Vanya Oakes, is notable for the fact that imprisonment is curiously not mentioned at all. The protagonist, ten-year-old Roy Sato, a native Californian, would presumably have been born in a prison camp himself. Roy and his family are moving from an apartment in Los Angeles' "Little Tokyo" to a big house in the suburbs. As the only Japanese American boy in the neighborhood, Roy internally struggles to prove that he is just as all-American as the other boys he meets.

Groundbreaking Classic Titles

Although there were a few important novels and memoirs written for adults during the 1950s and 1960s, there was a quiet spell on the subject for children throughout these decades. It is well known that most Issei and Nisei who were rebuilding their lives after leaving the prison camps were reluctant to talk about their experiences. Several turning points in history made for the emergence of interest in the child's/teenager's experience in the prison camps. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s inspired many Japanese Americans to examine social injustices. College students, who were mostly Sansei, learned of the indignity their parents and grandparents had endured and were shocked and angered on their behalf. The Redress Movement slowly began to take shape and by the early 1970s a wave of new writers were moved to tell their own stories.

During this period, one of the most well-known books on the incarceration was written. Farewell to Manzanar: A True Story of Japanese American Experience During and After the World War II Internment (1973) by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston and her husband James D. Houston was especially accessible to teens and has become a classroom standard. Farewell to Manzanar was also made into a well-received made-for-TV movie in 1976 which brought this part of history to a broader audience in America, many of whom until then had never heard of the imprisonment of Japanese Americans.

Jeanne at seven years old was the youngest child of ten when she and her family were taken to Manzanar in 1942. Like many other men, Jeanne's father Ko was arrested right after the attack on Pearl Harbor; because he was a fisherman and had a boat, he was suspected of aiding the Japanese.

A contemporary classic, Farewell to Manzanar is an honest look at how imprisonment changed the life of one Japanese American family. Republished several times over the past four decades, the most current republication of Farewell to Manzanar by Ember, an imprint of Random House Children's Books (2012) includes a new afterward by the authors, a reader's guide, and an interview with Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston.

Published in 1971, Journey to Topaz was the first book to explore imprisonment from a child's point of view. Author Yoshiko Uchida was herself a Nisei who had been sent to Topaz with her family and her books are based in part on her personal experiences. In Journey to Topaz, eleven-year-old Yuki Sakane lives happily with her family in Berkeley, California, until that fateful morning in December 1941. Because Mr. Sakane works for a large Japanese business firm, he is immediately arrested by the FBI and sent to a prisoner of war camp in Montana. A few months later, Yuki, her mother, and older brother Ken are sent to the "Tanforan Assembly Center," a converted racetrack, and later to Topaz.

Yuki describes the boredom, the drab surroundings, the sweltering days, and the freezing nights in the camp. Almost two years after he had been taken away, Yuki's father is released from the POW camp and rejoins his family. Then camp agitators threaten Mr. Sakane because of his cooperation with camp officials, and the Sakanes make a hurried decision to leave before any further violence breaks out. Journey Home (1978) by Yoshiko Uchida continues where Journey to Topaz ends.

Picture Books (Grades 1–4)

When families on the West Coast were directed to move from their homes inland, even children felt the stress and worry of an uncertain future. Some of the very young thought of going to camp as an adventure, but harsh reality soon set in.

The Bracelet (1993) by Yoshiko Uchida tells the story of seven-year-old Emi. Before Emi and her family are excluded to "Tanforan Assembly Center," Emi is visited by her best friend Laurie Madison. Laurie gives Emi a gold bracelet and Emi promises to keep the bracelet on forever. She is devastated when the bracelet is lost in the confusion of the move to the camp. Emi's mother gently comforts her, saying that the memories that they carry within their hearts are far more precious because they cannot be lost.

Without structure, some children grew bored and got into mischief while others become depressed, or fell ill from the camps' unsanitary conditions. Many children had nightmares about getting lost in the maze of similar-looking barracks or getting caught in suffocating dust storms. They worried as they watched older siblings argue with or talk back to their parents (an unthinkable act before the war). Most picture books for younger children explore the methods the young used to cope with a world changing around them.

Amy Lee-Tai's A Place Where Sunflowers Grow (2006) examines Mari's struggle to overcome her shyness by exploring her expression through art, while also learning patience in waiting for her sunflowers to sprout. Flowers From Mariko (2001) by Rick Noguchi and Deneen Jenks shares a young girl's transition from living in a prison camp to being in the outside world. With patience and care, Mariko tends to her little trailer park garden in which the blooming flowers symbolize a new beginning for her family.

Fish for Jimmy: Inspired by One Family's Experience in a Japanese American Internment Camp (2013) by Katie Yamasaki is based on the author's great-grandfather's experience. Taro's younger brother Jimmy misses the fresh vegetables and fish of his regular diet, refuses to eat, and falls ill. Out of love and desperation, Taro sneaks out through the barbed wire of the camp and catches fish for Jimmy to eat.

Juvenile Books (Grades 4–6)

Most books for young readers on the Japanese American incarceration fall into this age range of readership. Two beloved picture books for older readers are Baseball Saved Us and So Far From the Sea.

Ken Mochizuki's Baseball Saved Us (1993) introduces the reader to Shorty. Although he is not very good at playing baseball, the reader admires Shorty for making his best effort. One day he miraculously hits a home run and is cheered by his teammates. After returning "home" from the prison camp, Shorty is the only Japanese American left at his school. Ultimately, baseball helps Shorty cope with readjusting to his new life so that he can feel a sense of self-pride and acceptance by his peers. Baseball was one of the most popular prison camp pastimes and appears frequently as a subtheme in many works of fiction for children and young adults.

Set in 1972, So Far From the Sea (1998) by Eve Bunting shares a family's last pilgrimage to Manzanar. Before seven-year-old Laura Iwasaki and her family move to the East Coast, they visit the grave of Laura's grandfather who had died in Manzanar before Laura was born. She recalls stories her father told her about growing up in the prison camp and how her grandfather, who used to be a fisherman, longed to be by the sea again. As they walk through the cold and deserted camp, Laura feels the unfairness and sadness of history weigh on her. She remembers a story that her father told her and thoughtfully brings her brother's old cub scout neckerchief to the gravesite. Laura wraps it around a tree root on her grandfather's grave as a symbol and reminder that he too was a true American.

In the true story of Sylvia and Aki (2011) the lives of two third grade girls cross destinies. Aki Munemitsu and her family are sent to hot and dusty Poston where they share their already cramped room with three other families. Aki is miserable, misses her father, and longs for the life she used to have.

Sylvia Mendez and her family rent the Munemitsus' farm in Orange County, California. Sylvia and her cousins are denied registration at the nearby school because of their Mexican American heritage. This begins what would be Sylvia's father’s landmark education case, Mendez vs. Westminster School District, which fought segregation in California schools and set a precedent that would lead the way to equality in national education. Alternating chapters between the girls' stories, Sylvia and Aki begin writing letters to each other, with their friendship continuing to the present.

Weedflower (2006) by Newbery-Award winning author Cynthia Kadohata, tells the incarceration experience through the eyes of twelve-year-old Sumiko. Growing up on a flower farm in California, Sumiko dreams of someday having her own flower shop. After December 7, her uncle and jiichan (grandfather) are taken away, the flower farm is sold, and Sumiko, her brother Tak-Tak, aunt, and cousins are taken to Poston.

Sumiko struggles with long stretches of what jiichan termed "the ultimate boredom"—a boredom so complete "...That mean close to lose mind. Inside myself, I feel like screaming. Outside myself, I calm"[3]—which he said he experienced while coming to America by ship from Japan. Sumiko befriends Frank, a Mojave boy who resents the Japanese Americans being imprisoned on Native American land, and Mr. Moto, and older inmate who shares Sumiko's love of gardening.

Writing letters, journals, and poetry is another common thread in many fiction works. Some works of fiction are presented in the form of a diary, as the intimacy of this format appeals to many young readers.

The Journal of Ben Uchida: Citizen 13559, Mirror Lake Internment Camp, California, 1942 (1999) by Barry Denenberg is one such example. Part of the "My Name is America" series by Scholastic Inc., this book is the account of 12-year-old Ben Uchida who is keeping the journal as a promise to his best friend Robbie. Ben's writing chronicles his observations of camp life—from baseball and long lines, to the lack of privacy and witnessing the overlapping struggles of parents and their children. Letters between Robbie and Ben are peppered throughout the journal and the book closes with a satisfying epilogue, historical notes, and photographs. It was also adapted into a play by Naomi Iizuka under the title Citizen 13559. Another related series by Scholastic Inc., "Dear America," examines the experience through the eyes of a white female protagonist in The Fences Between Us: The Diary of Piper Davis (2010) by Newbery Honor Book author Kirby Larson.

Middle and High School Books (Grades 7–12)

Teenagers had other concerns that differed from children or their parents. These years were supposed to be the best time of their lives—going on out dates, learning how to drive, meeting new people, and planning their futures. Being held in a concentration camp put a stranglehold on a teenager's natural quest for identity, independence, and adventure. Young adult fiction on this topic is not abundant, and core titles (Farewell to Manzanar, The Moved-Outers, and Tradition) have been discussed earlier in this article.

Thin Wood Walls (2004) by David Patneaude shares the experiences of Joe Hanada between the ages of eleven to fourteen. Recognizing Pearl Harbor's historic significance, Joe's father gives journals to both Joe and his sixteen-year-old brother Mike. He tells them to write down their thoughts so that someday they would remember this turning point in their lives. Soon after, Mr. Hanada is taken away by authorities and the rest of the Hanada family is sent to Tule Lake. Mike is angry and eager to see combat, while Joe is introspective and writes haiku and his observations of daily camp life. Written for middle school readers, Thin Wood Walls examines more complex issues such as the "no-no" debate and camp unrest and conflict.

As high school students become more sophisticated readers, titles written for adults such as Nisei Daughter by Monica Sone,The Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet by Jaime Ford and When the Emperor Was Divine by Julie Otsuka are being taught in classrooms. Reading about the incarceration experience gives young readers an opportunity to examine abstract concepts such as justice, and controversial issues such as race relations, and how their lives are shaped by these ideas. After the events of September 11, 2001, many books also note that the lessons learned from the Japanese American incarceration are more important and timely than ever as Americans of Muslim and Arab ancestry have faced similar suspicion and prejudice.

Due in part to an increasing demand by schools, many of which have incorporated the Japanese American incarceration into their curricula, it is certain that many more books for young readers will be written and published in the future.

Authored by Jan Kamiya

For More Information

Harada, Violet H. "The Treatment of Chinese and Japanese Characters in American Settings in Selected Works of Fiction for Children." Dissertation, University of Hawai'i, 1982.

———. "Breaking the Silence: Sharing the Japanese American Internment Experience with Adolescent Readers." Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy 39 (1996): 630–37.

Inagawa, Machiko. "Japanese American Experiences in Internment Camps During World War II as Represented by Children's and Adolescent Literature." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona, 2007.

Potucek, Susan C. "Using Children's Literature to Make History Come Alive: Discussing Prejudice and the Japanese Internment." The History Teacher 28.4 (Aug. 1995): 567–71.

Teorey, Matthew. "Untangling Barbed Wire Attitudes: Internment Literature for Young Adults." Children's Literature Association Quarterly 33.3 (Fall 2008): 227–45.

Vangergrift, Kay E. "A Feminist Perspective on Multicultural Children's Literature in the Middle Years of the Twentieth Century." Library Trends 41.3 (Winter 1993): 354–77.

List of Books

Picture Books (Grades 1–4)

Lee-Tai, Amy. A Place Where Sunflowers Grow. San Francisco: Children's Book Press, 2006.

Noguchi, Rick and Deneen Jenks. Flowers From Mariko. New York: Lee & Low Books, 2001.

Say, Allen. Home of the Brave. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002.

Shigekawa, Marlene. Blue Jay In the Desert. Chicago: Polychrome Pub. Corp., 1993.

Uchida, Yoshiko. The Bracelet. New York: Philomel Books, 1993.

Yamasaki, Katie. Fish For Jimmy: Inspired by One Family's Experience in a Japanese American Internment Camp. New York: Holiday House, 2013.

Juvenile Books (Grades 4–6)

Banim, Lisa. American Dreams. New York: Silver Moon Press, 1993.

Bunting, Eve. So Far From the Sea. New York: Clarion Books, 1998.

Conkling, Winifred. Sylvia and Aki. Berkeley, CA: Tricycle Press, 2011.

Denenberg, Barry. The Journal of Ben Uchida: Citizen 13559, Mirror Lake Internment Camp, California, 1942. New York: Scholastic, 1999.

Fein, Eric. Mystery At Manzanar. Mankato, MN: Stone Arch Books, 2008.

Fitzmaurice, Kathryn. A Diamond In the Desert. New York: Viking, 2012.

Gordon, Amy. Painting the Rainbow. New York: Holiday House, 2014.

Hughes, Dean. Missing In Action. New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers, 2010.

Kadohata, Cynthia. Weedflower. New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers, 2006.

Larson, Kirby. The Fences Between Us: The Diary of Piper Davis. New York: Scholastic, 2010.

Lieurance, Suzanne. The Lucky Baseball: My Story in a Japanese-American Internment Camp. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2010.

Mazer, Harry. A Boy No More. New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 2004.

McGraw-Hill-Jamestown Education. American History Ink. Internment of Japanese Americans. New York: McGraw-Hill-Jamestown Education, 2007.

Mochizuki, Ken. Baseball Saved Us. New York: Lee & Low Books, 1993.

Nagai, Mariko. Dust of Eden. Park Ridge, IL: Albert Whitman & Company, 2014.

Patt, Beverly. Best Friends Forever: A World War II Scrapbook. New York: Marshall Cavendish Children, 2010.

Savin, Marcia. The Moon Bridge. New York: Scholastic Inc., 1992.

Uchida, Yoshiko. Journey Home. New York: Atheneum, 1978.

———. Journey to Topaz: A Story of the Japanese-American Evacuation. New York: Scribner, 1971.

Wolff, Virginia Euwer. Bat 6. New York: Scholastic Press, 1998.

Middle and High School Books

Emery, Anne. Tradition. New York: Vanguard Press, 1946.

Means, Florence Crannell. The Moved-Outers. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1945.

Patneaude, David. Thin Wood Walls. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 2004.

Pyle, Kevin, C. Take What You Can Carry. New York: Henry Holt, 2012.

Non Fiction/Biographies/Memoirs

Alonso, Karen. Korematsu v. United States: Japanese-American Internment Camps. Springfield, NJ: Enslow, 1998.

Bailey, Rachel A. The Japanese Internment Camps: A History Perspectives Book. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Cherry Lake Publishing, 2014.

Becker, Peggy Daniels. Japanese-American Internment During World War II. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2014.

Blegen, Daniel. Bob Sakata: American Farmer. Palmer Lake, Colo.: Filter Press, 2009.

Brimner, Larry Dane. Voices From the Camps: Internment of Japanese Americans During World War II. New York: F. Watts, 1994.

Burgan, Michael. The Japanese American Internment: Civil Liberties Denied. Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2007.

Chander, Anupam, Madhavi Sunder, and Angelia Loi. Fred Korematsu: All American Hero. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2011.

Chin, Steven A. When Justice Failed: The Fred Korematsu Story. Austin, Texas: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 1993.

Cooper, Michael L. Fighting For Honor: Japanese Americans and World War II. New York: Clarion Books, 2000.

———. Remembering Manzanar: Life in a Japanese Relocation Camp. New York: Clarion Books, 2002.

Davenport, John. The Internment of Japanese Americans During World War II: Detention of American Citizens. New York: Chelsea House, 2010.

Davis, Daniel S. Behind Barbed Wire: The Imprisonment of Japanese Americans During World War II. New York: Dutton, 1982.

Donlan, Leni. How Did This Happen Here? Japanese Internment Camps. Chicago: Raintree Fusion, 2007.

Dudley, William, ed. Japanese American Internment Camps. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2002.

Duncan, E. E. Ralph Carr: Defender of Japanese Americans. Palmer Lake, Colo.: Filter Press, 2011.

Fremon, David K. The Internment of Japanese Americans in United States History. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2014.

———. Japanese-American Internment in American History. Springfield, NJ: Enslow, 1996.

Gruenwald, Mary Matsuda. Looking Like the Enemy: My Story of Imprisonment in Japanese-American Internment Camps. Troutdale, Ore.: NewSage Press, 2010.

Gold, Susan Dudley. Korematsu vs. United States: Japanese-American Internment. Tarrytown, NY: Benchmark, 2006.

Grapes, Bryan J., ed. Japanese American Internment Camps. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2001.

Hanel, Rachael. The Japanese American Internment: An Interactive History Adventure. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 2008.

Hay, Jeff, ed. The Internment of Japanese Americans. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2011.

Heinrichs, Ann. The Japanese American Internment: Innocence, Guilt, and Wartime Justice. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2011.

Houston, Jeanne Wakatsuki and James D. Houston. Farewell to Manzanar: A True Story of Japanese American Experience During and After the World War II Internment. New York: Bantam Books, 1973.

Kenney, Karen Latchana. Korematsu vs. the United States: World War II Japanese-American Internment Camps. Minneapolis, MN: ABDO Publishers, 2013.

Kent, Deborah. The Tragic History of the Japanese-American Internment Camps. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2008.

Kitano, Harry H. L. Japanese Americans and Internment. Paramus, NJ: Globe Fearon, 1994.

Kops, Deborah. Racial Profiling. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2007.

Levine, Ellen. A Fence Away From Freedom: Japanese Americans and World War II. New York: Putman, 1995.

Moss, Marissa. Barbed Wire Baseball. New York: Abrams Books for Young Readers, 2013.

Nextext. Japanese-American Internment. Evanston, Ill.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2000.

Ng, Wendy L. Japanese American Internment During World War II: A Reference and History Guide. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2001.

Oppenheim, Joanne. Dear Miss Breed: True Stories of the Japanese American Incarceration During World War II and a Librarian Who Made a Difference. New York: Scholastic, 2006.

Perl, Lila. Behind Barbed Wire: The Story of Japanese-American Internment During World War II. New York: Benchmark Books, 2003.

Robson, David. The Internment of Japanese Americans. San Diego: ReferencePoint Press, 2014.

Sakurai, Gail. Japanese American Internment Camps. New York: Children's Press, 2002.

Sandler, Martin W. Imprisoned: The Betrayal of Japanese Americans During World War II. New York: Walker Books for Young Readers, 2013.

Sinnott, Susan. Our Burden of Shame: Japanese-American Internment During World War II. New York: F. Watts, 1995.

Stanley, Jerry. I Am An American: A True Story of Japanese Internment. New York: Crown Publishers, 1994.

Tunnell, Michael O. and George W. Chilcoat. The Children of Topaz: The Story of a Japanese-American Internment Camp: Based on a Classroom Diary. New York: Holiday House, 1996.

Uchida, Yoshiko. The Invisible Thread: An Autobiography. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Julian Messner, 1991.

Welch, Catherine A. Children of the Relocation Camps. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda Books, 2000.

Wukovits, John F. Internment of Japanese Americans. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, 2012.

Yancey, Diane. Internment of the Japanese. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, 2001.

———. Life in a Japanese American Internment Camp. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, 1998.

Related Titles

Hadley, Irwin. Kim/Kimi. New York: M.K. McElderry Books, 1987.

Halladay, Anne M. The Pigtail Twins. New York: Friendship Press, 1943.

Mazer, Harry. A Boy at War: A Novel of Pearl Harbor. New York: Simon and Schuster Books for Young Readers, 2001.

———. Heroes Don’t Run. New York: Simon and Schuster Books for Young Readers, 2005.

Mochizuki, Ken. Beacon Hill Boys. New York: Scholastic Press, 2002.

Oakes, Vanya. Roy Sato, New Neighbor. New York: Julian Messner, 1955.

Salisbury, Graham. Eyes of the Emperor. New York: Wendy Lamb Books, 2005.

———. House of the Red Fish. New York: Wendy Lamb Books, 2006.

———. Under the Blood Red Sun. New York: Delacorte Press, 1994.

Smith, Icy. Mei Ling In China City. Manhattan Beach, CA: Easy West Discovery Press, 2008.

Footnotes

  1. Barry Denenberg, The Journal of Ben Uchida: Citizen 13559, Mirror Lake Internment Camp, California, 1942 (New York: Scholastic, 1999), 153-154.
  2. Anne M. Halladay, The Pigtail Twins (New York: Friendship Press, 1943), 33.
  3. Cynthia Kadohata, Weedflower (New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers, 2006), 92.